EXCHANGE. The quotation of gold at Paris is about 3 per mille discount (according to the last tariff), which, at the English Mint price of 31. 178. 101d. per ounce for standard gold, gives an exchange of 25:09] ; and, the exchange at Paris on London at short being 24.95, it follows that gold is about 0:58 per cent. dearer in Paris than in London.


English Weights.

French Weights.
1 grain

0·06477 gramme. 1 pennyweight = t of an oz.

1.55456 gramme. 1 ounce = }of a lb. Troy

31.09130 gramme. 1 pound imperial

0.3730956 kilogramme.

English Weights.

French Weights. 1 dram = to of an oz.

1.7712 gramme. 1 ounce = To of a lb.

28.3384 gramme. 1 pound, or 1 lb. imperial

0.4534148 kilogrammes. 1 cwt. = 112 lb.

50•7824600 kilogrammes. 1 ton 20 cwt.


French. 1 gramme 15:438 grains Troy 1 kilogramme

2.68027 lb.. 1 kilogramme

2-20548 lb..

English. 0.643 dwt. 0.03216 oz. Troy wt. 2 lb. 8 oz. 3 dwt. 6 grs. Troy. 2 lb. 3 oz. 47 drs. Avoirdupois.




The Swiss Federal Council has addressed to the Confederated States a copy of the declarations made by England and France with regard to neutrals, accompanied by a circular to the following effect :

Faithful and dear Confederates,-You will perceive by those documents that the Western Powers are resolved to carry on the war in a manner calculated to render it the least possible onerous to trade, and in particular to the commercial interests of neutral states, and that, with that intention, they have renounced, for the present at least, all idea of delivering letters of marque. But, on the other hand, a positive expectation is expressed that neutral nations shall not neglect to adopt the measures necessary to avert the danger that might result to them from acts likely to compromise their neutrality. We consider that expectation to be perfectly well founded, and we accordingly request you to do everything in your power to observe faithfully, sincerely, and in every respect the strictest neutrality, which has been already admitted in principle by the Confederation. With that view it would be expedient to advise the persons placed in your jurisdiction who might trade in military effects with foreign countries, that they must only impute to themselves the damages resulting therefrom, and that, under such circumstances, they cannot expect protection from the Swiss authorities. We seize this opportunity, faithful and dear confederates, to recommend you, with us, to the Divine protection. In the name of the Swiss Federal Council,

President of the Confederation.

Chancellor of the Confederation.

[From a Parliamentary Document.]

£ s.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


d. 0 12 6 0 0 73 0 1 8 0 2 11 0 6 8 0 6 8 0 0 7 0 0 11 0 1 3 0 6 8 0 6 8 0 1 3 0 2 11 0 1 3 0 2 11

0 6 8

0 0 7 0 03

Beer, in bottles, 110 lb.

in casks, 1104 lb. Cotton yarn and thread, unbleached, 110% lb.

bleached or dyed 1104 lb.
Cotton manufactures 110 lb.
Copper or brass goods, cast, 1101 lb.

raw, 110 lb.
Coals, collar.
Coffee and cocoa, 1101 lb.
Cutlery of every description, 1104 lb.
Earthenware and porcelain, 110f Ib.

common crockery, 1104 lb.
Fish, all sorts, 1104 lb.
Glass bottles, common, 1104 ib.

window, not coloured, 1104 lb.

wares, fine ; crystal wares, cast or polished, and coloured glass, 110 lb. Hardwares : unwrought, cast; plates, stoves, wheels,

&c., 1104 lb. Iron, pig and bar, 1107 lb. Leather manufactures, fine :

saddlery, harness, boots, shoes, gloves, &c., 110 lb.

coarse, 110 lb. Lead, in pipes or rolled, &c., 110 lb. Linen, yarn, and thread, 1104 lb.


ticking and cloth (having less than 40 warp
threads to the inch), unbleached and undyed,

1104 lb.
cloth or tape, bleached, dyed, or printed, 110} lb.
Machinery, all sorts, 110 lb.
Rum, in casks, 1101 lb.

in bottles, 1104 lb.
Salt, kitchen, 1104 Ib.
Silk manufactures, 1104 lb.
Steel, unwrought, 1101 lb.

plates and wire, 1104 lb.
Sugar, of every description, 1104 lb.
Tin, in blocks, 1101 lb.
Wool, raw or combed, 1107 ib.
Woollen yarn, raw not dyed, 1104 lb.

dyed or bleached, 1101 Ib.
manufactures, all kinds, 110 lb.

