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N. Y., Lake Erie & Western R. R. Co. v. Pa., 158 U. S. 431, 438, 1895. 538.

N. Y. Life . Deer Lodge Co., 231 U. S. 495, 1914. 344.

N. Y., N. H. & Hartford R. R. v. N. Y.,

165 U. S. 628, 1897. 205, 485. Noble Bank v. Haskell, 219 U. S. 104, 1911. 513.

Norfolk & Western Ry. Co. v. Sims,

191 U. S. 441, 1903. 528. Northern Securities Co. v. U. S., 193 U. S. 197, 1904. 147. Northwestern Fertilizing Co. v. Hyde Park, 97 U. S. 659, 1878. 482.

Opinion of the Justices, 150 Mass. 592, 1890. 520.

Opinion of the Justices, 209 Mass.
607. 520.

Osborne v. The National Bank, 9
Wheaton, 738, 1824. 520.

Patterson v. Ky., 97 U. S. 501, 1878. 206.

Paul v. Va., 8 Wallace, 168, 1868. 490, 529.

Pembina Mining Co. v. Pa., 125 U. S. 181, 1888. 490, 539. Pensacola Telegraph Co. v. Western Union Telegraph Co., 96 U. S. 1, 1877. 121.

Phila. Fire Assoc. v. N. Y., 119 U. S. IIO, 1886. 540.

Phila. Steamship Co. v. Pa., 122 U. S. 326, 1886. 544.

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U. S. 537,

1896. 461, 489.

Plumley v. Mass., 155 U. S. 461, 1895. 207, 485, 511.

Pollock v. The Farmers' Loan & Trust Co., 158 U. S. 601, 1895. 96, 97, 98, 100, 283.

Popper . U. S., 98 Fed. Rep. 423.

193.

Postal Telegraph Cable Co. v. Adams,

155 U. S. 688, 697, 1895. 538. Powell v. Pa., 127 U. S. 678, 1888. 532.

Pullman Co. v. Kansas, 216 U. S. 56, 1909. 536.

Pullman's Palace Car Co. v. Pa., 141 U. S. 18, 1891. 538.

Rahrer, In re, 140 U. S. 545, 1891. 213, 485.

Railroad v. Husen, 95 U. S. 465, 1877. 205.

Rhodes v. Iowa, 170 U. S. 412, 1898. 214.

Robbins v. The Shelby Co. Taxing

District, 129 U. S. 489, 1887. 526. Russell v. Sebastian, decided April 6, 1914, 233 U. S. 195. 465.

Sanatogen Case (Bauer & Co. v. O'Donnell), 229 U. S. 1, 1913. 156. San Joaquin Canal & Irrigation Co. v. Stanislaus Co., Calif., decided April 27, 1914, 233 U. S. 454. 357. Santa Clara v. The S. Pacific R. R. Co., 118 U. S. 394, 1886. 478. Schollenberger v. Pa., 171 U. S. 1, 1898. 208, 485, 511.

Shreveport Case (Houston Ry. v. U. S.), decided June 8th, 1914, 233 U. S. 342. 136. Simpson v. Shepard, 231 U. S. 1913. 136, 282.

Singer Sewing Machine Co. v. Brickell, et al., decided April 6, 1914, 233 U. S. 304. 529.

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Smith. Alabama, 124 U. S. 465, 1888. 206, 485.

505.

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S. Carolina v. Ú. S., 199 U. S. 437,

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Union Pacific v. Peniston, 18 Wallace, 5, 1873. 531.

U. S. v. American Tobacco Co., 221 U. S. 106, 1911. 147.

U. S. v. Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. (Intermountain Rate Cases), 234 U. S. 476, 1914. 129.

U. S. v. B. & O., 17 Wallace, 322, 1873. 96.

U. S. v. Cruikshank, 92 U. S. 542, 1876. 488.

U. S. v. E. C. Knight Sugar Refining Co., 156 U. S. 1, 1895. 121, 142, 143.

U. S. v. James A. Patten, et al., 226 U. S. 525, 1913. 153.

U. S. v. Johnson, 221 U. S. 488, 1911.

195.

U. S. v. Popper, 98 Fed. 423, 1899.

508.

U. S. v. Terminal R. R. Association of St. Louis, 224 U. S. 383, 1912. 148.

U. S. v. Trans. Mo. Freight Associa-
tion, 166 U. S. 290, 1897. 144.
U. S. Express Co. v. Minnesota, 223
U. S. 335, 1912. 537.

Veazie Bank v. Fenno, 8 Wallace, 533, 1869. 96.

Ware v. Mobile, 209 U. S. 405, 1908. 529.

Western Union Co. v. Kansas, 216 U. S. 1, 1909. 536, 541.

Weston v. Charleston, 2 Peters, 449, 1829. 521.

S. S. White Dental Co. v. Mass., 231
U. S. 15, 1913. 541.
Wilson v. The Marsh Co., 2 Peters,
245, 1829. 217, 485.
Wisconsin & Michigan Ry. Co. v.

Powers, 191 U. S. 379, 1903. 537. Woodruff v. Parham, 8 Wallace, 123, 1867. 523.

Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 U. S. 356, 1885. 479, 510.

THE NEW AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

AND ITS WORK

THE NEW AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

HOW BUSINESS INFLUENCES GOVERNMENT

OUR national government is passing through an era of sweeping and important changes. The one central fact that stands out clearly in all these changes is the concentration of power. Political leaders have decried this tendency, magazine writers have denounced it, newspaper editors have deplored it, even the people themselves dislike and distrust what is called "centralization," yet it goes steadily on with such quiet, irresistible force that we must finally accept it as a feature of our plan of government. Let us glance at some of the forms of concentration produced by the conditions of the last few decades.

1. The Supremacy of the National Government.-In the titanic struggle between the State and the Nation, victory has been with the Nation. This question was settled in one form as long ago as the Civil War, but since then the national government has grown strong not by reason of military power but because of the magnitude of our internal problems and our growing foreign policy. Leaving behind us the petty jealousies of the States we have become Americans, and our sympathies and interests lie with the whole people rather than with any section. Foremost in producing this result has been the unifying and consolidating force of our expanding business interests. These have knit us together in a way that no constitutional convention could ever have accomplished. It is related of President Lincoln that desiring to arrange for the transportation of Union troops to the South, he sent for Mr. Thomas Scott of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and with him went over a railway map of the country. The President expressed his astonishment at finding that all the great lines ran East and West and that the problem of rail transporting southward was an almost impossible one. To all of which Mr. Scott tersely replied, "Mr. President, if the railroad lines had run North and South, there would have been no war."

In 1789 every influence seemed to favor the supremacy of the State as the center of gravity in government. The scheming of small politicians, the State patriotism of the people, the traditions

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