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That a good Gazetteer of North America is much needed at the present time, will, it is presumed, not be denied. But whether this volume answers to that description, must remain for an enlightened public to decide. The compiler has aimed to collect such a mass of geographical and other information, in regard to North America, as will not only render the book useful in families and to individuals as one of reference, but such as may likewise be of utility to the higher classes in schools. The work, it is presumed, will be found to be much more full in regard to the United States, than any gazetteer extant. Particular care has been taken to give a full account of the literary resources of the United States; and the accounts of the various colleges and seminaries of learning will be found to be much more full than those in gazetteers in general.
In the compilation of this volume, the following works have been largely consulted, and numerous extracts, with slight alterations, taken: viz. Malte Brun's Geography, Morse's and Worcester's geograpical works, Darby's Universal Gazetteer, Flint's Geography, National Calendar for 1831 and 1832, American Almanac from 1831 to 1836, Niles's Weekly Register, American Constitutions, American Encyclopedia, and the various state registers. In addition to the above, the compiler has obtained information from a great variety of sources, too numerous to be specified. Particular care has been taken to have the information made use of in this work, the most recent and authentic that could be obtained. The names of the different persons from whose works extracts have been made, are not annexed to those extracts, because in some instances the phraseology has been altered; and in that case it might be considered an act of injustice, as it would ascribe to the individual named that which is not his own, and for which he should not be answerable.
With this brief notice the work is submitted to the inspection of an intelligent public.
Mass. Massachusetts. Pop. Population. C. H. Court House.
R. I. Rhode Island.
S. C. South Carolina. Del. Delaware.
S-P. Seaport town. D. C. District of Columbia. mt. Mountain.
sq. ms. Square miles. isl. Island.
Md. Maryland. Ten. Tennessee.
Town or Township. In. Indiana.
N. C. North Carolina. Va. Virginia.
N. J. New Jersey. U. S. United States.
When the population is expressed without a date, it is for 1830.
In the six New England states, and also in the state of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, the counties are subdivided into townships, and in Delaware, into hundreds; but in the rest of the states no such subdivision as that of township is known.
In the New England states these townships are commonly styled towns. They differ considerably in size; generally varying from about 5 to 6 miles square. In South Carolina the state is divided into districts instead of counties, and in Louisiana these divisions are termed parishes. In New England the principal village almost always takes the name of the township in which it is situated. In the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, the towns or villages commonly take different names from the townships in which they are situated. In the states south of Pennsylvania, and the Ohio river, the word town is used for a compact collection of houses.
NORTH AMERICA extends from the Isthmus of Darien, N. lat. 8° to the utmost known regions of the north, and spreads from Behring's Straits to those of Bellisle, or rather, to embrace Greenland. Its breadth is very irregular, not exceeding 15 or 20 miles near Panama ; whilst from Behring's Straits to the Straits of Bellisle, it extends to a distance of 3,300 geographical, or 3,800 English miles, bearing N. 76° W. From the Straits of Bellisle to the isthmus of Darien, is 4,500 geographical, equal to 5212 English miles.
