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Having replied to the somewhat illiberal censure of the author of " Men and Manners in America," we must now advert, as connected with the too hasty impressions and frequently erroneous conclusions of travellers, to a statement contained in a recent publication, intituled, “ Transatlantic Sketches,” by Captain ALEXANDER, 42d Royal Highlanders, F. R. G. S. and M. R. A. S. It is known to all residents in QUEBEC, that at the corner of St. John and Palace Streets, there is a public house, yclept General Wolfe's Hotel ;” and that in a niche at the angle of the wall, there has long been a diminutive statue, of painted wood, said to be of that hero. Captain ALEXANDER thus gravely introduces it to his readers : “ I promenaded about the city, and had pointed out to me the various objects of interest, particularly the small statue of Wolfe, in a red coat, cocked hat and knee breeches, set up in a corner of a street, to mark the spot to which the conqueror of Quebec penetrated as a spy previous to his victory!" It is certainly true that this statue was set up in honor of Wolfe, after the conquest, by an individual of more patriotism than taste; but the tale of his having penetrated into St. John Street as a spy is in itself so very improbable, and is besides so completely negatived by the well known facts of his attack upon the city, that it is really surprising how a traveller of any reputation could have been so far imposed upon as to record a story which his own historical information ought to have warned him to reject.

CHAPTER THE FOURTEENTH.

THE LOWER TOWN-EARLIEST NOTICE OF IT-ITS

TRADE, AND MANNERS in 1700—DESCRIPTION IN 1720-PRESENT STATE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS.

It has been stated that the Lower Town of QUEBEC is built principally upon ground either gained by excavation from the rock on which the Upper Town stands, or, in the course of time, redeemed from the water's edge. As the early inhabitants had recourse to neither of these expedients, the site of their buildings in the Lower Town must have been very confined. Before the establishment of the Royal Government in 1663, a few scattered houses, magazines and stores, occupied all the River side, from the foot of the Sault-au-Matelot to the base of Cape Diamond. The oldest account of the Lower Town is to be found in the Latin work of Father Du Creux, who came to New France about 1625, and whose book is dated in 1664. He says :-“ Below the Citadel, from the Sault-au-Matelot to Cape Diamond, there is a level space, convenient for landing merchandise, and the cargoes of vessels. This, if protected by a wall of masonry, would be evidently well adapted for a harbor, since the road is every way proper for ships, the force of the waves being broken by the interposition of the Isle of Orleans. On this level space are the magazines of the French merchants : at some distance apart, the store-houses of some distinguished French gentlemen; and, now and then, some habitations of Frenchmen, who have exchanged Old for New France.”

In the Voyage de l'Amerique of LA POTHERIE, who visited the Province in 1698, there is an engraved representation of the Upper and Lower

Town. From this it appears that the River then washed the foot of the cliff along St. Paul Street; and very few houses are seen from the Point to the centre of Sault-au-Matelot Street.

The greater number are in the vicinity of the Place de Notre Dame, or Lower Town Market-place, where they were rather thickly clustered. Sous le Fort Street is plainly delineated, as well as the Queen's Wharf, which was then a platform planted with trees, where there was a battery level with the water. Towards the west, the buildings extended but a little way beyond the King's Wharf.

TRADE OF QUEBEC IN 1700.

As an interesting recollection in the present advanced condition of Colonial trade,-now that the commercial character of the British population is fully developed, -we shall give an account of the early traffic of the Lower Town, on the authority of LA POTHERIE. The houses, in which the merchants lived for the convenience of business,, were well built, and of cut stone. All persons, except the Clergy, and some of the Officers, Civil and Military, were engaged in commerce, the revenues of their lands being insufficient to maintain their families; and the country being in too rude a state to supply all the conveniences of life. The principal trade was in peltry, which chiefly consisted of the produce of the beaver. Those who were fortunate enough to take these valuable animals, carried them to the Farmer's Office, Bureau de la Ferme, the Director of which paid for them in Bills of Exchange on France. In 1700, these Bills amounted to three hundred and thirty thousand livres. The trade in merchandise was by no means considerable; and was only profitable to a few foreign merchants who brought with them, or every year imported from France, goods to the amount of seven or eight thousand francs. Some few imported to the amount of twenty thousand; but they found it difficult to obtain a sale during that year. Greater sales were made of wine and brandy, than of any other commodity.

The period of most active business at Quebec, in the olden time, was during the months of August, September and October, in which the vessels arrived from France; so that at that time, one passage outward and inward was all they were able to accomplish. After the arrival of the vessels, there was a kind of fair in the Lower Town--every shop and store displayed newly imported treasures—and nothing was heard in the streets but the buz of the shopkeepers recommending their wares, and of customers endeavoring to make the best bargains they could, About the end of October, the Habitans came in from the country to make purchases. Every one endeavored to arrange his business before the departure of the vessels; as the Captains naturally took advantage of the fine weather, fearful of a gale from the north-east, which generally came a few days before or after Allsaints' day. They considered that by postponing their departure until November, they ran some risk of meeting with ice in the River. From this reasoning of the shipmasters of that day, it would appear that there has been no change in the climate for the last century, since the Captains at present always hurry their departure after the 10th November; and various proofs might be adduced from the old writers to show that it was quite as mild, and the spring as early, in the time of CHAMPLAIN as at present.

La Potherie remarks the change in the appearance of the Lower Town after the departure of the shipping : “ The road,” he says, “ which is all at once left without craft has somewhat of a melancholy appearance. All is still, and we are left in the situation of ants, having nothing to do but to lay in our provisions for the winter, which is very long.”

MANNER OF PASSING THE WINTER IN 1700.

-CLIMATE.

About the end of September they began their preparations by preserving vegetables for their soup. Other vegetables and sallads were arranged in their cellars, which appeared like so many kitchen gardens. Every one, according to his means, provided himself with butchers' meat, poultry and game; which when frozen they preserved all the winter. The snow fell in quantities about the middle of November-all trade was at an end, and the greatest part of the shops were closed. While the snow continued to fall, people remained at home, La PotherIE adds, as it were in their dens ; but it was widely different when it became hard on the surface. Then every body was in motion, carioles began to

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