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COLOMBIA.
Colombia, an extensive region in the north part of South America, now
divided into the republics of Venezuela, New Granada, and Ecuador.- Keith
Johnston.

RECIPROCITY TREATY.
Signed at Bogota, April 18, 1825.

See p. 47.

VENEZUELA.

OPEN PORTS. By a law passed by the Congress of Venezuela, and published at Caraccas, April 22, 1839, the following ports shall be open for imports and exports, viz. :-Angostura, in the province of Guayana ; Cumana, in that of the same name; Barcelona, in that of Barcelona ; La Guayra, in that of Caraccas; Puerto Cabello, in that of Carababo : La Vela, in that of Coro; and Maracaibo, in the province of that name. By the second article, Pampatar and Juan Griego, in the province of Margarita; and Carapina, Guiria, and Maturin, in that of Cumana, are declared open for exportation, but for importation so far only as their own consumption. By the third article the following are declared open ports for foreign exportation :-Higuerote and Choroni, in the province of Caraccas; Rio Caribe (Caraiba), in that of Cumana ; and in that of Coro, Cumarebo, Adicora, and Jayana ; these two last under the direction of the same administrator.

RECIPROCITY TREATY.
Signed at London, Oct. 29, 1834.

See p. 47.

NEW GRANADA. Principal Ports.—Carthagena, Santa Martha, Panama, and Chagres.--Keith Johnson.

COASTING TRADE. By B. T. N. March 25, 1854, and despatch from Her Majesty's Consul at Carthagena, the Government of New Granada have thrown open the coasting trade of that country to foreign vessels.

NEW TONNAGE DUES ON FOREIGN VESSELS.

By B.T.N., March 25, 1854, and despatch from Her Majesty's Consul at Carthagena, the imposition of the following tonnage dues upon foreign vessels, viz. :

On every vessel not exceeding 100 tons, 4 reals for every Granadian ton.

On every vessel over 100 tons, 4 reals on each of the first hundred tons, and 2 reals on each ton exceeding that amount.

This duty will only be levied on foreign vessels at the first port in New Granada, at which they may touch.

BARK.

16, George Street, Mansion House, London, We imported last year 17,000 serons of New Granada, and 1,500 serons of Bolivian. The New Granada all sold; but the Bolivian, being held for a monopoly price, is still in the market, proving that this kind has very little demand.

Delondre, in his new work on quinine barks, gives an analysis of a New Granada bark containing quite as much quinine as Bolivian Calisaya. If the Calisaya of Santa Fé, or Fusagasugа, and Pitaya barks of New Granada had been introduced into the market before the Bolivian, there would be no question about the quality of the alkaloiils they yield.

I am, yours obediently,

W. H. COLE. Pharmaceutical Journal, July, 1854.

PROVINCE OF CHOCO.

FREE PORTS, &c. Translation of a Decree, May 27, 1853, of the Senate and Chamber of Represent

atives of New Granada in Session. Article I. The following ports and territories of the Province of Chocó shall be free for all nations in the world, from January 1, 1854, for twenty years.

1. The ports of the Atlantic, and the territory watered by the River Atrato, from its mouth to its confluence with the River Guito, comprehended between the western chain of the Andes and that branch of it towards the eastward, which separates said Province from that of Antiochia.

2. The ports of the Pacific, and the territory watered by the River San Juan, from its embouchure as far as the city of Novita, contained between the above-mentioned chain of the Andes, and that branch of it which separates it towards the southward from the Province of Buonaventura.

Art. II. Consequently no Custom-houses can be established in said ports and territories within the time specified, nor can any duties be levied, save those of toll passage and excise corresponding to the municipal revenues, and in conformity with existing laws.

Art. III. In order to recover the duties on importation of foreign merchandize which may be introduced for the consumption of the interior of the rest of the province, and other provinces of the Republic, there shall be established two Custom-houses, one in the city of Quibdo, and the other in the city of Novita, with the following officers, and their yearly salaries.

