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RAILWAYS. BEGINNING AND PROGRESS OF RAILWAYS. FRANCIS FORTUNE, then the Projecting Engineer of Lombard Street, London, many years ago—the exact year is not now recollected-came down to Bristol, with the grand scheme in his head of having a railway constructed from Bristol to London. He asserted that, by means of such railway, travellers might breakfast in Bristol, dine in London, and return, the same day, to supper in Bristol. The people said, as they do say in the first instance of most great designs, “The MAN IS MAD.”

Mr. FORTUNE, however, persevered, and among the earliest to whom he applied was the Editor of this JOURNAL; and it is still a source of much gratification to him that he was enabled, though even in a small degree, to aid Mr. FORTUNE in his Noble Project.

To this, almost first cause, must be ascribed the extension of railways nearly all over the World.

The only one, before “THE GREAT WESTERN Railway," was “The LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY."

Mark the result !
Mr. FORTUNE has long been gone to

"That undiscovered country, from whose bourn

No traveller retorns.”

No public acknowledgment was ever made to him; and but few—very fewit is believed, even know to whom the World is indebted for this WONDERFUL MODE OF TRANSIT.

.“ So shines a good deed in this naughty world."-Ed.

TRAFFIC RETURNS.

The traffic returns of Railways in the United Kingdom, published for the week ending June 3, 1854, amounted to 369,8221., and for the corresponding week of last year to 325,5831., showing an increase of 44,2391. The gross receipts of the eight railways having their termini in the metropolis amounted for the week ending as above to 174,5671., and for the corresponding week of last year to 151,945l., showing an increase of 22,6221. The increase on the Eastern Counties Railway amounted to 3,451l. ; on the Great Northern to 1,5981. ; on the Great Western to 2,7321. ; on the London and North-Western to 5,4141.; on the London and Blackwall to 1241. ; on the London, Brighton, and South Coast to 6,7931. ; on the London and South-Western to 2,4851. ; and on the South-Eastern to 251.- total 22,6221. The receipts on the other lines in the United Kingdom amounted to 195,2551., and for the corresponding week of 1853 to 173,6381., showing an increase of 21,6177. in the receipts of those lines, to which must be added the increase on the metropolitan lines, making the total increase 44,2391., as compared with the corresponding week of 1853. The total increase in the receipts from the 1st of January to the above date is 710,9061., or 11.2 per cent. over the receipts of the corresponding period of last year.

CATTLE TRAFFIC.

An interesting summary of the cattle-traffic occurring on all the lives of railway in the United Kingdom, during the year 1853, has been compiled by Mr. Ormandy, a functionary of the North-Western Railway:

ENGLAND. - Oxen, 968,537; sheep, 3,502,445; calves, 160,538; pigs, 704,037: total, 5,335,557. Amount received for carriage, 299,9751. 16s.

IRELAND.—Oxen, 104,148; sheep, 208,048; calves, 17,732; pigs, 223,499: total, 553,427. Amount received for carriage, 31,1791. 188. 3d.

SCOTLAND.--Oxen, 180,668 ; sheep, 630,745; calves, 3,655; pigs, 28,022: total, 843,090. Amount received for carriage, 30,3231. 198. 4d.

TOTAL.-Oxen, 1,253,353; sheep, 4,341,238; calves, 181,925; pigs, 955,558 : total, 6,732,074. Amount received for carriage, 361,4791. 138. 7d.

The want of agricultural statistics for Great Britain prevents any comparison being drawn as to what proportion the cattle carried by railway bears to the quantity in the country; but a comparison can be made as regards Ireland, and the result is as under ;-Oxen, of all ages, 1 in 251; sheep and lambs, 1 in 12}; pigs, 1 in 4%.

The value of the cattle conveyed by the railways of the United Kingdom during the year may be estimated as follows:-Oxen, 13,786,8831.; sheep, 6,511,8577. ; calves, 308,293l.; pigs, 2,868,6476.; total, 23,475,7077.

ORFORDNESS TO HOLLAND.--ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.

Trinity House, Feb. 21, 1854. Permission having been granted by this Corporation that buoys, marked with the words “Electric Telegraph," may be laid down in the line of direction of the submarine cable : Notice is hereby given, that the buoys are now laid, and that it is desirable that no vessels should anchor within a

uarter of a mile to the northward or southward of the line of the said buoys, which line is, from Orfordness high lighthouse, E.S.E. by compass.

(By Order) J HERBERT, Secretary.

SOUTH FORELAND TO BELGIUM.-SUBMARINE CABLE.

By T. H. N., June 28, 1853, the submarine cable, extending from the South Foreland to Belgium, lies in an E. by S. direction (by compass) with the South Foreland lighthouses in line, bearing W. by N., until without the stream of the Goodwin Sand, passing about one mile to the southward of the South Sand Head lightvessel, after which it takes a general E.S.E. direction across to the Flemish banks. Mariners are requested to observe, that it is desirable that vessels should not anchor with this mark or bearing on, lest, by so doing, they damage the electric cable, or lose their own anchors.

ORFORDNESS TO HOLLAND.-SUBMARINE CABLES.

