The Consumer in Our Economy. By David Hamilton. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1962. 473 pp., bibliography. $6.50. Consumer economics is a dynamic subject with many facets. As the author points out in the preface, this has led to many different approaches to its study and to a wealth of source materials, but to a dearth of comprehensive, well-balanced textbooks appropriate for upperclass college courses. This book is intended as such a textbook, but it might also serve as a reference work for consumer research. It is designed to meet the need for an integrated approach to the study of consumer economics. In such an approach, traditional economic theories and theories of consumer behavior developed from research in other social sciences are combined with an analysis of the functioning of the consumer in the market place and of his role in the national economy.

After tracing the origin and essential features of various theories of consumer behavior, the book is mainly devoted to a discussion of levels and standards of living and to methods of improving the "art of spending money." In this discussion, basic research in consumer income, expenditures, and savings is described, and the results of empirical analyses are interpreted in light of the consumption theories previously discussed. Particular emphasis is given to "institutional" or "ceremonial" considerations in consumer behavior as contrasted with "technological" or "instrumental" determinants. Consumer aids and methods for their use in planning individual family budgets, the cooperative movement, and other consumer movements are discussed along the lines generally followed in courses described as household finance or money management. Particular attention is paid to the important areas of housing, savings, and credit.

The relationship between the consumer and Federal, State, and local governments is also discussed, along with national income and its relationship to personal consumption expenditures and the economic impact of social security.

In view of the scope of the subject covered and the excellence with which the author has achieved his broad purpose, one hesitates to criticize his detailed treatment of specific topics. Such criticism almost inevitably reflects the area of speciali

zation of the critic and overlooks equally noteworthy points in the treatment of other topics. Nevertheless, in the discussions of the standard of living and its measurement, greater care should have been taken to distinguish between "standard of living," "level of living," and "manner of living” as these terms are applied in empirical research and as they are used in the interpretation of statistical measures. The author also should have been somewhat more precise in relating estimates of budget costs to income distributions and more cautious in his statements regarding the use of such estimates in establishing minimum income levels.

The value of the book for both student and research worker is greatly enhanced by the annotated bibliography appended to each chapter. It is unfortunate that a substantial number of publications on recent research in consumer expenditures and standard budgets appeared after the preparation of the bibliography.

-HELEN H. LAMALE Division of Prices and Cost of Living Bureau of Labor Statistics

By Harold S. Sloan New York, Barnes 371 pp. 4th rev. ed.

A Dictionary of Economics. and Arnold J. Zurcher. & Noble, Inc., 1962. xii, (Everyday Handbooks.) $1.95. This handy desk volume contains about 3,000 entries dealing with economics, business, finance, statistics, and related terms-from ability-to-pay principle of taxation to zoning, with McCray v. United States (the oleo case) in between. Part of the revision is devoted to terms and definitions applicable to the increased use of automatic computer devices. Cross references and chart illustrations are ample. For example, the entry for secular trend, in addition to a succinct general definition, alludes to an accompanying chart showing the secular trend of bank debits and explains the chart. It also refers to bank debits, least-squares method, and times-series chart, and it presents the least-squares method equation for the linear curve in the diagram. One can grieve, in this journal, that the entry for Labor Statistics, Bureau of is accorded only two and one-half lines while that for Women's Bureau gets nearly seven.

Education and Training

Revolution in Training: Programed Instruction in Industry-[A Symposium]. New York, American Management Association, 1962. 160 pp., bibliography. (Management Report 72.) $5.25; $3.50 to AMA members.

Apprenticeship and the Training of Tradesmen: Observa

tions by a Tripartite Study Group. (In Personnel Practice Bulletin, Department of Labor and Nationl Service, Melbourne, Australia, March 1962, pp. 8–15. 5s.)

The Counseling Relationship—A Casebook. By Arnold Buchheimer and Sara Carter Balogh. Chicago, Science Research Associates, Inc., 1961. 234 pp., bibliography. $4.95.

Vocational Training in Yugoslavia. By Stana Tomašević and Mustafa Begtić. Belgrade, Savezno Izvršno Veće, 1961. 168 pp.

Careers in: Translating and Interpreting (Monograph 10, 30 pp.); The Field of Physics (Monograph 25, 30 pp.). By Juvenal L. Angel. New York, World Trade Academy Press, Inc., 1962. Bibliographies. Revised editions. $1.25 each.

Careers for Women as Technicians.

By Mary B. Meyer. Washington, U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau, 1962. 28 pp. (Bulletin 282.) 20 cents, Superintendent of Documents, Washington.

Careers in the Foreign Service. By Donald F. Simpson. (In Occupational Outlook Quarterly, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, May 1962, pp. 5-9. 30 cents, Superintendent of Documents, Washington.) Occupational Briefs on America's Major Job Fields: Insurance Agents (No. 118); Automatic Vending Routemen (No. 122); Furniture Manufacturing Workers (No. 124); Performing Muscians (No. 133); Physical Education Teachers (No. 135). Chicago, Science Research Associates, Inc., 1961. 4 pp. each.

Employee Benefits

Fringe Benefits for Public School Personnel: A Comparative Study of Principles and Practices in Education, Government, and Private Employment. By Jack H. Kleinmann. New York, Columbia University, Teachers College, Bureau of Publications, 1962. 178 pp., bibliography. $4.95.

Re-Examining Fringe Benefits: 1, Fringe Detriments. By J. H. Foegen; 2, Fringe Benefit Policy-Orientation and Objectives. By John D. and Marjorie T. Stanley. (In Personnel Administration, Washington, MayJune 1962, pp. 13-28. $1.25.)