(Here follows an enumeration of the different officers and their respective

salaries.] Art. IV. The Executive Power is authorized, when it deems it indispensable for weighty motives of public convenience, to assign other ports for Customhouses than those expressed in this law, in which case the maritime ports expressed in Article I., and the territory comprised between the coasts and the spot on which such Custom-houses shall be fixed, alone can enjoy freedom.

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Principal Ports.-A direct trade with foreign countries is only permitted in such ports of the empire of Brazil where there are custom-houses established ; they are the following :-Paræ, Maranham, Parnahiba, Fortaleza (Ceara), Aracaty (Ceara), Rio Grande North, Parahiba. Pernambuco, Maceyo (Alagoas), Lanangeiras (Sergipe), Bahia. Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Paranagna, St. Catharine, Rio Grande, Sao Borga (R.G. south), Porto Allegre, (R. G. S.)-Lyford.

VALLEY OF THE AMAZON. The Valley of the Amazon is estimated to contain more than two millions of square miles of land, traversed in various directions by above ten thousand miles of river fit for navigation. By far its greater portion belongs to the Empire of Brazil ; but nearly all its waters have their source in the five Republics of Venezuela, Nueva Granada, the Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, which stretch in a vast semi-circle round the upper and western extremity, and advance in some places considerably into the plain. No country even of equal extent surpasses in richness this wonderful valley. The eastern slopes of the Audes still contain inexhaustible supplies of silver, quicksilver, coal, iron, and copper; and many auriferous streams are waiting to give up their treasures. These minerals form only a portion of the wealth of the upper valley--which produces at various stages of elevation barley, potatoes, wheat, rye, maize, clover, and tobacco ; whilst on the lofty plains, stretching from the foot of the great wall which rises in the way of commerce to the Pacific, innumerable herds of sheep, llamas, alpacas, and other wool-producing animals feed and thrive. Further down, we find the beauties and the abundance of the torrid zone. The coffee-bush, the plantain, the sugar-cane, the cotton plant, and luscious fruits, many of which we know only as yet by name, are the products of this opulent region, which nature in due season makes sweet with the perfume of the vanilla. As we descend, the elements of wealth are different, but equally copious. The soil of Brazil is lavishly fertile. Rice, sarsaparilla, india-rubber, arrow-root, ginger, pepper, indigo, and fifty other now indispensable articles are produced in abundance. The climate of this vast tract, from the Andes to the sea, contrasts most favourably with that of the deadly African wildernesses of vegetation ; yet, excluding the savages, who are comparatively few, there is scarcely an inhabitant to every ten square miles in the whole Valley of the Amazon.-Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon. By Lieut. W. Lewis Herndon, U. S. Navy and Athenæum, May 13, 1854.

WAR WITH RUSSIA, &c.

Rio de Janeiro, June 14, 1854. The Brazilian government has issued a decree providing

1. That no corsair under the flag of any of the nations at war be fitted out, provided, or admitted with their prizes in the ports of the empire.

2. That no Brazilian subject can take part in the fitting out of corsairs, nor can he behave in opposition to the duties prescribed by a strict neutrality. -Cor.

TARIFF.

TARIFF of the Articles imported into Brazil. To commence July 1,

1854. [By Authority. Translated specially for Pope's YEARLY JOURNAL OF TRADE.]

Class

IMPORTS.
The tariff is divided into four parts, under the following titles :-

Animal matter,
Vegetable matter,
Mineral matter,
Manufactured articles of different kinds.
PART I.-- ANIMAL MATTER.

Dol.

per cent, on val. 1. Living animals

2, 5, 10, and 30 2. Dried animals.

5 and 30 3. Oily matters, meat, other useful parts of animals, and any articles manufactured therefrom

5, 15, and 30 4. Matters hard to cut, and articles made therefrom,

such as pearls, corals, horns, shells, iron,
tortoiseshell, bones, whalebone, &c.

