The outside first black buoy lies in 42 palms depth, and in these bearings :-
The large lighthouse at Schiermonikoog, S. to E. ( E.
The large lighthouse at the Englishman's bank S.W. to W.
The outside

first white buoy lies in 45 palms depth, bearingThe large lighthouse at Schiermonikoog, S. to E.

The large lighthouse at the Englishman's bank, S.W. I S. And on the mark, the steeple of Wierum in the small lighthouse on the Englishman's bank.

The course to be followed is S.W. to W. from the red buoy to the fourth buoy, as near as possible, in the middle of the channel.

The shallowest sounding at the entrance of the Channel is from 33 to 35 palms; it is shallowest along the white buoys.

No change has taken place in the buoys further inland. It must be borne in mind that, with northerly winds and ebb tide, the navigation between the outer buoys is generally very difficult, and the sea very rough. It is very difficult to enter with south-westerly winds at flood tide. The bearings are taken by unadjusted compass, and the soundings at ordinary low water.

Ere long buoys will likewise be placed in the Middle Gat, of which further notice will be given. The Minister aforementioned,



The Hague, August 23, 1853. The Minister of Marine hereby gives notice, in conection with sundry former notices, that for better observation at sea, large anchor-shaped beacon buoys have been placed as outer buoys in most of the mouths of rivers in the kingdom, furnished with a crown or top basket, and more especially Outside the North-east Friesche Sea Gat;

North-east Sea Gat of Terschelling ;
Thomas Smith Gat ;
Stortemelsche Sea Gat (the Flie) ;



Brouwershaven Sea Gat;
Roompot Sea Gat (East Schelde);
East Gat

The above-mentioned buoys lying outside the Friesche Sea Gat, those of
Terschelling and the Flie, as also those outside the East Gat of the Westem
Schelde, are painted red, the others are black.

For the same purpose an iron pyramidical sea buoy has for some time been placed on the outside of Slykgat of Goedereede. The Minister aforementioned,


Schulpengat of Texel

Western Schelde;


The Hague, August 30, 1853. The Minister of Marine hereby gives notice, that, for the better indication of the Eyerland Shallows, a lighthouse has now been erected on the Robbebol (West point, or Horst of Flieland), as also a screen on the Texel Downs, near the Koog.

It is considered useful, for the general benefit of navigation, to repeat and make known the following, as a continuation to the notices regarding those shallows, dated the 16th of April, and 27th of October, 1852.

1. The depth at five fathoms water, at ordinary low water, extends along that part of the coast from opposite the Koog on Texel, along the Eyerland Shallows, to opposite Flieland, about N.E. and S.W. to N.E. by E., and S.W. by W. (per compass), and especially,


(a) In the W.N.W., from the Screen, near the Koos, at the distance of half a German mile.

(b) Along the west coast of Eyerland Shallows, in the W.N.W., at threequarters of a mile distance from the look-out post, in the Downs of Eyerland.

(c) In the W.N.W., at fully half a mile distance from the lighthouse of the Robbebol.

(d) And in the N.N.E., at nearly two-thirds of a mile distance from the above-mentioned lighthouse.

2. The Screen has been placed in the Downs of Texel, near the Koog, for the better, surer, and quicker observation of the Island Texel, and as a warning for the Eyerland Shallows. The lighthouse on the Robbebol (Hurst or west end of Flieland) has been erected for the same purpose, as also to make ships keep further off the coast at this point.

3. The Screen is placed on the Down, near the Koog, bearing N.E. by E. and S.W. by W., about 30 Netherland ells above high water; and in shape resembles the roof of a house.

4. The lighthouse on the west corner of the Robbebol is placed 18 Nether. land ells above highest water, and remains dry in ordinary spring tides. This light is furnished with two oval screens, the one bearing N.E. and S.W., the other N.W. and S.E.

This part of the coast is generally approached far too closely, especially by small ships and ignorant parties, and very great risk is incurred by sailing near the coast and shallows : even in fine weather, with the wind off land, ships, as well by day and night, are very apt to run aground, or out of their course, with equally weather, and by the misguidance of the currents along the coast, and at the mouth of the river.

5. The lighting of the coast hereabouts may also be considered as very satisfactory, for

(a) The light of Flieland is, with ordinary beacon sight, visible at fully 31 miles distance, close up to the coast of Flieland, in the Eyerland Shallows, and even at a small distance from the coast of Texel, near the Koog.

(b) The revolving light of Terschelling is also visible from sea, at five miles distance, to a little north of the Eyerland Shallows; and,

(c) The light of Kijkduin, which, when repaired, will soon be visible at a distance of five miles, remains visible, coming from the west, until after having reached the south-west beyond and past the west corner of the Downs of Texel; especially when observed at some elevation from the rigging when close on the Texel coast, the light of Flieland is, or soon becomes visible.

Although the above-mentioned observations will be found very useful, as well for guidance as warning, still mariners are strongly recommended, when sailing round or along that coast (corner of Texel) to keep well off the coast, and not to omit betimes frequently to use the sounding lead.

