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CHAPTER THE ELEVENTH.

RELIGIOUS ESTABLISHMENTS CONCLUDED-FRENCH

AND ENGLISH CATHEDRALS-OTHER PLACES OF WORSHIP.

The rise and prosperity of the Colony, and the improvement of QUEBEC, may be dated from the period when it became the seat of the Royal Government in New France. The Colony began immediately to reap the fruits of the change of system, which followed the resignation of the Company's charter into the hands of the King, Measures were adopted to infuse a more liberal spirit into the Colony, to raise the quality and character of the settlers, and to give a higher tone to the society. The King took a most judicious method to accomplish this. He resolved to confer upon the Government a degree of comparative splendor, worthy of the great nation of which it was a dependency. In 1664, he sent out to QUEBEC the most brilliant emigration that had ever sailed from France for the new world. sisted of a Viceroy, a Governor-General, an Intendant, and other necessary officers of the Civil Government—the Regiment of Carignan, commanded by Colonel de Salières, and officered by sixty or seventy French gentlemen, most of whom were connected with the Noblesse. Many of these gentle

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men settled in the Province, and having obtained concessions of the waste lands, became the Noblesse of the Colony, and were the ancestors of the best French families of the present day. The beneficial manner in which this infusion of superior blood, education and accomplishments must have operated, as regards the social and domestic manners of the Colonists, previously devoted to the humblest occupations of trade, may be easily imagined. Liberal tastes were encouraged-sentiments of honor and generosity pervaded the highest rank in society, the influence of which was speedily felt through every class of the inhabitants. The Marquis de Tracy, who had the Commission of Viceroy, staid little more than a year in the Province. He made a successful expedition against the Iroquois, and returning to France, carried with him the affections of all the inhabitants. He maintained a state which had never before been seen in Canada, rightly judging, that in a Colony at so great a distance from the Mother Country, the royal authority should be maintained before the public eye in all its external dignity and observances. Besides the Regiment of Carignan, he was allowed to maintain a body guard, wearing the same uniform as the Garde Royale of France. He always appeared on state occasions with these guards, twentyfour in number, who preceded him. Four pages immediately accompanied him, followed by six valets, the whole surrounded by the officers of the Carignan Regiment, and of the civil departments. M. DE COURCELLES, the Governor General, and M. De Talon, the Intendant, had each a splendid equipage. It is mentioned in an interesting French manuscript, from which we have taken much valuable information never before published, that as both these gentlemen were men of birth, education, handsome figure and accomplished manners, they gave a most favorable impression of the royal authority, then first personally represented in New France.

Although QUEBEC at this period contained little more than seventy private houses, after the establishment of the Seminary it was found necessary, viewing the march of improvement which had just commenced, to construct the CATHEDRAL Church on a scale sufficiently large for the encreased population; and with a splendor corresponding with the new prospects of the Colony under the Royal Government. After about three years labor, the French Cathedral was finished on its present site, between Buade Street, the Bishop's Palace, and the Seminary, with its front towards the Jesuits' College. It was consecrated under the title of the Immaculate Conception, on the 18th July, 1666, with all the imposing ceremonies usually observed on similar occasions. Before this time, the Jesuits' Church had been used as the Paroisse of Quebec.

The FRENCH CATHEDRAL was built under the auspices of Monseigneur FRANÇOIS DE LAVAL, first Bishop of Quebec, to whom the Colony was also indebted for the creation of the Seminary.

In 1659, the great success of the Missionaries in converting the Indians to the true faith induced the JESUITS to recommend the appointment of an Ecclesiastic of superior rank, in order to confirm the nascent piety of the colony, and to repress any disorders in its spiritual government which might arise, without the care and supervision of an authorised head of the Church. At their instance, François DE LAVAL, Abbé de Montigny, of the noble house of Montmorency, and at that time Archdeacon of Evreux, was selected as the person on whom the Episcopal dignity should first be conferred in New France. He arrived in QUEBEC, according to Charlevoix, on the 6th June, 1659, with the title of Bishop of PETRÆA, and the rank of Vicar Apostolical, accompanied by several Priests and Chaplains. He was received with every mark of joy and distinction in his new diocese, as the first Prelate of New France; and took

up his residence for three months after his arrival in apartments belonging to the Nuns Hospitalières,

at the Hotel Dieu. The first. Pontifical Mass is mentioned in the Jesuits' Journal to have been performed on the 29th June : doubtless in their own Church, which then served as the Paroisse. QUEBEC was not, however, erected formally into a Bishops' See until 1670, owing to some difficulties which arose. It was to hold of the Pope, but to be attached to the Archbishopric of Rouen. In order to support the See, the KING conferred upon it the revenues of the Abbey of Maubec ; which in the time of Monseigneur de St. Vallier, the second Bishop, were augmented by those of the Abbey of

Benevent. The Bishop was entitled to the second ì seat in the Council, or that next to the Governor.

The chapter originally was composed of the Dean, 1 Grand Precentor, Grand Archdeacon, a Theologal,

and twelve Canons. This establishment was, however, afterwards reduced, for want of sufficient revenue. The Bulls, and other necessary and expensive formalities for installing the new Bishop were still to be obtained, and they required his presence in France; so that it was not until 1674, that the King's Letters Patent were finally issued, and the See was officially constituted. This excellent prelate finding, in 1684, that his strength was not equal to the fatigues of his

Diocese, repaired to France; and obtained the King's permission to retire. He was succeeded by the Abbé De St. VALLIER, who came out in 1685, and was afterwards consecrated second Bishop. Bishop De LAVAL, as stated above, retired to his foundation of the Seminary, where he lived respected and beloved until his death in 1708, at an advanced age. To the second Bishop of Quebec, the city was also indebted for the establishment of the General Hospital, where he himself resided, having let the Episcopal Palace for the benefit of the poor.

The French CATHEDRAL occupies the south side of the market square in the Upper Town, and immediately adjoins the Seminary. It is distinguished rather for its solidity and neatness, than for splendor or regularity of architecture. The aisles, considerably lower than the nave of the Church—and the lofty tower and spire built without, and separated from it on the south side—in the manner of the round towers which are seen near the old Churches in Ireland and in other countries,—destroy all external symmetry, yet do not detract from the religious appearance of the pile. The Cathedral within is very lofty, with massive arches of stone dividing the nave from the aisles, above which is a gallery on each side running the whole length of the interior. It is described by Colonel Bouchette, in his statistical work, as two hundred and sixteen feet in length, by one hundred and eight in breadth. It is able to contain a congregation of about four thousand persons. At the east end are the grand Altar and Choir, superbly decorated. There are also four small Chapels in the aisles, dedicated to different Saints. In a transverse gallery at the west end is the Organ, which though

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