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a gradual increase in such apprentices from 1850, and in 1853 there had been an increase of nearly 1,000 apprentices over the previous year 1852; the number being, in 1852, 5,845, and in 1853, 6,828. In 1849 this country was brought under the operation of the improved navigation laws and the changes effected thereby; whereas another nation of great power made no such changes, and allowed no such improvements to be carried out. The consequence was, that the trade of France with America was carried on by means of a transit trade through England, the effect of which was that in 1851 our shipping trade and commerce were increased to the extent of 2,282,6391., and in 1852 to the extent of 2,564,429). In considering this subject, it should be borne in mind that we live in an age of improvement, of scientific discoveries, and of mighty enterprise; that even our very thoughts were carried across the sea with the rapidity of lightning, and that at such a time it did not become us, as a great nation, to hold back, but, on the contrary, to advance. In conclusion, it must be remembered that this policy had been tried under very unfavourable circumstances, and had had to contend with great hardship; notwithstanding which, however, the advantages accruing from it were undeniable, and were, as they must be, almost universally acknowledged. We had not been unmindful during the 40 years of a long peace to cultivate those arts, and make those improvements in our internal and foreign relations which opportunity had presented as practicable or reason suggested as essential.

HOUSE OF LORDS, THURSDAY, MARCH 16, 1854. Lord STANLEY OF ALDERLEY, on moving the second reading of this bill, said, that he was happy to be enabled to inform their lordships that the measure which had been passed in 1849 for the repealing of the navigation laws had not been attended with those evil results which had been anticipated by some of their lordships on the other side of the house; and, as a proof of this, he might mention that since that year (1849) the increase in tonnage had been 700,000, and that there had also been an increase in the number of sailors to the amount of at least 20,000. If there was any portion of the shipping interest which had not received benefit by the alterations that had taken place, it was certainly the coasting trade of this country, which had, to a certain extent remained stationary. This was, doubtless, in a great measure, owing to the competition with which it had to contend in regard to railways and steam vessels, which means of transit had, no doubt, contributed in a great measure to diminish and retard any great advancement of the coasting trade. Upon the introduction of the measure of 1819 considerable fears were entertained as to the facilities which foreign sailors would have to evade our laws, but nothing had as yet ariseu, as far as the coasting trade was concerned, to justify such fears; and, upon consideration, it appeared to him that British sailors would have much greater facilities in this respect than foreign ones, and were much more likely to have an opportunity of defrauding the revenue, if they were dishonest enough to do so. He quite agreed with those who contended that foreign sailors should be subject to the same restrictions as British sailors were, and should, in every respect, be subject to the same degree of control and supervision. He contended that the alterations which were proposed to be carried out by the present bill were, and had long been, much required; rents had risen more than 50 per cent., coals had also greatly advanced in price, and there were many other causes which contributed to press with great severity upon the manufacturers. There was also, no doubt, a great want at times felt with respect to the supply of shipping, and, at such times, foreign shipping was often at hand, but, on account of the preventive enactments, would not be made use of. With respect to the question of reciprocity, he thought that it would be a narrow and a foolish course of reasoning to make our commerce in any way dependent on the fears or inexperience of other nations; we should go on fearlessly and independently in our course of improvement, and show our confidence in the principles we advocated by the sincerity and energy with which we enforced them. By the repeal of the laws of this country with reference to our coasting trade, there was no doubt but that America would, in time, see that it was to her advantage to hold out to us the same benefits as we extended to her, and other countries would do the same. With regard to the bill, he had no doubt but that it would eventually be found to contribute, in most important respects, to the benefit and advantage of all classes connected with, or dependent in any way on, the shipping interest.

Former regulations as to Coasting Trade repealed. Regulations as to Foreign Ships.-Sections 152 and 1g1 of act 16 and 17 Vict., c. 107, as to the coasting trade of the United Kingdom and the trade of the Channel Islands, repealed.

It shall be lawful for Her Majesty to exercise, in respect of foreign ships, employed in the coasting trade as aforesaid, and of goods carried coastwise in such ships, such or the like powers as are conferred on Her Majesty by the Customs Consolidation Act, 1853, in respect of foreign ships employed in the oversea trade, and of goods exported or imported in such ships. 17 Vict. c. 5. § 1. March 23, 1834.

