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Cases of influenza reported in extra-cantonment zones --Continued.
An important health activity is being carried on under the so-call Chamberlain-Kahn Act, which provides for a system of Federal : for antivenereal work in States meeting certain conditions. All t States in the Union have complied with its provisions by passi the necessary laws except Idaho, Michigan, Missouri, New Mexie Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Utah, and the District of Columb Several of these States have signified their intention of cooperati in the near future.
In conjunction with State boards of health, the Division of Vener Disease, United States Public Health Service, created by this a is conducting approximately 125 clinics. The reports from the clin show increase in number of cases treated and in interest each mon so that additional clinics and facilities are needed. When any clu proves the advantage of a certain plan of procedure, a note concerni such plan is passed on to other clinics for trial and suggestions. conjunction with the Red Cross in extra-cantonment zones, t division is now conducting 25 clinics. Social service and follow
work have been carried on in all of these clinics. Nurses especially trained and adapted for this work are badly needed.
Five commissioned officers, 44 acting assistant surgeons, and 3 scientific assistants have been detailed to the various States as State venereal disease control officers. Forty acting assistant surgeons have been on duty in the United States Government clinics located in extra-cantonment zones.
A large part of the division's work is educational. The work of preparing materials, establishing contacts, and developing methodes in educational work has been almost finished during the month. Several new pamphlets have been published. Two exhibits, one for the general public and one for young men and boys, are ready for the printers. Educational material has been mailed to libraries, newspapers, and industrial organizations. Conferences for educators and lecture tours have been scheduled. Educational campaigns are being arranged in the respective States, and the demand for educational pamphlets is increasing.
During the period of reconstruction, the task of venercal-disease control will not be lessened, but will rather be broadened and intensified. The entire area of the United States must be covered through a thoroughgoing cooperative campaign in which all agencies-National, State, and local--can play an important part.
EXPERIMENTAL MAMMALIAN POLYNEURITIS PRODUCED BY
A DEFICIENT DIET.
By CARL VOEGTLIN and G. C. LAKE, Hygienic Laboratory, United States Public Health Service.
Progress in the study of diseases of dietary origin has been greatly aided by animal experimentation. This is true of the group of so-called deficiency diseases, of which beriberi is the best known example, as well as in the other fields of medical research. Thus it can not be questioned that Eijkman's discovery that polyneuritis in fowls could be induced by an exclusive diet of polished rice has very materially contributed to our present conception of the etiology of beriberi and its prevention.
The study of deficiency polyneuritis is also intimately connected with the more recent development of the physiological aspects of nutrition, inasmuch as it has been shown that beriberi is due to a deficiency of the diet in a definite substance (antineuritic vitamine), which is essential for normal nutrition. From this standpoint the study of beriberi in animals will undoubtedly shed some light on the physiological function of the antineuritic vitamine. All we know at the present time regarding this function is that a certain minimal amount of this substance must be present in the diet in order to
permit normal growth of the young and the maintenance of wei and health of the adult animal and man.
On the bases of these considerations an attempt was made produce polyneuritis in the ordinary laboratory animals. This w then led to a study of the nutritive value of meat influenced exposure to higher temperatures, including those ordinarily used cooking and canning. This last-mentioned subject is obviously considerable practical importance.
The detailed report of this investigation will be published in American Journal of Physiology for January, 1919. The princi results obtained are as follows:
I. Polyneuritis has been produced in cats and dogs as the re: of an exclusive dietary of lean beef which was heated for tl hours at 120° C. in the presence of alkali (sodium carbonate). Pi of this statement is furnished by the symptomatology, treatment, pathology of the disease noted, which are essentially those chai teristic of beriberi.
(1) Symptoms. --The following symptoms were observed in th animals: Diminution of appetite, constipation, loss of body weig weakness and sometimes drowsiness, followed by paralytic sympto tonic convulsions, spasticity of certain groups of muscles, and turbances of the circulation and respiration.
(2) Treatment. The oral administration of active preparations the antineuritic substance of yeast to paralyzed animals is follow promptly by the disappearance of the symptoms, and the contin administration of these preparations prevents the recurrence of disease.
(3) Pathological changes. C'ertain histopathological changes, es cially the changes involving the nervous system, are descrit Animals showing severe paralysis exhibit no qualitative changes the reaction of various nerves to electric stimulation.
II. The disease is due to a deficiency of the diet in antineur substance, and not to a deficiency in the other essential diet components (amino acids, fat-soluble vitamine, etc.).
III. Exposure of the beef for three hours to a temperature 120° C., without the previous addition of alkali, does not complet destroy the antineuritic power of this food. It is, therefore, c cluded that the ordinary preparation of meat for human consumpt does not lessen its food value in this respect.
IV. The various species of animals show a considerable differe in their susceptibility to polyneuritis, as evidenced by the differ length of time which is necessary to induce the disease by the sa deficient diet. Cats respond to the deficient diet with the great regularity and are, therefore, best adapted for physiological stuc of the function of the antineuritic substance.
PREVALENCE OF DISEASE.
No health department, State or local, can effectively prevent or control disease wilhout
knowledge of when, where, and under what conditions cases are occurring.
EXTRA-CANTONMENT ZONES-CASES REPORTED WEEK ENDED DEC. 28.
CAMP BEAUREGARD ZONE, LA,
CAMP DEVENS ZONE, Mass.--continued.
Cases. Influenza.. 47 Ayer....
1 Measles. 7 Shirley..
1 Pucumonia, lolar: Smallpox.. 1 Lunenburg..
CAMP DIX ZONE, N. J. Cerebrospinal meningitis.
2 Influenza: Influenza.. 49 New Hanover Township.
3 Rural district:
CAMP DODGE ZONE, IOWA.
8 Cerebrospinal meningitis.
CAMP DONIPHAN ZONE, OKLA. Scabies..
24 Typhoid fever
3 BREMERTON ZONE, WASH.
3 Chicken pox.
4 Tuberculosis, pulmonary.
CAMP EBERTS ZONE, ALK. CHARLESTON SANITARY DISTRICT, s. C.
1 Dir htheria..
2 Influenza: Influenza. 179 Cabct..
10 Tuberculosis. 1 Cabot, R. F. D.
2 Typhoid fever.. 1 Carlisle.
2 Carlis le, R. F. D.
4 CAMP DEVENS ZONE, MASS. England.
12 Lancaster. 2 McRae.
1 Lunenburg. 109 Ward...
5 Shirley. 4 Ward, R. F. D..
Moss Point. Mumps:
Moss Point Tuberculosis:
CAJIP HANCOCK ZONE, GA. Augusta:
13 1 1
CAMP JACKSON ZONE, S. C.
CAMP JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON ZONE, FLA. Chancroid:
Jacksonville. Scarlet fever: