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pun we shall subjoin some further weder which they contain ;
minutiæ wwe suweldaar scquainted with the domestic
WWW on wooden frames, placed at such a We of the room, as would easily admit of
ha wewe landscapes and figures, formed the wale wakati wewe ni muoms below, and chambers above. when we attached to the bare walls ; but it was In that he sequence of the damp arising from the
ww while she wil behind it, a facility which soon converted A lo law vanmon hiding-places
. dan intense duke wwe Hevelopements, has very frequent recourse to this
will anscence me behind the arras white with the Look thou stand within the arras 9:" Alle ha iw the arras || :"
66 Behind the arras I'll convey
" I whipt me
W in me in the Country, mottoes were often placed in buik word wat ***** chambers, for the instruction of the domestics ; a
w wind was also adopted on tapestry for the improvement of their superiors, and to which Shakspeare refers in his Rape of Lucrece,
i w of Complexions, &c.” First written in Latine by Levine Lemnie, is by Thomas Newton. small 8vo. bl. l. 1576.
He w Windsor, act iii..sc. 3.
King John, act iv. sc. 1. Silti Hart I., nct ii. sc. 4.
Hamlet, act iii. sc. 3.
66 Who fears a sentence, or an old man's saw,
Shall by a painted cloth be kept in awe;" *
and is further confirmed by Dr. Bulleyne, who, in one of his productions, says,
“ This is ,
a comelie parlour, - and faire clothes, with pleasaunte borders aboute the same, with many wise sayings painted upon them." +
What these wise sayings were, we are taught by the following extract from a publication of 1601:
6 Read what is written on the painted cloth:
Do no man wrong; be good unto the poor;
proverbial wisdom, which Orlando, in As You Like It, designates by the phrase “ right painted cloth.” §
That “the arras figures ll,” though in general coarsely executed, had strongly impressed the mind of Shakspeare, and furnished him with no small portion of imagery and allusion, has been very satisfactorily established by Mr. Whiter, who remarks, that their “ effects may be perpetually traced by the observing critic,” even “ when the poet himself is totally unconscious of this predominating influence.”
* Malone's Supplement, vol. i. p. 487.
+ " A Dialogue both pleasaunt and pitifull, &c.” by Dr, Willyam Bulleyne, 1564. sig. H 5. Reed's Shakspeare, vol. viii. p. 104.
# “ No whipping nor tripping, but a kind of friendly snipping," 8vo. Vide Reed's Shakspeare, vol. viii. p. 104. note by Malone. Ø Act iii. sc. 2.
ll Cymbeline, act ii. sc. 2. “A Specimen of a Commentary on Shakspeare, &c." on the principle of Mr. Locke's Doctrine of the Association of Ideas, p. 78. 8vo. 1794,
The manner of illuminating the halls and banquetting rooms of the Great at this period, was truly classical. We find that Homer, describing the palace of Alcinous, says
“ Youths forged of gold, at every table there,
Stood holding flaming torches ;" *
and Lucretius, speaking of the Dome of the opulent, describes its walls with
“ A thousand lamps irradiate, propt sublime
Flinging their splendours o'er the midnight feast.” +
Similar to these were the
« fixed candlesticks, With torch-staves in their hands,” I
of our ancestors, which generally represented a man in armour with his hands extended, in which were placed the sockets for the lights ; and we may easily conceive how splendid these might be rendered by the arts of the goldsmith and jeweller.
Where these antique candelabras were not adopted, living candleholders supplied their place, and were, indeed, always present, when a central or perambulatory light was required: “ Give me a torch,” says Romeo,
“ I'll be a candle-bolder and look on.”
The gentlemen-pensioners of Queen Elizabeth usually held her torches; and Shakspeare represents Henry the Eighth going to Wolsey's palace, preceded by sixteen torch-bearers. | At great entertainments, beside candelabras fixed against the sides of the room, torchbearers stood by the tables, supplying the light which we now receive from chandeliers. *
* Pope's Odyssey, book vii.
+ Good's Lucretius, vol. i. p. 189. | Reed's Shakspeare, vol. xii. p. 447. King Henry V., act iv. sc. 2. § Romeo and Juliet, act i. sc. 4.
|| Reed's Shakspeare, vol. xv. p. 55.
Watch-lights, which were divided into equal portions by marks, each of which burnt a limited time, were common in the bed-chambers of the wealthy ; they are alluded to in Tomkis's Albumazar, 1614, where Sulpitia says, Why should I sit up all night like a watching-candle ? +
Every bed-chamber was furnished with two beds, a standing-bed, and a truckle-bed ; in the former slept the master, and in the latter his page.
The Host, in Merry Wives of Windsor, directing Simple where to find Sir John Falstaff, says, -“ There's his chamber, his house, his castle, his standing-bed, and truckle-bed ;" and Decker, and Middleton, further illustrate the custom, when the first, alluding to a page, says, he is “ so dear to his lordship, as for the excellency of his fooling to be admitted both to ride in coach with him, and to lie at his very feet on a truckle-bed J;" and the second, addressing a similar personage, exclaims,
Well, go thy ways, for as sweet a breasted
page as ever lay at his master's feet in a truckle-bed.” || IE may be added that the standing-bed had frequently on it a counterpoint, or counterpane, so rich and costly as, according to Stowe, to be worth sometimes a thousand marks. This piece of luxury forms one of Gremio's articles, when enumerating the furniture of his city-house, a catalogue which throws much curious light upon our present subject :
“ My house within the city,
* Vide Warton's Extract from Froissart, Hist. of English Poetry, vol. ij. Dissertation, p. lxxvi. + Ancient British Drama, vol. ii. p. 592.
Reed's Shakspeare, vol. v. p. 181. Ø Gull's Horn-book, pp. 22, 23.
More Dissemblers besides Women," act i. sc. 1.
The manner of illuminating the halls and ba? Great at this period, was truly classical. describing the palace of Alcinous, says
apartments, and in the halls of the nobility, content as to turn up; being flat leaves, united by hinges, inted Conssels, so as to fold into a small compass. Thus
122 dhe room for the dancers in his hall, calls out
* A hall! a hall! give room, and foot it, girls,
More light, ye knaves; and turn the tables up." ||
110.1 dinner, or supper, was served up, these tables were covered His spatx; hence Gremio exclaims, “ Where's the cook? Is supper Inima - Be the carpets laid ?” I
Hooul's Shakspeare, vol. ix. p. 92. Taming of the Shrew, act ii. sc. 1.
Ø Act iii. sc. 4. # Reed's Shakspeare, vol. xx. p. 65.
4 Ibid. vol. ix. p. 124.