What Regulations Foreign Ships in the Coasting Trade to be subject to.Every foreign ship which after the passing of this Act is employed in carrying goods or passengers coastwise from one part of the United Kingdom to another, or from the Islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, to the United Kingdom, or from the United Kingdom to any of the said Islands, or from any of the said Islands to any other of them, or from any part of any one of the said Islands to any other part of the same, shall be subject, as to stores for the use of the crew, and in all other respects, to the same laws and regulations to which British ships when so employed are now subject. $ 2.

Dock Rates, Pilotage, &c.—No foreign ship which after the passing of this Act is employed in the coasting trade as aforesaid, nor any goods carried in any such ship, shall, during the time such ship is so employed, be subject to any higher or other rate of dock, pier, harbour, light, pilotage, tonnage, or other dues, duties, tolls, rates, or other charges whatsoever, or to any other rules as to the employment of pilots, or any other rules or restrictions whatsoever, than British ships employed in like manner, or goods carried in such ships. Nor shall any body corporate or person having or claiming any right or title to any such higher or other rates, dues, duties, tolls, or other charges as aforesaid be entitled to any compensation in respect thereof under any law or statute relating thereto, or otherwise howsoever. $ 3.

Passengers.—Every foreign steam vessel carrying passengers from one place to another on the coasts of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Channel Islands shall be subject to the provisions of the Steam Navigation Act, 1851. § 4.

VESSELS AND BOATS.

Heaven speed the canvas gallantly unfurld,
To furnish and accommodate a world,
To give the pole the produce of the sun,
And knit the unsocial climates into one. -Cowper.

PROGRESS OF SHIPBUILDING. A Return showing the progress of shipbuilding in the United Kingdom during the year 1853 :1852.

1853.

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Progress of construction at the places of most importance :

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Vessels.

113
73
65
53
33
5

...

6

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9 2 18 17 33

Tonnage.
48,214
37,250
20,221
13,754
9,661

521
1,110
2,118

285 1,793 2,173 16,248 1,421 3,332 2,418 1,161 1,422

Vessels.
151
83
56
41
28
17
11
4
3
16
10
34
26
14
9
8
16

Tonnage.

62,715 45,682 17,892 11,615 8,060 4,010 2,471 1,898 1,809 1,750 1,543 15,419 8,938 3,872 3,848 3,328 1,768

...

10

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11
4
3
23

PRIVATEERS.

By Royal Proclamation, March 6, 1854, it is stated that by Act of 59 George III., it is amongst other things enacted, that if any person, within any part of the United Kingdom, or in any part of His Majesty's dominions beyond the seas, shall, without the leave or license of is Majesty, for that purpose first had, under the sign manual of His Majesty, or signified by order in council or by proclamation of His Majesty, equip, furnish, fit out, or arm, or attempt or endeavour to equip, furnish, fit out, or arm, or procure to be equipped, furnished, fitted out or armed, or shall knowingly be concerned in the equipping, furnishing, fitting out, or arming of any ship with intent that such ship shall be employed in the service of any foreign prince, state, or potentate, or of any foreign colony, province, or part of any province or people, or of any persons exercising or assuming to exercise any powers of government in or over any foreign state, colony, province, or part of any province or people, as a transport or store ship, or with intent to cruise or commit hostilities against any prince, state, or potentate, or against the subjects or citizens of any prince, state, or potentate, or against the persons exercising or assuming to exercise the powers of government in any colony, province, or part of any province or country, or against the inhabitants of any foreign colony, province, or part of any province or country, with whom His Majesty shall not then be at war; or shall, within the United Kingdom, or any of His Majesty's dominiods, or in any settlement, colony, territory, island, or place belonging or subject to His Majesty, issue or deliver any commission for any ship, to the intent that such ship shall be employed as aforesaid, every such person so. offending shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanour, and shall, upon conviction thereof, upon any information or indictment, be punished by fine and imprisonment, or either of them, at the discretion of the court in which such offender shall be convicted ; and every such ship, with the tackle, apparel, and furniture, together with all the materials, arms, ammunition, and stores which may belong to, or be on board of, any such ship shall be forfeited. And whereas it has been represented to us, that ships are being built in several places within the United Kingdom, and are being equipped, furnished, and fitted out, especially with steam machinery, with intent that they shall be employed as aforesaid, without our royal leave or license for that purpose first had, or signified as aforesaid : We have, therefore, thought fit, by and with the advice of our Privy Council, to issue this our royal pro, clamation, warning all our subjects against taking part in such proceedings, which we are determined to prevent and repress, and whi cannot fail to bring upon the parties engaged in them the punishments which attend the violation of the laws,

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REGISTRY AND MEASUREMENT.

