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should be blamed for all the backwardness of civilisation, and the religious, moral, and social heresies that make that country so melancholy a type of stagnation and misery. When first it passed into our possession, there were certainly many things which prominently called for the notice of the supreme power, and they received it. Internal warfare and spoliation-long chronic, almost normal-have been completely stopped; Thuggee is unheard of; Suttee as rare as high treason in England; Dacoity only lingers where judges are scrupulous; the police and criminal law, worked mainly by Asiatics, is decidedly superior to that of any other Asiatic country, and is daily improving; prison discipline is better than it was in England in the days of Fielding and Smollett; while the registration of landed property has attained a degree of simplicity and precision to which we in Britain are still strangers.—Blackwood's Magazine, June, 1854.
RESOURCES.* So long since as the year 1788-sixty-six years ago-the authorities of the East India Company commenced their endeavours for the promotion of the growth of cotton and for the improvement of its quality. These endeavours were never relaxed, and at a more recent period cotton farms were formed under the care of American cultivators, from which great hopes were entertained ; and though they have not been altogether realised, the fault is not with the government : it has done its best. Again : the improvement of animals is recommend as a proper object of attention; and such it certainly is. The government has felt this, and consequently model studs have been formed, and model sheep farms maintained at vast expense. True, these establishments have not been brilliantly successful; but though the company's government has not been able to "command" success, it certainly has aimed to "deserve" it. Silk has been produced in India for centuries. The English found it a standard article of production ; but its quality was not of the highest class, and they did much to improve it. Ninety-seven years ago the company sent out a gentleman named Wilder, reputed to be eminently conversant with the culture and preparation of silk, with instructions to inquire into the causes of the defective quality of the Bengal produce. Into the causes of failure it is not necessary to inquire ; it is enough to know that silk has enjoyed preeminently the fostering attention of the government, though corresponding success has not followed. With regard to the production of wine, it is impossible to say whether, throughout the vast territories of India, there are or are not any spots, the soil and climate of which are adapted to it.
But why are all demands for improvement, not only in public works but in everything else, thrown upon the government? Why do not private capitalists undertake those functions in India which they perform everywhere else? How have the colonial dependencies of Great Britain been cultivated ? Not by state outlay; but in the legitimate way, by private capital and private industry.-Allen's Indian Mail, March 20, 1854.
PAPER MARKET, &c. SOCIETY OF ARTS, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 22, 1854. Dr. Buist, of Bombay, read an interesting paper on some of the undeveloped resources of India. As examples of what could be accomplished in that country, he referred to the articles of indigo, cotton, and gutta percha. The culture of indigo in Bengal hardly covered its own expenses in 1778, and now the annual value exported was 1,717,8831. In 1788, cotton was first imported into this country from India, and in 1814, when the company monopoly was relaxed, the pply sent to us thence was 4,000,000 lb., whereas now it averaged from 160,000,000 lb. to 170,000,000 lb. per annum, for the cultivation of which an area of 8,000 square miles was required. The demand for gutta percha had only arisen in 1847, yet it had already increased to such an extent as to threaten in a few years to extinguish the supply unless new sources for obtaining it were opened up. Dr. Buist also referred to the increasing export of oil seeds, that of linseed alone to England amounting to the value of 40,0001. from the single port of Bombay. He considers, however, that the chief resources of India as a field for productive enterprise are to be found in the enormous mass of untutored and unemployed labour at our disposal there. Finally, with reference to the present state of the paper market from the scarcity of rags, Dr. Buist points out that in India short staple flax and cotton, almost worthless for the purposes of ordinary manufacture, exist to any amount, with cheap neat-handed, and ingenious workmen, abundance of pure water,
• This and the three next articles, it will be seen, are of very similar nature. In order to give the fullest information on the subject, it has been deemed advisable to insert them all.--Ed.
smokeless skies, and sunshine of unsurpassable brightness—all the means, in short, of supplying the world with paper if the art of making it was once introduced.
The proceedings terminated with a vote of thanks to Dr. Buist.
SUBSTITUTES FOR RUSSIAN HEMP. At a meeting of the society of arts, April, 1854, Dr. Forbes Royle read a paper on “Indian fibres fit for textile fabrics, or for rope and paper making." He stated that in the white-fibred plants, such as the bowstring hemp, the aloe, the pita-fibre, the pineapple, and, above all, the plantain, we had boundless resources of material not only for paper making, but for cordage, which would rival Manilla hemp, or the American aloe which bridged over broad rivers. The oakum of these plants might be converted into paper, and the fibres into fabrics of different qualities; and, though they might not be fitted for making knots, they would yet make ropes which were capable of bearing considerable strains. Among the malvaceous and leguminous plants, or those among which the brown hemp and “sunn” of India were found, with the jute among the linden tribe, we had a variety of cheap products, because the plants could be grown with ease and their fibres separated with facility. If we required fibres possessed of all the strength of Russian or of Polish hemp, we should find this property not only in the hemp of the Himalaya, but in the various nettles which clothed the foot of these mountains, from Assam to the Sutlej. One of the latter-the rheea fibre - he felt assured would not only undersell every other fibre, but, in point of strength, would take a position second to none of all the fibres at present imported. Some of this fibre had been made into a 5-inch rope, and had been tried at Messrs. Huddart's rope manufactury, where it was found that each square inch made from the wild rheea bore in the first experiment 8441b. ; in the second experiment 8941b., and that from the rheea fibre, 910lb.; while the average strength of rope made with the best hemp, and after numerous experiments, from the year 1803 to 1808, was 8051b. per square inch. In December last sone experiments were made at the East India Company's military stores, with fibres in equal weights and of equal lengths. The weight that each fibre broke with was ascertained to be as follows St. Petersburg hemp, 160lb.; Jubbulpore hemp, 1901b. ; Wuckoonar fibre, 1751b.; mudar, or yercum fibre (common all over India), 190lb.; China grass, 250lb.; rheea fibre, 320lb. ; wild rheea, from Assam, 3431b.; and Kote Kangra hemp, no breakage at 400lb. This hemp was the cannabis satira of botanists, and was cultivated in every part of India on account of the intoxicating property of its leaves. Dr. Royle stated, in conclusion, that the Court of Directors had ordered 20 tons of the rheea fibres, as well as of the Himalayan hemps, to be sent here yearly for the purpose of having them tried.
AMPLE FIELD FOR SUPPLY. A letter was published, in June 1854, by Mr. Gregson, M.P., to the president of the Board of Control, calling attention to the ample field existing in India for the supply of fax, hemp, and analogous articles, that would not only furnish superior substitutes for the materials hitherto imported from Russia, but would also yield abundant means to cheapen the production of paper. Of 94,169 tons of foreign flax imported last year, the whole was derived from Russia, except 29,770 tons; while, with regard to hemp, that country contributed 41,819 tons out of a total of 63,142. At peace prices the value of these supplies was 3,395,635l., a total which at the present war rates, would be enhanced to 6,500,0001. Yet from facts which seem beyond question, it appears that we could obtain adequate quantities of fibrous materials from India, not merely of equal, but of much greater strength, as well as of more general usefulness. These advantages have already attracted the attention of the East India Company, and by a series of experiments made at their military stores in December last it was found that, while St. Petersburg hemp broke with a strain of 160lb., several Indian varieties, some of which are common all over the country, were found to bear tests of from 1751b. to 4001b., the Kote Kangra description having fully resisted the latter weight. The most conspicuous among the growths available is the plantain, which is everywhere cultivated in India for its fruit, and then cut down and left to rot, as if it had no further value. Mr. Gregson, however, states, on the authority of those who have paid close attention to the subject, that there would be no difficulty in obtaining from it any quantity of fibre of admitted valuable quality, and as fast as the mechanical appliances necessary for its preparation could be sent out; and he adds, upon this essential point, he has reason to believe machinery is devised and patents are secured calculated to carry on every necessary operation both as regards fibre for textile purpose and pulp for paper.
RAILWAYS. The despatches of the East India Company on the subject of railway communication in the three Presidencies of Bengal, Bombay, and Madras were published June, 1854 :- In the Presidency of Bengal the line by way of the Ganges Valley to the north-west is to be completed as far as Delbi with all practicable speed (the limit being seven years), and to be extended through the Punjab westward also as soon as possible. With respect to the Bombay Presidency, the object of paramount importance is to open a line for trade with Candeish, Berar, and the cotton-growing districts beyond the Ghauts. A line from Bombay to Poonah will also be sanctioned as soon as the best route shall have been ascertained. In the Madras Presidency the line from Madras við Cuddapah and Bellary is proposed to be continued so as to connect with that from Bombay through Poonah, thus constituting a trunk roud uniting the two presidencies, and giving a further vast extension both to the military and com. mercial resources of the territory. In the meantime, the execution of the line from Madras viá Vellore, Vaneembaddy, and Coimbatore to the western coast will be proceeded with, branches being contemplated ultimately to Bangalore and to the foot of the hills toward Ootacamund. The experimental line, it is observed, in the Presidency of Bengal, the cost of which was estimated at 14,500l. per mile, will cost under 90001. per mile inclusive of rolling stock and the chief terminus at Hourah, and this is thought likely to be the most expensive portion of the whole distance to Allahabad.
FINANCES. The annual accounts of the revenues and disbursements of the East India Company have been laid before Parliament. The revenue of India for the year 1852-53 (partly estimated) was 21,196,7451. ; the expenditure (also partly estimated), 20,557,2801. The public debt outstanding at the several presiden. cies is 48,014,2441., and the annual interest 2,279,5311.
SHIPS-INWARD AND OUTWARD. The East India and China Association have published their comparative statement of the number of ships, British and foreign, with their aggregate tonnage, entered inward and cleared outward from and to places within the limits of the East India Company's charter from January 1 to June 30, in the years 1853 and 1854.
According to the statistics of vessels entered inward, the port of London shows an increase of 75, with 31,916 tounage, the difference between 365 vessels and 205,186 tonnage in 1853, and 440 vessels and 237,102 tonnage in 1854. Liverpool exhibits an increase of three vessels with 161 tonnage, the arrivals in the former period having been 129 vessels with 77,319 tonnage, against in the latter 132 vessels with 77,480 tonnage. In the case of Bristol there is an increase of four vessels with 3,157 tonnage, the difference between 23 vessels with 7,826 tonnage, and 27 vessels with 10,983 to The return for the Clyde gives an increase of seven vessels with 3,644 tonnage, the arrivals in 1853 having been 31 vessels with 11,277 tonnage, and in 1854, 38 vessels with 14,921 tonnage. The total increase presented is 89 vessels with 38,878 tonnage, the difference between 548 vessels with 301,608 tonnage, and 637 vessels with 340,486 tonnage ; while the principal arrivals have been from Mauritius, Madras, New South Wales, Calcutta, Ceylon, China, Java, and Sumatra.
The statistics of vessels cleared outward present unfavourable results, owing to the diminished activity of the trade to Australia as compared with the corresponding period of last year. In the case of the port of London a decrease is exhibited of 93 vessels with 19,657 tonnage, the difference between 472 vessels with 218,864 tonnage in 1853, and 379 vessels with 199,207 tonnage in 1854. The return for Liverpool shows a decrease of 68 vessels with 123 tonnage, the departures in the former period having been 262 vessels with 134,895 tonnage, and in the latter 194 vessels with 134,772. The decrease in the case of Bristol is six vessels with 1,286 tonnage, the difference between 16 vessels with 4,666 tonnage in 1853, and 10 vessels with 3,380 tonnage in 1854. The Clyde figures for a decrease of 22 vessels with 749 tonnage, the departures in the former period having been 81 vessels with 29,566 tonnage, and in the latter period 59 vessels with 28,817 tonnage. It will be noticed in these instances, that, although the number of vessels has decreased, the aggregate tonnage, except in the case of the port of London, has not proportionably diminished—a circumstance showing that a larger class of ships is now generally employed. The net decrease is 189 vessels with 21,815 tonnage, the difference between 831 vessels with 387,991 tonnage in 1853, and 642 vessels with 366,176 tonnage in 1854. The departures for Australia, Cape of Good Hope, China, Singapore, Calcutta, and Bombay, exhibit the principal falling off.
WRECK OF THE HAMODY-INCORRECT CHARTS. According to your advice, I was proceeding to the westward of the Laccadives, and on Wednesday after I left Bombay I was in the latitude of the Cherbimani reef, and by the chronometer many miles (I write from memory) to the westward, nothing being visible. From noon I stood S. by W., and nothing to leeward, in fact, a good S. by W. W. course naturally thinking I must be many miles clear of all danger. At seven P.M., I was sitting on the lee-side of the poop with Mrs. Barnes, when the chief officer suddenly said “Why, there is a shoal here!” I started up, and saw a white streak running out from the weather-beam of the ship. I at once saw she would not clear to windward, and all being smooth on the lee-side put the helm up; but before it had time to act on the ship she struck. We clewed all sail up.
Horsburg gives the longitude of the Byramgore 71° 55', and the western extreme 71° 50'. My altitude gives me 71° 26', and the chronometer I found correct to a mile in Tellicherry, after my arrival ; thus it would seem these shoals are not at all correctly laid down in the charts.--Captain Barnes, Master —Telegraph and Courier, April 7, 1854.
LIGHTHOUSES IN THE STRAITS. For the future, every vessel which arrives at any Indian port after passing the lighthouses, will pay one anna per ton ; if it has passed only a few of them, the demand will be half an anna.--Calcutta Gazette, April 19, 1854.
DISCOVERY OF GREEN INDIGO.
A notice of the discovery of the green indigo, as it is called, has been published. The discovery is stated to have been made by Mr. Delanougerede, of the Metropolitan College; but until we hear something more about it, we abstain from any comment. We mention the subject merely because we are informed that another gentleman has discovered a true vegetable green, manufactured by himself, of indigenous plants, and that he is now preparing specimens which he proposes to offer to government for the purpose of being forwarded to the French Exhibition of 1855. Samples of it have already been tried by one of the Calcutta chemists, and it is said that the dye withstood the effects of very powerful tests, and the colour may, therefore, be considered a fixed one.-Hurkaru, April 25, 1854.
PURCHASE OF COTTON. The merchants of Bombay are little aware of the quantity of money which is to be made by sending trustworthy European agents up here to purchase cotton. Of all the English houses at the Presidency, one only has an agent here, and a very active and intelligent fellow he is. But even he falls into the error of buying from the native dealers, which just adds so much to these gentries' profits, and takes off from the profits of the English house. What should be done is this : a European should go about the districts, from village to village, and set up his scales by his tent. “Here I am with ready coin, who'll sell me cotton at so much a pound?” should be his cry. If this were done, the ryots themselves would come forward with the staple, and the money would go direct into their pockets instead of through the hands of the petty native dealers.— Bombay Telegraph, in Allen's Indian Mail, March 20, 1854.
GINGER. In consequence of the representations on the subject lately made by Messrs. Duncan Dunbar and Sons, the Treasury have notified that, pending the consideration of the general state of the law as regards the native States of India, all ginger which has been imported from those states on the faith of being admitted at a duty of 58. per cwt., as well as that which is now on the way, is to be delivered on payment of that rate.-Cor.
EXPORTS. Export of Sundries from Bombay to Great Britain in the first Four Months of 1850-4
EXPORTS OF INDIGO. The total exports of indigo from Calcutta last season, 1853, were 27,258 chests, 15,292 being forwarded to Great Britain, 8,208 to France, 1691 to North America, 1,650 to the Red Sea, &c., and 417 to other places. In the previous year, the total shipments were 35,591 chests.- Cor.
INDIGO SEASON. Only one public sale has as yet taken place, at which 185 chests were sold at about last year's quotations.
The total exports from 1st of November, 1853, only amount to 1,312 chests, of which 869 have been directed to Great Britain. It is believed that