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WAR WITH RUSSIA.
EFFECT ON TRADE BY WAR WITH RUSSIA. A glance at the table of our exports will at once satisfy every reader that our increasing trade is with our colonies, with the United States, with China, and Brazil, and other countries to the west, with which Russia can in powise interfere. She must be much more successful at sea than we antici. pate if she be able to interrupt our trade to any extent with Sweden, Norway, and Denmark in the north, or with the Mediterranean in the south. All our trade with the mouth of the Danube and the Black Sea, including our trade with Wallachia and Moldavia, she will impede or stop : but this, together with the trade direct to all her own dominions, will not be more than 2 per cent. of our whole export trade. In 1852, the latest returns yet published, the value of our exports to Russia and to Wallachia and Moldavia united, was 1,369,4501., and, admitting that some of our trade to Turkey will be interrupted, as the total value of our exports for the year was 78,076,8541., the interruption may cut off 2 per cent. of our export trade, which will be the amount of the injury. The bulk of our growing trade with the advancing countries to the west lies beyond the reach of the great and barbarous empire of the east.–Economist, April 1, 1854. TREATY BETWEEN ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND
TURKEY. Art. 1. A treaty of alliance, destined to guarantee the integrity and independence of the Ottoman Empire, having been signed at Constantinople on the 12th of March of the present year, 1854, between the French Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Sublime Ottoman Porte, this treaty having been ratified, and the respective ratifications having been exchanged on the 8th of May, the said treaty, the tenor of which follows, will receive its full and entire execution.
TREATY. Art. 1. His Majesty the Emperor of the French and Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland having already, at the request of His Imperial Majesty the Sultan, ordered powerful divisions of their naval forces to repair to Constantinople, and to extend to the Ottoman territory and flag the protection that circumstances would permit, their said Majesties engage, by the present treaty, to co-operate still further with His Imperial Majesty the Sultan for the defence of the Ottoman territory, in Europe and Asia. against the Russian aggression, and employing for this end such a number of their land troops as may appear necessary for attaining this object: which land troops their said Majesties will forth with despatch towards such and such points of the Ottoman territory as shall be judged expedient; and His Imperial Majesty the Sultan agrees that the English and French land troops, thus despatched for the defence of the Ottoman territory, shall receive the same friendly reception, and shall be treated with the same consideration as the French and British naval forces already employed for some time in the Turkish waters.
2. The high contracting parties engage, each on his part, to communicate reciprocally to each other, without loss of time, every proposition that one of them might receive from the Emperor of Russia, whether directly or indirectly, with a view to the cessation of hostilities, of an armistice, or peace; and His Imperial Majesty the Sultan engages, moreover, to conclude no armistice, and to enter into no negotiation for peace, nor to conclude any preliminary of peace, nor any treaty of peace, with the Emperor of Russia, without the knowledge and consent of the high contracting parties.
3. As soon as the object of the present treaty shall have been attained by the conclusion of a treaty of peace, His Majesty the Emperor of the French and Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland will make arrangements at once for withdrawing immediately all their military and naval forces employed for realizing the object of the present treaty, and all the fortresses or positions in the Ottoman territory that shall WAR WITH RUSSIA.
have been provisionally occupied by the military forces of France and England shall be restored to the authorities of the Sublime Ottoman Porte within the space of forty days, or sooner, if possible, to date from the exchange of the ratifications of the treaty by which the present war shall be terminated.
4. It is understood that the auxiliary armies shall preserve the faculty of taking such part as may appear suitable in the operations directed againt the common enemy, the Ottoman authorities, whether civil or military, not claiming to exercise the least control over their movements; on the contrary, all aid and facility shall be afforded them by these authorities, especially for their disembarkation, their marching, dwelling, or encampment, their subsistence and that of their horses, and for their communications, whether they may act together or may act separately. It is understood, on the other hand, that the commanders of the said armies engage to maintain the strictest discipline among their respective troops, and will cause to be respected by them the laws and usages of the country. It is, of course, understood, that property is to be everywhere respected. It is moreover understood, on either side, that the general plan of the campaign shall be discussed and agreed upon between the Commanders-in-Chief of the three armies; and that, if a considerable part of the allied troops should be in line with the Ottoman troops, no operation can be executed against the enemy without having been previously concerted with the Commanders of the allied forces. Lastly, due attention shall be paid to every requirement relative to the wants of the service, addressed by the Commanders-in-Chief of the auxiliary troops, whether to the Ottoman Government through the medium of their respective embassies, or, in case of urgency, to the local authorities, unless paramount objections, distinctly explained, may prevent its execution.
5. The present treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Constantinople within the space of six weeks, or sooner, if possible, to date from the day of signature.-In faith of which, &c.
PRIZES. Convention concluded, May 10, 1854, between England and France, regulating
the mode in which prizes taken during the present war by the combined forces are to be adjudged and shared. Signed by Count Walewski, on the part of France, and by Lord Clarendon, as the representative of Her Majesty.