2, 5, and 30 5. Hair of animals, and articles made therefrom

2, 5, and 30 6. Unmanufactured wool, worsted, and felt

5, 20 and 30 7. Woollen manufactures

20 and 30 8. Woollen clothing and other articles

30 9. Clothing, and other woven articles of wool

30 10. Woollen knitted articles

30 11. Tapes, laces, fringes, buttons, and similar articles in wool

30 12. Feathers

30 13. Manufactures of feathers

30 14. Skins and leathers

5 and 30 15. Manufactures of leather

5 and 30 16. Unmanufactured and prepared silk

5 17. Silk manufactures

5, 10, 20, and 30 18. Clothing and other articles of silk

5, 10, 20, and 30 19. Woven silk articles

20 20. Knitted silk articles 21. Tapes, laces, fringes, buttons, and similar articles, in silk

10 22. Silk lace and articles made there with 23. Materials used for medicinal purposes, perfumery, and painting

5 and 30 PART II.- VEGETABLE MATTER. 24. Cotton, rough or cleaned, or in thread

5, 10, and 30

10 and 30 26. Cotton clothing and other articles

5, 10, and 30 27. Clothing and other woven articles of cotton . 28. Cotton knitted articles

5 and 30 29. Tapes, laces, fringes, buttons, and similar articles in cotton

30 30. Cotton lace, and other articles made therewith

10 31. Hemp, rough and prepared

5 and 10 32. Linen manufactures

5, 10, 20, and 30 33. Linen clothing and other articles

20 and 30 34. Clothing and other woven articles of linen

30 35. Tapes, laces, fringes, buttons, and similar articles

in linen 36. Linen lace, and articles made therewith

10 37. Cordage, matting, &c.

5 and 30 38. Straw, rushes, piassaba, and other similar 'substances

5, 10, and 30

10

lo

30

30

.

.

Class.

Dol. per cent. cn Fal. 39. Ma nufactures from the substances mentioned in class 38

5 and 30 40. Plants, leaves, roots, bark, seeds, forage, grocery, and exotic and tropical products

5, 30, and 40 41. Fresh, preserved, and dried fruits

5, 15, and 30 42. Vegetables, farinaceous products, and cereals 5, 20, and 30 43. Bamboo, Malacca, and Indian and other canes

5 and 30 44. Vegetable juices, as oils, wines, &c.

5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 45. Dyeing and medicinal substances

5 and 30 46. Wood in its raw state, in planks, or prepared in any way, charcoal and ashes

5 and 30 47. Manufactured wood

5 and 30 PART III.-MINERAL MATTER. 48. Gold, silver, and platina, raw or manufactured

2 and 4 49. Bars of steel, and manufactured

5 and 30 50. Iron, and manufactures therefrom

5 and 30 51. Copper, and manufactures therefrom

5 and 30 52. Pinchbeck, and other similar compositions, in imitation of gold or silver

5, 10, and 30 53. Lead, manufactured or not

5 and 30 54. Tin, Britannia metal, and manufactures thereof

5 and 30 55. Zinc, in its raw state or manufactured

5 and 30 56. Plated goods

5 and 30 57. Mercury, arsenic, quicksilver, and other semi

metals, and metaloids and manufactures thereof 58. Mineral waters, ice, and medicinal substances

5 and 30 59. Stones, clays, fossil stones .

2, 5, and 30 60. Colours

5 61. Earthenware

5 and 30 62. Glass

5 and 30 PART IV.-MANUFACTURES. 63. Paper, and articles manufactured therewith

5, 10, and 30 64. Prepared colours and other articles for painting and drawing

5 and 30 65. Cutlery

5 and 30 66. Army and ammunition, and other war articles

30 67. Mathematical, physical chemical, and optical instruments

2, 4, and 5 68. Surgical instruments, and other articles of surgery

4 and 5 69. Musical instruments

5 and 30 70. Instruments for agricultural purposes and other industries

5 and 30 71. Articles relating to coach-building

5 and 30 72. Watch-making, and all pertaining thereto

2, 5, and 30 73. Chemical products and prepared medicines . 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 74. Perfumeries

30 75. Shipping 76. Articles of different kinds :

5 and 30 EXPLANATION. The market prices in Brazil are taken as the basis for the duties imposed by the present tariff

. The despatch by invoice will take place when the goods imported have no fixed duties in the tariff, or when they are subject only to a tax for warehousing and clearing out.

For the despatch of goods, subject to ad valorem duties, the merchant or

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