0 12 6 0 6 8 0 1 3 0 2 11


[ocr errors]



0 1 8 0 6 8 0 1 8 0 2 11 0 12 6 0

0 11 0 12 6 0 0 7 0 2 11 0 2 11 0 0 71 0 0 3 0 1 8 0 2 11 0 6 8





The new money in this country, as well as the accounts are kept as in France, in francs and centimes; thus setting aside the extremely variable currencies of every canton for one universal coinage for the Helvetian Republic



The financial report of the Federal government has made its appearance in thirty-six folio sheets. The revenue of the year 1852 was 300,481l.; in 1853 it amounted to 349,3781. The receipts of last year were 567,4991., exceeding the former estimate by 69,4991. The expenses were 524,4471. ; thus leaving a balance of 43,052. The highest item is that of the military department, being 57,1321. or 12,9271. above the original budget. The whole federal administration cost 11,7641.





9, Cavendish Square.




Office.17, Gracechurch Street.

Consul at Liverpool.Don Juan de Mazarredo.

CONDITION. It is hardly possible to see greater poverty and misery than is to be witnessed in most parts of the interior of Spain. Along the seaboard, things are better ; there is a ready outlet for produce, which the inland provinces do not possess, and the lucrative trade of smuggling comes to the poor man's aid. Recent attempts have been made, by the government and its organs in the press, to represent smuggling as greatly diminished, indeed, as nearly extinct. This is merely dust in the eyes of the credulous. At particular points, a diminution may possibly be shown, but along the French and Portuguese frontiers the contraband trade is as lively as ever. There are very many important articles, of large and inevitable consumption in Spain, on which the duty is actually prohibitive, although they cannot be manufactured in this country except at enormous prices, and of inferior quality. Prominent amongst these are woollen and cotton stuffs, upon which successive governments have been deterred from diminishing the duties, at least to any useful extent, by fear of the turbulent population of Catalonia, the most industrious and perhaps the most flourishing province of Spain, but whose interests are diametrically opposed to those of the rest of the country.Blackwood's Mag. June, 1854.

NEW ORGANISATION OF PORTS, &o. By Royal decree, Feb. 28, 1854, a new organisation is made of the customs service by land and sea. As regards the sea, it divides the service into four classes; the first class comprises importation, exportation, re-exportation, coasting trade, and all other commercial operations in the ports of Alicanta, Almeria, Barcelona, Bilboa, Cadiz, Carthagena, Palma de Majorca, Saint Sebastian, Santander, Seville, Tarragona, and Vigo. In the second class, comprising the ports of Carril, Palamos, and Rivadeo, the importation of cotton tissues is not to be permitted. In the ports of the third class, comprising those of seventeen provinces, only certain specified articles, principally raw materials, are to be iinported and exported; and in the fourth class, comprising sixteen provinces and the Balearic Isles, only coasting trade operations and exports are to be allowed. As regards the land, it is divided into three classes. In the first, all commercial operations are to be allowed, but there are to be only three offices-Irun in the province of Guipuzcoa, Lanfranc in that of Huesca, and Fregoneda in that of Salamanca. In the second, there are to be twenty-six offices, but the importation of cotton tissues is not to be permitted through them, the object being so far as possible to prevent the smuggling of such tissues. In the third class, in which there are sixteen offices, only exports are to be allowed.

WAR WITH RUSSIA. Spain has forbidden the fitting out or admitting into her ports of any privateer under the Russian flag, the use of letters of marque from any power, or to give any assistance to the belligerents not demanded by humanity. The conveyance of all articles of commerce is guaranteed to the Spanish flag, except war materiel, despatches, and communications, and to ports blockaded by the belligerent powers.-Economist, April 29, 1854.

PASSPORTS. No person is allowed to land in Spain unless he be provided with a passport ; if he be an Englishman, he must get one from the Foreign Office, if of any other nation, he must have one from the diplomatic agent for that country, and in both cases it must be duly authorised by the Spanish Ambassador. Without this document, no consul or vice-consul is allowed to include any passenger in the bills of health.-By Authority.