HOUSE OF COMMONS, FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 3, 1354. Mr. CARDWELL rose to move for leave to bring in a bill to consolidate and amend those various laws which, since the repeal of the Navigation Act, had been passed for the benefit of British shipping. The first part of the bill would refer to the question of the registry and measurement of ships, and it would contain a novelty which he hoped woull meet with the acceptance of the bouse-he meant the substitution of a new and more scientific mode of measurement for the mode that now existed. The mode to which he referred was well known by the name of the person who had written a description of it-viz., Captain Moorsom-and it contained this advantage--that, while it arrived at the same average of tonnage, it ascertained the contents of the ship with greater accuracy and fairness than on the old plan. It also took away all encouragement, in the mode of measurement, from antiquated and inferior models of construction, while it favoured strength of model, and, therefore, promoted safety in navigation. This mode of measurement had been referred to the surveyors of the Navy and the Board of Trade, the Trinity-house, the shipowners, associations of Liverpool and London, and other bodies, and it was only on the concurrence of those parties that it was now adopted by the government. The bill, then, in general terms would consolidate the law with. regard to registry and measurementwith regard to discipline and comfortwith regard to safety, and also with regard to lights and pilotage. It was not 80 much a change of law he aimed at as bringing the existing laws into a consolidated shape-into a shape in which the whole would be made to subserve the interests of that important part of the community who were more immediately concerned in this department of legislation.*

MORTGAGE. By T. L. May, 1854, application having been made to the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury for permission to register a vessel de novo, without endorsing thereon a mortgage which remained undischarged on the previous certificate, their Lordships have been pleased to comply with the request, and to direct that the practice which prevailed prior to a General Order issued in 1852 be restored, and the order alluded to rescinded.

THE COMPASS. The loss of the unfortunate ship Tayleur may yet be turned to the benefit of future navigators if the evidence taken before the Liverpool Marine Board and the report of the meeting be duly considered. The real cause of the calamity was the condition of her compasses. So says Captain Noble, and the Marine Board of Liverpool endorse his explanation to its fullest extent.

Here follows the extraordinary part of the report :

“ This Board would call particular attention to the fact that numerous instances have been brought under their consideration of compasses having proved greatly in error on board of both wood and iron ships while navigating the Irish Channel, and which deviation is not accounted for by any theory at present."

This is strange enough, but other instances are quoted of the like kind. On board of the Niagara, a wooden steamship, a change of four degrees occurred. The Teneriffe changed her magnetism in coming home a point and a half. Neither the principles of this important science, nor the details of practice and of mechanical arrangement to provide against deviations, are at all fixed. There can be no reason for supposing that such irregularities are confined to the Irish Channel. If there, no doubt the same things occur at other portions of the earth's surface. The result can be stated in a few words, the mariner's compass is a most uncertain guide. We do not wish in these remarks to enter again into the case of the Tayleur. We are prepared for the moment to believe that the ship was good, the crew better, the captain best of all. The coinpasses were of the kind and quality supplied to the Queen's yacht-still, scarce had the Tayleur left port when she blundered upon an island on one side of a wide channel. Cannot our scientific men suggest a remedy ?--The Times, April 26, 1854.

“ CLIPPER." I have more than once been asked the meaning and derivation of the term “ clipper,” which has been so much in vogue for some years past. It is now quite a nautical term, at least among the fresh-water sailors, and we find it most frequently applied to yachts, steamers, fast-sailing merchant-vessels, &c. And, in addition to the colloquial use of the words, so common in praising the appearance or qualities of a vessel, it has become quite recognized in the official description given of their ships by merchants, &c. Thus we often see an advertisement headed “the well-known clipper ship," " the noted clipper bark," and so forth. This use of the word, however, and its application to vessels, is somewhat wide of the original. The word in former times meant merely a hackney, or horse adapted for the road. The owners of such animals naturally valued them in proportion to their capabilities for such service, among which great speed in trotting was considered one of the chief. Fasttrotting horses were eagerly sought after, and trials of speed became the fashion. A horse, then, which was pre-eminent in this particular was termed a “clipper," i.e., a hackney par excellence.- Notes and Queries.

• Should the Act be passed in time, it will be noticed in ADDENDA.

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