By the first article it is provided that when a prize shall be made in common by the naval forces of the two countries the judgment respecting it shall be within the jurisdiction of that country the flag of which shall bave been borne by the officer who had the superior command in the action. When a prize shall have been taken by a cruiser of one of the two allied nations in sight of a cruiser of the other, which may have intimidated the enemy and encouraged the captor, the judgment is to be within the jurisdiction of the actual captor. By the third article it is provided that in the case of the capture of a merchant vessel by one of the two countries, the judgment is to belong to the juriediction of the country of the capturing vessel, which judgment is to affect both vessel and cargo. In the case of a capture effected by the vessels of the two nations acting in common, the net produce of the prize, after deducting the necessary expenses, is to be divided into as many parts as there are men on board of the capturing vessels, without any reference to rank, and the share due to the men on board the vessels of the allied nation shall be paid to the person who shall be duly authorized by the allied government to receive it. By another article it is provided that when it may be necessary to proceed to the valuation of a captured ship of war, such estimate shall be be upon its effective value, and the allied government is to have the privilege of appointing one or several competent officers to take part in the valuation. In case of disagreement, it shall be decided by lot which officer is to have the preponderating voice. The crews of captured vessels are to be treated according to the laws and regulations of the country to which the jurisdiction in regard to captured vessels belongs under the present treaty.
In the case of the seizure of a merchant vessel belonging to the ally for any of these reasons, the captain who effects the seizure is to draw up a report and to conform to several other regulations.
WORKMEN GOING TO FRANCE.
Home Office, Whitehall, May 5, 1854. Whereas many English workmen have lately proceeded to France in search of employment, and having failed in obtaining work of any description, bave fallen into great poverty and distress, and have suffered much misery and privation; all such persons intending to go over to France for the same purpose, are hereby cautioned and warned of the inconvenience to which they will be exposed, unless they shall have entered beforehand into some contract or agreement with some person in France who is able to employ them; or unless they shall, before leaving their own country, have provided themselves with funds sufficient to preserve them from want while abroad, and to enable them to return, if they cannot find the employment they have sought for.
MANCHESTER A CITY.
Whitehall, March 31, 1853. The Queen has been pleased, by letters patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom, bearing date the 29th day of March instant, to ordain and declare that the borough of Manchester, in the county of Lancaster, shall be a city, and shall be called and styled “The City of Manchester, in the county of Lancaster."
NEW CONSULAR JURISDICTION.
1. R. Austrian Consulate General, London, 13th Oct. 1853. Sir,- I have the honour to inform you, that in the re-organization of the Austrian Consular Service in the British Isles, the I. R. Government have deemed it necessary, in consequence of the increasing importance of the ports of Cork and Queenstown, principally as ports of call for Austrian vessels coming from the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, to establish a Consular Office (paid and nominated by them) for those ports, having its seat most probably at Queenstown, the functions of which for the present will be carried on under the superintentendence of Capt. Francis Gogola de Leesthall, late barbour. master at Ragusa. In consequence of this determination, George Newenham Harvey, Esq., Austrian Consular Agent in Cork, retires from this office from this date, after many years of active service, and the future consular service of both harbours, having Kinsale, Youghal, and Skibbereen under its jurisdiction, will be carried on as above by the said Captain Gogola de Leesthall. I have therefore to beg you will kindly oblige me in making this alteration known to all your agents having jurisdiction in those ports. Capt. G. A. Halsted, R.N., Secretary, Lloyd's. LIONEL ROTHSCHILD.
COINAGE. There were coined at the Mint in 1853, 10,597,993 sovereigns, 2,708,796 half-sovereigns, no crowns or half-crowns, 3,919,950 florins, 4,256,188 shillings, 3,837,930 sixpences, 16,038 fourpences, 36,168 threepences, 4,752 silver twopences, and 7,920 silver pence (of these last two coins the same number is printed every year, for Maunday money, it is believed), 1,021,440_pennies, 1,559,040 halfpence, 1,028,628 farthings, and 955,224 half-farthings. The total value of the coinage of the year was 12,663,0001.; the average of the previous five years was only 4,000,0001.
FLORINS. By Royal Proclamation, April, 1852, the new coinage of florins, or twoshilling pieces, is announced, and declared to be current and lawful money of the United Kingdom.
TRADE OF EACH PORT.
A Return of the Number and Tonnage of Vessels that entered from Foreign
Ports, at each of the Ports of Great Britain and Ireland, Isle of Man, and Channel Islands (including their repeated Voyages), distinguishing Steam from Sailing Vessels, and British from Foreign Vessels, between December 31, 1852, and December 31, 1853.
520 2,117 3,621 41,807
330 9,608 2,145
176 1,516 1,679 1,093 3,739 4,579 3,292
1 4 14 9
16 47 85
75 510 1,553
363 2,131 5,066 7,797 1,114
922 7,534 2,840 46,760 15,176 57,978 98,158
3,489 212,814 6,998
1,562 1,516 21,207
7,607 20,564 73,543
2,577 125,376 5,693
156 310 644
8 19 45 27
3 42 3 1 82 3,033
1,857 4,066 1,279 1,980 17,345 5,785 4,140
743 1,829 2,499 1,551 1,375 1,830
3,015 12,200 25,002 122,485 31,097 1,426 1,247 1,593 2,895 3,597
103 9,672 561,342
2 43 216 49 85
1 55 51 22 33 3
2 422 295 171
273 1,262 189 11 78 27 21 7 1 49 11
458 4,899 26,058
105 4,065 6,290 1,513 4,373
377 41,451 15,239 17,628 25,969 114,921 28,038
1,922 15,703 1,435 2,375