The currents close in shore would greatly mislead ships, especially in stormy weather, and with spring tides, wishing to work their way up close in shore, particularly for those who are little acquainted with the locality, and in thick or foggy wea or at night, if neglected, bad charts and uncertain marks would soon cause the loss of the ship. The Minister aforementioned,



The Hague, October 10, 1853. The Minister of Marine hereby informs such as are interested thereby, as a continuation of the notice of the 18th of August last, that the Friesland Middle Gat is now indicated by an ordinary red buoy as outer buoy, besides three black and three white buoys ; and that the aforementioned red buoy is placed in 10 ells depth, bearing

The south east beacon of Schiermonnikoog S.E.
The large light house on the Englishman's Bank S.

The Steeple of Peesen's being between the two lighthouses on the English. man's Bank a hand-spike's length to the east of the large lighthouse;

The 1st white buoy is placed in 44 palms depth, bearing
The aforesaid beacon at Schiermonnikoog S.E.
The aforesaid large lighthouse S. } W.
The 2nd white buoy lies in 39 palms depth, bearing
The aforesaid beacon S.E.
The aforesaid large lighthouse, S. I W.
The 3rd white buoy is placed in 70 palms depth, bearing
The aforesaid beacon S.E. I S.
The aforesaid lighthouse S.S.W.
The 1st black buoy is placed in 55 palms depth, bearing
The aforesaid beacon S.E.
The aforesaid lighthouse S. 1 W.
The 2nd black buoy is placed in 55 palms depth, bearing
The aforesaid beacon S.E.
The aforesaid lighthouse S.W. I W.
The 3rd black buoy is placed at the steep side, in 130 palms depth, bearing
The aforesaid beacon S.E.
The aforesaid lighthouse S.S.W.

The course in the middle of the channel from the red buoy to the 2nd white buoy is S.E. } E.

From the 2nd white buoy to the 3rd white buoy E.S.E.
From the 3rd white buoy to the striped buoy S. by E. } E.

The latter striped buoy (half red and half white) lies in the place of the 4th black buoy at the junction of the Middle Gat, and north east Friesland Sea Gat ; the courses to be observed from this buoy further inland remain the same as heretofore.

In the Middle Gat the water is shallowest near to the 2nd white buoy.

It must be borne in mind that in this entrance from sea the flood tide sets in on the south coast, and the ebb tide on the opposite side.

The bearings are taken by unadjusted compass, and the depths at ordinary low water. The Minister aforementioned,



The Hague, October 27, 1853. The Minister of Marine hereby informs persons interested, that the Catadioptic light of the first class, applied to the lighthouse at Kijkduin, was first lighted on the evening of the 25th September last.

This improved stationary light is situated in 52° 57' 4" north latitude, and 4° 43' 30" longitude east of Greenwich. It is raised full 49 ells (about 161 feet) above ordinary high water, and illumines an arc of 270 degrees of the horizon, namely, from the south 30° west by west, north and east, to east 30° south.

From experiments made at the height of the deck of a pilot cutter, the eye being 3 ells (9 feet 10 inches) above water, it was ascertained that the light of Kijkduin bearing N.E. į N., and, at the same time, the Egmond coast lights bearing south, in the depth of 8} fathoms water, is lost sight of, or sinks; this being a distance of 41 German sea miles (about 21 English miles).

From further experiments on board the pilot cutter, at a height of 15 ells (49 feet 21 inches) from the water in the rigging, the Kijkduin light bearing N.E. Į N., with the Egmond coast lights in sight from the deck S.E. by E. 1 E., in the depth of 81 fathoms, the former light was lost sight of or sunk.

Therefore the Kijkduin light was visible at the said height in the rigging, at a distance of 5 to 5 German sea miles (about 23 to 253 English miles). According to the state of the atmosphere, it will be visible at a greater or less distance.

Two or three days later, upon a favourable occasion for observation, the experiments were continued in the same pilot cutter off the Island of Texel.

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With the eye 3 ells (9 feet 10 inches) above water, the Kijkduin light bear. ing S. W. was lost sight of, whilst the Vlieland light at E. 1 S. was quite visible; which cross bearing indicates a distance of full 4 German sea miles (183 English miles) from the Kijkduin light. Then keeping E.S.E. by the coast, the latter light, with the eye 15 ells (49 feet 24 inches) above water, was seen over the sand downs of the Island of Texel, in the direction S. by W., when it disappeared behind the sand downs of the island, with the lead at the depth of 13 fathorns water at a short distance from the Eijerland flats.

The Kijkduin light, therefore, in its improved state, has become, even upon ordinary occasions for observation, very serviceable for the approaching of the Texel channels; and it appears, from all the experiments herein mentioned, that it retains a very clear light until it sinks altogether, and that it likewise makes its appearance above the horizon bright.

The ell measure herein mentioned is the Netherland ell (or French metre39:37 inches English), and the bearings of the compass are uncorrected, the deviation being calculated at 21° 51' north west.