Employee-Benefit Plans, 1954-60. By Alfred M. Skolnik. (In Social Security Bulletin, U.S. Department of

Health, Education, and Welfare, Social Security Administration, Washington, April 1962, pp. 5-16. 25 cents, Superintendent of Documents, Washington.) Health and Safety

Health Statistics From the U.S. National Health Survey: Currently Employed Persons, Illness and Work-Loss Days, United States, July 1959-June 1960. By Geraldine A. Gleeson. Washington, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, 1962. 48 pp. (Publication 584-C7.) 35 cents, Superintendent of Documents, Washington.

Sickness Absence in Teachers. By John Simpson. (In British Journal of Industrial Medicine, London, April 1962, pp. 110-115. 17s. 6d.)

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Taxation-Federal Income Tax-Strike Insurance Agreements. By Robert A Butler. (In Michigan Law Review, Ann Arbor, February 1962, pp. 474-498. $2.) Avoiding Written Grievances: A Successful Program. By Robert B. McKersie and William W. Shropshire, Jr. (In Journal of Business, University of Chicago, Graduate School of Business, Chicago, April 1962. pp. 135-152. $2.25.)

Industrial and Labor Relations Terms: A Glossary for Students and Teachers. By Robert E. Doherty. Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University, New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, 1962. 32 pp. (Bulletin 44.) 15 cents; free to New York State residents.

Federal Labor Law: Ideals, Objectives, and Prospects. By Jack H. Doty. (In Personnel Journal, Swarthmore, Pa., April 1962, pp. 167-175. 75 cents.)

Labor Force

Impact of the Changing Economy on Our Manpower Resources. (In Employment Security Review, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security, U.S. Employment Service, Washington, April 1962, pp. 8-20. 20 cents, Superintendent of Documents, Washington.)

Skilled Manpower for Continents in a Hurry. By K. N. Rao. (In Journal of the American Society of Training Directors, New York, May 1962, pp. 3-13. $1.)

The Relationship Between Imports and Employment—An Analysis of 27 Import-Competing Industries, and 2 Industry Case Studies. Washington, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1962. 143 pp.

Employment in Relation to U.S. Imports, 1960. Washington, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, [1962]. 14 pp.

Part-Time Nursing Employment in Great Britain. By B. A. Bennett. (In International Labor Review, Geneva, April 1962, pp. 347-356. 75 cents. Distributed in United States by Washington Branch of ILO.)

Occupational Trends in the United States, 1900 to 1960, and Their Implications. By George W. Hardbeck. (In Labor Law Journal, Chicago, May 1962, pp. 361-373. $1.)

Labor Mobility and Population in Agriculture. Ames, Iowa State University, Center for Agricultural and Economic Adjustment, 1961. 231 pp. $4.95, Iowa State University Press, Ames.

Federal Remedies for Racial Discrimination by Labor Unions. By Leo Weiss. (In Georgetown Law Journal, Washington, Spring 1962, pp. 457–477. $1.50.) The Labor Force of Bulgaria. By Zora Prochazka. Washington, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1962. 38 pp. (International Population Statistics Reports, Series P-90, No. 16.) 30 cents, Superintendent of Documents, Washington.

Problems and Alignments in African Labor. By Katherine S. Van Eerde. (In Social Research, New York, Spring 1962, pp. 73-100. $2.)

Die Dienstleistungsberufe und das Problem Steigender Preise. By Karl König and Reinmar Cunis. (In Gewerkschaftliche Monatshefte, Bundesvorstand des Duetschen Gewerkschaftsbundes, Köln, April 1962, pp. 222–228.

2 DM.)

Labor Organizations

Duality in Unionism. By JH. Foegen. (In Personnel Journal, Swarthmore, Pa., May 1962, pp. 222-225. 75 cents.)

Italian Immigrants in the Stoneworkers' Union. By Edwin Fenton. (In Labor History, Tamiment Institute, New York, Spring 1962, pp. 188-207. $1.50.) Personnel Management

Cooperation and Conflict in Personnel Administration. By Dalton E. McFarland. New York, American Foundation for Management Research, 1962. 143 pp., bibliography. $2.

Emerging Problems of Personnel Administration. By Albert H. Aronson. (In Personnel Administration, Washington, May-June 1962, pp. 3-12. $1.25.) Suggestions for Control of Turnover and Absenteeism. Washington, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security, U.S. Employment Service, 1962. 40 pp. (BES E-61.) Free.

Discharges for Events Occurring Away from Work. By Irving Kovarsky. (In Labor Law Journal, Chicago, May 1962, pp. 374-395. $1.)

Prices and Consumption Economics

Intermediate Price and Income Theory. By M. M. Bober. New York, W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1962. 510 pp., bibliography. Rev. ed. $6.95.

Psychological Research on Consumer Behavior. Ann Arbor, Mich., Foundation for Research on Human Behavior, 1962. 74 pp. $2.

Social Security

The Development of the Social Security Act. By Edwin E. Witte. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1962. xvi, 220 pp., bibliography. $5.75.

Fact and Fiction About Social Security in Czechoslovakia. (In Free Labor World, International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Brussels, March 1962, pp. 67–70. 15 cents.)

Conference Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of Workmen's Compensation in Michigan, March 30, 1962. East Lansing, Michigan State University, Kellogg Center for Continuing Education, 1962. 160 pp.

[Pakistan] Law of Workmen's Compensation. By M. Shafi. Karachi, Bureau of Labor Publications, 1962. 56 pp. $1.40.

Progress of Disability Program Under the Railroad Retirement Act, 1937-61. By A. M. Niessen and Samuel Chmell. Chicago, U.S. Railroad Retirement Board, 1962. 49 pp. (Actuarial Study 4.)

Sickness Beneficiaries in 1960-61 [Under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act]. (In Monthly Review, U.S. Railroad Retirement Board, Chicago, April 1962, pp. 2-6.)

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