North America is traversed by two great chains, and several minor ranges of mountains. The Appalachian or Alleghany mountains, extend through the United States from NE. to SW. from the state of New York
Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, with a mean width of about 50 miles. Several detached ranges or groups rise NE. off the Hudson, and SE. off the St. Lawrence. The Masserne, or Ozark mountains, extend from the centre of be state of Missouri towards Texas, in a direction nearly parallel to the Appabachian chain. The length of the Appalachian is about 900 miles, with a mean elevation of from 1,200 to 2,000 feet. The extent of the Masserne chain, is as very accurately known, but must exceed 600 miles; its mean height canut, in the present state of geographical knowledge, be estimated with any approximate degree of accuracy. The great spine of North America, is the Chippewan, Rocky, or as it is termed in Mexico, that of Anahuac. This immense chain reaches from the peninsula of Tehuantepec, N. lat. 16°, to the Frozen Ocean at N. lat. 68°, or through upwards of 50 degrees of latitude; encircling Dearly one-seventh part of the globe. In neither the Appalachian, or Masserne chains, nor in any of their neighboring groups, have any active or extinct volcanoes been discovered; but in the southern part of the great central chain, an immense range of volcanoes or volcanic summits rise to from 10,000 to 17,700 Bitt. It is generally supposed that the mountains of the isthmus of Darien, are ontinuations of the chain of Anahuac; but there is strong reason to believe, that the former are distinct and unconnected with the latter. A nameless range wirts along the Pacific Ocean, which,
from the defective surveys yet taken, cannot be very distinctly delineated. That part of North America west of the Chippewan mountains, and north of Colorado river, except the central parts of the valley of Columbia, remains either imperfectly or entirely unknown.
North America has five great systems of rivers ; that of the Atlantic Ocean; that of the Gulf of Mexico; that of the Frozen Ocean; that of Hudson's Bay; and that of the Pacific Ocean. In the Atlantic system, the principal rivers are, St. Johns of Florida, Altamaha, Savannah, Santee, Perise, Cape Fear, Roanoke, James, Potomac, Susquehanna, Delaware, Hudson, Connecticut, Kenebec, Penobscot, St. John's of New Brunswick, and St. LawPrice. In the system of Hudson's Bay are included, besides many streams of kær note, Rupert's, Albany, Severn, and Sashasshawin rivers. Into the Northfra Ocean, M'Kenzie's river is the only stream of considerable magnitude yet kown, to enter from the continent of North America. The rivers of the cen. Irl valley of North America, are discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, amongst wtich the Mississippi presents its overwhelming flood; but besides that vast river, the Appalachicola, Mobile, Colorado of the Gulf of Mexico, Rio Grande del Norte, and several others, are streams of great magnitude. The Santiago, Maqui, the Colorado of the gulf of California, and the Columbia, are the only
George's Island, and the Fox Islands, on the western coast.
The five largest Bays, or Gulfs, are Baffin's and Hudson's bay and Lakes. and the gulfs of St. Lawrence, Mexico, and California. The Lal of North America are the largest collections of fresh water in the world. So of the principal ones are lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, Ontario, W nipeg, Athapescow, Slave Lake, and Great Bear Lake. The largest of the great lakes is lake Superior, which is 490 miles in length, and is as much fected by storms as the ocean.
It is remarkable for the transparency of waters, and abounds in fish. The Pictured Rocks, on the south side of la Superior, are a range of precipitous cliffs, rising to the height of 300 feet, a are regarded as a great curiosity. The inhabitants may
be divided into three classes-Whites, I Inhabitants.
groes, and Indians. The whites are descendants of Europea who have migrated to America since its discovery. The negroes are mos held in slavery, and are descendants of Africans forced from their nati country.
The Indians are the aborigines of the country, and genera
savage. They are of a copper complexion, fierce aspect, të straight, athletic, and capable of enduring great fatigue. They are hospital and generous, faithful in their friendship, but implacable in their resentmen Their common occupations are hunting, fishing, and war. At the time of t discovery of America, the natives, in some parts, particularly in Mexico a Peru, were considerably advanced in civilization. For the most part, they ca tinue a distinct people, and retain their savage customs; but in some instanc they have mingled with the white population. In North America, they posse almost all the country, except the southern and eastern parts; that is, the nort ern part of Mexico, most of the territory of the United States which lies we of the Mississippi, and nearly all the vast regions which lie north of the Unit States' territory, and west of the St. Lawrence.