Minister of Marine.


The Hague, December 15, 1853. The Minister of Marines give notice :

1stly.-- That the red buoy on the North Pampus of the Mouth of Goeree, has been substituted by a black buoy, and is likewise now placed north westerly, in the following directions :

The steeple of Brielle in the wood of Rockanje, and the church steeple of Helvoetsluys in the small wood at the Kwak;

Soundings—Goeree, S.W. : W.

Helvoetsluys, S.E. by unadjusted compass, at the depth of 52 palms at ordinary low water, which buoy, when entering, has to be kept on the larboard side.

2ndly.—That at the dry north easterly point of the Scheelhoek Bank, a white buoy is stationed in the directions.

The steeple of Goeree on the eastern side of the pier head, of said place ; and the pilot office of Helvoetsluys, touching the point of the Kwak :

Soundings--Goeree, W. S.

Lighthouse of Helvoetsluys, S.E. | S. at 46 palms depth at ordinary low water to be kept on the starboard side on entering.

3rdly.---That the white buoy, stationed at the north point of the bank, Scheelhoek, termed North Pampus, has been furnished with a white flag on a pole in order to its being better distinguished from the before-mentioned white buoy.

The Minister aforesaid,



The Hague, March 20, 1854. The Minister of Marine gives notice that, in consequence of the giving way of the western point of the Sandbank on the Kalcot, Western Schelde, the white buoy stationed, on sailing up from Flushing, has, to prevent misdirection, been removed from that point, and that in lieu thereof, in a more easterly direction upwards, a red buoy has been placed at 34 fathoms depth, showing :

The castle of Rammekens close outside of the corner of the sea dyke to the Eastward of the South Watering:

The Orange Mill of Flushing against the first Berm to the eastward of the Dock Harbour.



The Hague, July 14, 1853. The Minister of Marine gives notice that the submarine cable between the English and Dutch coasts lies at about a quarter of a mile westward of the lighthouse at Scheveningen, in a direction W.N.W. towards Orfordness, and from Orfordness Lighthouse in a direction E.S.E. with the lighthouse on, with the Gedgrave high trees bearing W.N.W

Masters of vessels and pilots are warned not to anchor within these marks or bearings, in order to avoid damaging the submarine cable or the loss of their own anchors.

PROGRESS OF COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION. The Dutch Government has published returns of the commerce and navigation of the Netherlands during the year 1852. They show considerable increase under the several heads of imports, exports, and transit. The total value of the imports was more than 322,000,000 forins, or 19,000,000 more than that of the previous year; and the total value of exports in 1852 was 272,000,000 florins, 30,000,000 more than in 1851. The total value of the transit trade is represented by 115,000,000 florins, being an augmentation of 17,000,000 florins compared with the former year.-Ed.

Conrention of Navigation between Her Majesty and the King of the Netherlands, signed at

London, March 27, 1851.

[Ratifications exchanged at London, April 16, 1851.) ART. I. Tonnage, dr.-Duties.--No duties of tonnage, harbour, lighthouse, pilotage, quarantine, or other similar or corresponding duties, of whatever nature or under whatever denomination shall be imposed in the ports of either country upon the vessels of the other country, from whatever port or place arriving, which shall not be equally imposed in the like cases on national vessels; and in neither country shall any duty, charge, restriction, or prohibition, be imposed upon, nor any draw back, bounty, or allowance, be withheld from, any goods imported into or exported from such country in vessels of the other, which shall not be equally imposed upon or withheld from such goods, when so imported or exported in national vessels.

11. Vessels.--All vessels which, according to the laws of Great Britain, are to be deemed British vessels, and all vessels which, according to the laws of the Netherlands, are to be deemed Netherland vessels, shall, for the purposes of this Convention, and of the treaty of October 27, 1837, be deemed British vessels and Netherland vessels respectively.

III. Pricileges.- If any Act should hereafter be passed by the Legislature of either country, by which any of the privileges in regard to navigation and commerce which are respectively conceded by the British Act of Parliament of the 12 & 13 Victoria, cap. 29, and by the Netherland Law of August 8, 1850, should be withdrawn, then and in such case, either of the high contracting parties shall be at liberty, to terminate the present Convention, on giving to the other six weeks' notice of its wish to that effect.

IV. The preselit Convention shall be considered as additional to the above-mentioned Treaty of October 27, 1837, and shall have the same duration as that Treaty, unless in the case provided for by Article III. preceding. It shall be ratified, and the ratifications shali be exchanged at London as soon as may be within the space of four wecks froin the date of its signature:

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have
affixed thereto the scals of their arms.
Done at London, May 27, 1851.


TARIFF. TARIFF of the Principal Articles Imported into, and Exported from, the

Netherlands.—[By Authority. Translated specially for Pope's YEARLY


Gilders. Cents. Coffee, 100 kilo, .


0 20 Cotton, raw



Corn, last


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