By T. H. N., June 7, 1853, the submarine cables, from Orfordness to Holland, lie in a direction E.S.E. from the high lighthouse, with the lighthouse on with Gedgrave high trees, bearing W.N.W; and it is desirable that vessels should not anchor with those marks or bearings on, lest, by so doing, they damage the electric cable, or lose their own anchors.

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BRITISH POSSESSIONS ABROAD. Aliens. - Former Acts.--Acts and ordinances heretofore by the legislatures of any of Her Majesty's colonies and possessions abroad for imparting to any persons the privileges or any of the privileges of naturalization, to be by such persons exercised and enjoyed within the respective limits of such colonies or possessions respectively, shall within such limits have and be taken and reputed to have had from the time of the enactment thereof respectively all such and the same force and effect as doth by law belong to any other law, statute, or ordinance made or enacted by any such respective legislatures. 10 and 11 Vict. c. 83, § 1. [July 22, 1847).

Future Acts.-All laws, statutes, and ordinances which shall hereafter be made and enacted by the legislatures of any of Her Majesty's colonies or possessions abroad for imparting to any persons the privileges or any of the privileges of naturalization, to be by any such persons exercised and enjoyed within the limits of any such colonies and posessions respectively, shall within such limits have the force and authority of law : Provided nevertheless, that all such laws, statutes, and ordinances shall be in such manner and form, and subject to and in conformity with all such rules as now are or hereafter shall be in force in respect of other laws, statutes, or ordinances enacted or to be enacted by any such legislatures respectively, and shall and may be confirmed or disallowed by Her Majesty in such manner, and subject to the same regulations as extend or as shall hereafter extend to the confirmation or disallowance of any other such laws, statutes, or ordinances. Exemption. The act of 7 and 8 Vict. c. 66 (p. 162)

, or any part of it, doth not extend to the said colonies or possessions, or to any of them.

Books.—In case the legislature or proper legislative authorities in any British possession shall be disposed to make due provision for securing or protecting the rights of British authors in such possesion, and shall pass an Act or make an ordinance for that purpose, and shall transmit the same in the proper manner to the Secretary of State, in order that it may be submitteil to Her Majesty, and in case Her Majesty shall be of opinion that such Act or ordinance is sufficient for the purpose of securing to British authors reasonable protection within such possession, it shall be lawful for Her Majesty, if she think fit so to do, to express her royal approval of such Act or ordinance, and thereupon to issue an order in council declaring that so long as the provisions of such Act or ordinance continue in force within such colony the prohibitions contained in the Acts of 5 and 6 Vict. c. 45, and 8 and 9 Vict. c. 93, [p. 54), and any prohibitions contained in the said acts or in any other acts against the importing, selling, letting out to hire, exposing for sale or hire, or possessing foreign reprints of books first composed, written, printed, or published in the United Kingdom, and entitled to copyright therein, shall be suspended so far as regards such colony; and thereupon such Act or ordinance shall come into operation, except so far as may be otherwise provided therein, or as may be otherwise directed by such order in council. 10 and 11 Vict. c. 95. (July 22, 1847.]

Sugar and Spirits-- Certificate of Produce.- Before any spirits or sugar, so long as any benefit attach to the distinction, shall be shipped for exportation in any British possession in America, or in the island of Mauritius, as being the produce of such possession or of the said island, the proprietor of the estate on which such goods were produced, or his known agent, shall make and sign a declaration in writing before the proper officer of customs at the port of exportation, or before one of Her Majesty's justices of the peace residing in or near the place where such estate is situated, declaring that such goods are the produce of such estate ; and the person entering and shipping such goods shall deliver such declaration to the proper officer of customs, and shall make and subscribe a declaration before him that the goods which are to be shipped by virtue of such entry are the same as are mentioned ; and the master of the ship in which such goods shall be laden shall, before clearance make and subscribe a declaration before the proper officer of customs, that the goods shipped by virtue of such entry are the same ; and thereupon the proper officer of customs shall sign and give to the master a certificate of production, stating that proof has been made in manner required by law that such goods(describing the same) are the produce of such British possession or of the said island, and if spirits or sugar be imported into any British possession in America as being the produce of some other such possession or of the said island, without such certificate of production, the same shall be forfeited. 16 & 17 Vict. 107, § 176. [Aug. 20, 1853.]

Certificate of Production on Re-exportation from another Colony.-Before any sugar or spirits, so long as any benefit attach to the distinction, shall be shipped for exportation in any British possession in America as being the produce of some other such possession, the person exporting the same shall in the entry outwards state the place of production, and refer to the entry inwards and landing of such goods, and shall make and subscribe a declaration before the proper officer of customs to the identity of the same ; and thereupon if such goods shall have been duly imported with a certificate of production within twelve months prior to the shipping for exportation, the proper officer of customs shall sign and give to the master a certificate of production founded upon and referring to the certificate of production under which such goods had been so imported, and containing the like particulars, together with the date of such importation. $177.

Winom Certificate of Produce.-The shipper of any wine, the pro duce of any British possession abroad, which is to be exported thence, may go before the chief officer of customs, and make and sign a declaration before him that such wine was really and bonâ fide the produce of such British possessions ; and such officer is required to grant a certificate thereof, stating therein the name of the ship in which the wine is to be exported, and the destination of the same. $ 179.

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