CAPE FINISTERRE. On June 1, 1854, a revolving light will be shown on the south point of Cape Finisterre, in lat. 42° 52' 45" Ñ ., long. 90° 20' 14" W. of Greenwich.

This light will appear every half-minute, at an elevation of 474 feet above the mean level of the sea, and may be seen at the distance of 24 miles in clear weather.

SISARGAS ISLETS, COAST OF GALICIA, ATLANTIC. On July 20, 1854, a fixed red light will appear on the northernmost projecting peak of Isla Mayor, which is the largest of the Sisargas Islets. The the tower stands in lat. 43° 21'50" N., long. 8° 55' 9" W. of Greenwich, and the light being of the fourth order, but having an elevation of 363 feet, will be visible at the distance of three leagues and a half.

CAPE CREUX, COAST OF CATALONIA. On July 20, 1854, a light, varied by flashes every three minutes, will be established on Cape Creux, on the site of an ancient tower, which has been removed, in lat. 42° 18' 4" N., long. 3° 14' 21" E. of Greenwich.

Its distance from the sea-shore, due east of it, is 550 yards; and 903 yards from that shore, on the same bearing, lies the small island called Masa de Oro. The distance of the light from the sea to the northwards is 516 yards, and 535 yards from the southern shore.

The light will stand 289 feet above the level of the sea, and may be seen five leagues. It is the last, or easternmost light, on the coast of Spain.


Hydrographic Office, Sept. 7, 1853. The Spanish Government has given notice, that on the 19th of October, two lights will be established in Arosa Bay, on the coast of Galicia, viz. :

1. A light, varied by flashes, on Salvora Island. 2. A fixed light on Arosa Island.

No. 1. is a fixed light, but varied by red flashes every two minutes. It stands on the south point of Salvora Island, in 42° 27' 50" N., and 8° 59' 20" W. of Greenwich. Its height is 83 feet above the level of the sea, and it is visible from the deck of a vessel about 16 miles.

No 2. is a fixed light on Cabalo Point, the N.W. extremity of Arosa Island. It stands 39 feet above the sea, in 42° 34' 8" N., and 8° 51' 30" W. of Greenwich. It may be seen about 11 miles.

It also appears by the above-mentioned notice, that a dangerous rock in the entrance of Port Ferrol, in the way of vessels beating into or out of the harbour, has been recently discovered. It is named the Cabalino, and the following compass bearings give its position :The S.E. angle of S. Felipe Castle, N. 71° E. The S. angle of S. Carlos Castle, N. 14° W.

The N.W. angle of S. Martin Castle, N. 85° E., and its distance from the south shore of the channel is not more than half a cable's length. It is nearly circular in form, about 7 feet in diameter, and, at low water, its summit is awash, though concealed by the seaweed; the depth round it is 9 feet close to, and increases to 18 feet. S.E. by E. from the Cabalino, distant 74 yards, is the Cabalo, consisting of three counected masses of rock, the highest and northwesternmost of which is of a tabular form, nearly round, and connected with the Cabalino by a reef. The Cabalo rises 8 feet above the sea, and nearly 24 across, N.W. to S.E.


Hydrographic Ofice, Aug. 9, 1853. On the 18th of last May, a notice was received from the Spanish Govern. ment, and was immediately republished by this office, that a fixed red light, varied by flashes, had been placed on Sisargas Island, in 43 deg 21 min. 50 sec. N., and 8 deg. 55 min. 9 sec. W. of Greenwich, at the height of 363 feet above the sea. But by another despatch received this day, it appears that the light ought to have been described as " bright," with red flashes, which occur every four minutes.


From Nov. 12, 1853, a new lighthouse, established on the top of Mount Faro, which is the foremost point of the southern extremity of the Isla del Centro, will be lighted every night from sunset to sunrise.

The lighthouse lies in 420 12 23" N. latitude ; and 2° 41' 50" W. longitude, from the Observatory of St. Fernando.

Its apparatus is of the second catadioptrical order, with eclipses every other minute. The light's elevation above the level of the sea is of 653 feet, Burgo's measure, and produces a tangent of 31 miles ; but it will be visible from a greater or minor distance, according to the state of the atmosphere and the elevation of the observer.

« ForrigeFortsett »