The following account is mostly taken from the American Enc and Dispoclopedia :-When the Europeans first arrived in America, the N. American found the Indians quite naked, except those parts which even t.
most uncultivated people usually conceal. Since that time, howeve they generally use a coarse blanket, which they buy of the neighboring planter
Their huts, or cabins, are made of stakes of wood driven in Huts, &c.
the ground, and covered with branches of trees or reeds. They) on the floor, either on mats or the skins of wild beasts. Their dishes are i timber; but their spoons are made of the skulls of wild oxen, and their kniv of flint. A kettle and a large plate constitute almost the whole utensils of t1 family. Cartwright assures us, that in Labrador, he met with a family of n tives who were living in a cavern hollowed out of the snow. This extraord nary habitation was seven feet high, ten or twelve in diameter, and was shape like an oven.
A large piece of ice served as a door. A lamp lighted the il side, in which the inhabitants were lying on skins. At a short distance was kitchen, likewise constructed of snow. They describe a circle on the froze snow, and cutting it into segments with their knives, build it up with great reț
alarity, till the blocks of snow meet at the top, and constitute a graceful dome. Captain Parry says their huts are numerous in many parts of Melville Islands, in latitude 74° N., and that he saw many of the natives in the islands of the Archipelago of Barrow's Straits, though their timidity prevented any intercourse. These polar men are little, squat, and feeble; their complexion partakes less of a copper hue, than of a reddish and dirty yellow.
There is established in each society a certain species of govern. ment, which prevails over the whole continent of America, with ex- Government. beding little variation; because over the whole of this continent the manners
of life are nearly similar and uniform. Without arts, riches, or luxury, the great instruments of subjection in polished societies, an American has no method by which he can render himself considerable among his companions, but by superiority in personal qualities of body or mind. But, as nature has not been very lavish in her personal distinctions, where all enjoy the same education, all are pretty much on an equality, and will desire to remain so. Liberty, therefore, is the prevailing passion of the Americans; and their government, under the influence of this sentiment, is, perhaps, better secured than by the wisest political regulations. They are very far, however, from despising all sort of authority: they are attentive to the voice of wisdom, which experience has conferred on the aged, and they enlist under the banners of the chief in whose valor and military address they have learned to repose a just and merited confidence. In every society, therefore, there is to be considered the power of the chiefs and of the elders. Among those tribes most engaged in war, the power of the chief is, naturally, predominant; because the idea of having a military leader was the first source of his superiority, and the continual exigencies of the state requiring such a leader, will continue to support and even to enhance it. His power, however, is rather persuasive than coercive; he is reverenced as a father, rather than feared as a monarch. He has no guards, no prisons, no officers of justice, and one act of ill-judged violence would pull him from his humble throne. The elders in the other form of gov. ernment, which may be considered as a mild and nominal aristocracy, have no more power. In most countries, therefore, age alone is sufficient for acquiring respect, influence, and authority. It is age which teaches experience, and experience is the only source of knowledge among a savage people.
Among the different tribes, business is conducted with the utmost Public Assimplicity, and which may recall, to those who are acquainted with antiquity, a picture of the most early ages. The heads of families meet to. gether in a house or cabin appointed for the purpose. Here the business is discussed ; and here those of the nation, distinguished for their eloquence or wisdom, have an opportunity of displaying those talents. Their orators, like those of Homer, express themselves in a bold figurative style, stronger than refined, or rather softened, nations can well bear, and with gestures equally violent, but often extremely natural and expressive. When the business is over, and they happen to be well provided with food, they appoint a feast upon the occasion, of which almost the whole nation partakes. The feast is accompanied with a song, in which the real or fabulous exploits of their forefathers are celebrated. They have dances likewise, though, like those of the Greeks and Romans, they are chiefly of the military kind; and their music and dancing accompany
To assist their memory, they have belts of small shells, or beads Wampum, of different colors, each representing a different object, which is marked by their color and arrangement. At the conclusion of every subject on which they discourse, when they treat with a foreign state, they deliver one of those belts; for if this ceremony should be omitted, all that they have said passes for nothing. These belts are carefully deposited in each town, as the