unto me, seeing thereby I made the gain of the so full instruction from his majesty, that there is overture and assurance of your honour's affection. nothing left for me to add in the business. And These comforts have given new life and strength to so I rest my hopes, which before began to faint. I know

Your faithful servant, what your honour promiseth you will undertake,

GEORGE VILLIERS. and what you undertake, you seldom fail to com- Royston, the 13th of October, 1616. pass; for such proof of your prudence and industry

Endorsed, your honour hath of late times given to the swaying To the Right Honourable Sir Francis Bacon, world. There is, to my understanding, no great knight, one of his majesty's privy council, and intricacy in my affair, in which I plainly descry the his attorney-general. course to the shore I would land at; to which neither ( nor any other can attain without the direction of our great master pilot, who will not stir much without the beloved mate sound the way. Both


ATTORNEY-GENERAL. these, none can so well set awork as yourself, who have not only their ear, but their affection, My LORD,-I am bold to present unto your and that with good right, as I hope in time, to hands, by this bearer, whom the law calls up, good and public porpose. It is fit likewise that some salt of wormwood, being uncertain whether your honour know all my advantages. The pre- the regard of your health makes you still continue sent incumbent is tied to me by firm promise, the use of that medicine. I could wish it otherwhich gives an impediment to the competitors, wise; for I am persuaded that all diuretics, which whereof one already, according to the heaviness carry with them that punctuous nature and caustic of his name and nature, pelit deorsum. And quality by calcination, are hurtful to the kidneys, though I be a bad courtier, yet I know the style if not enemies to the other principal parts of the of gratitude, and shall learn as I am instructed; body. Wherein, if it shall please you, for your whatsoever your honour shall undertake for me, better satisfaction, to call the advice of your I will make good; therefore I humbly and earn- learned physicians, and that they shall resolve of estly entreat your best endeavour, to assure to any medicine for your health, wherein my poor yourself and your master a servant, who both can labour may avail you, you know where

your faithand will, though as yet mistaken, advance his ful apothecary dwells, who will be ready at your honour and service with advantage. Your love commandment; as I am bound both by your and wisdom is my last address; and on the real favours to myself, as also by those to my nephew, nobleness of your nature (whereof there is so whom you have brought out of darkness into light, good proof) stands my last hope. If I now find and, by what I hear, have already made him, by a stop, I will resolve it is fatum Carthaginis, and your bounty, a subject of emulation to his elder sit down in perpetual peace. In this business I brother. We are all partakers of this your kinddesire all convenient silence; for though I can ness towards him; and, for myself, I shall be ever endure to be refused, yet it would trouble me to ready to deserve it by any service that shall lie in have my name blasted. If your honour return the power of not, and you think it requisite, I will attend at Your lordship's poor nephew, court. Meantime, with all humble and hearty

Edm. Bacon. wishes for increase of all happiness, I kiss your Redgrave, this 19th of October, 1618 ' honour's hands.

Endorsed, Your honour's humbly at command,

R. Martin.

For the Right Honourable Sir Francis Bacon,

knight, his majesty's attorney-general, and one September 27, 1616. Endorsed,

of his most honourable privy counsellors, be these

delivered at London.
To the Right Honourable Sir Francis Bacon,
knight, his majesty's attorney-general, and one of
his majesty's most honourable privy council, my
singular patron at court.


2 V My continual meditations upon your majesty s TO SIR FRANCIS BACON, ATTORNEY-GENERAL.. service and greatness, have, amongst other things, SIR.-I have kept your man here thus long, be

• Nephew of Sir Francis Bacon, being eldest son of Sir cause I thought there would have been some Nicholas Bacon, eldest son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord occasion for me to write after Mr. Solicitor-Gene- Keeper of the Great Seal. Sir Edmund died without issue, lal's being with the king. But he hath received April 10, 1649. There are several letters to him from sir

Henry Wotton, printed among the works of the latter.

tHis majesty had begun his journey towards Scotland, on the 14th of March, 1616-7.

Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.

produced this paper enclosed,* which I most | the adverse party shall attempt to bring it now humbly pray your majesty to excuse, being that back again into your lordship’s court, you would which, in my judgment, I think to be good both not retain it there, but let it rest in the place where de vero, and ad populum. Of other things, I have now it is, that, without more vexation unto him written to my Lord of Buckingham. God for- in posting him from one to another, he may have ever preserve and prosper your majesty.

a final hearing and determination thereof. And Your majesty's humble servant,

so I rest
most devoted and most bounden,

Your lordship's ever at command,
FR. Bacon.

G. BUCKINGHAM. March 23, 1616.

My lord, this is a business wherein 1 spake to Endorsed,

my lord chancellor, whereupon he dismissed the My lord keeper to his majesty, with some addi suit, tional instructions for Sir John Digby.

Lincoln, the 4th of April, 1617.




Whereas, the late lord chancellor thought it fit Good Niece,-Amongst your other virtues, I to dismiss out of the chancery a cause touching know there wanteth not in you a mind to hearken Henry Skipwith, to the common law, where he to the advice of your friends. And, therefore, you desireth it should be decided ; these are to entreat will give me leave to move you again more seriyour lordshipĚ in the gentleman's favour, that if ously than before in the match with Mr. Comp

troller.* The state wherein you now are is to be * Additional instructions to Sir John Digby,-[ambassador to

preferred before marriage, or changed for marriage, the court of Spain :)

Besides your instructions directory to the substance of the not simply the one or the other, but according as, main errand, we would have you in the whole carriage and by God's providence, the offers of marriage are passages of the negotiation, as well with the king himself, as the Duke of Lerma, and council there, internix discourse

more or less fit to be embraced. This gentleman upon fit occasions that may express ourselves to the effect is religious, a person of honour, being counsellor following: That you doubt not, but that both kings, for that which with his majesty. He is of years and health fit

of state, a great officer, and in very good favour concerns religion, will proceed sincerely, both being entire and perfect in their own belief and way. But that there are to be comfortable to you, and to free you of burso many noble and excellent effects, which are equally ac- densome cares. He is of good means, and a wise ceptable to both religions, and for the good and happiness of and provident man, and of a loving and excellent the Christian world, which may arise of this conjunction, as the union of both kings in actions of state, as may make the good nature; and, I find, hath set his affections difference in religion as laid aside, and almost forgotten.

As, first, that it will be a means utterly to extinguish and upon you; so as I foresee you may sooner change extirpate pirates, which are the common enemies of mankind, your mind, which, as you told me, is not yet toand do so much infest Europe at this time.

wards marriage, than find so happy a choice. I Also, that it may be a beginning and seed (for the like ac. hear he is willing to visit you before his going tions heretofore have had less beginnings) of a holy war against the Turk; whereunto it seems the events of time do into France, which, by the king's commandment, invite Christian kings, in respect of the great corruption and is to be within some ten days: and I could wish relaxation of discipline of war in that empire ; and much more in respect of the utter ruin and enervation of the Grand you used him kindly, and with respect. His re

turn out of France is intended before Michaelmas, Signor's navy and forces by sea; which openeth a way (with congregating vast armies by land) to suffocate and God direct you, and be with you. I rest starve Constantinople, and thereby to put those provinces

Your very loving uncle and assured friend, into mutiny and insurrection.

Fr. Bacon. Also, that by the same conjunction there will be erected a tribunal or prætorian power, to decide the controversies which Dorset House, this 28th of April, 1617. may arise amongst the princes and estates of Christendom, without effusion of Christian blood; for so much as any had causes depending in, or likely to come into the court of estate of Christendom will hardly recede from that which the chancery. And it is not improbable that such recommendatwo kings shall mediate and determine,

tions were considered in that age as less extraordinary and Also, that whereas there doth, as it were, creep upon the irregular than they would appear now. The marquis made ground, a disposition, in some places, to make popular estates the same kind of applications to Lord Bacon's successor, the and leagues to the disadvantage of monarchies, the conjunc. Lord Keeper Williams, in whose life, by Bishop Ilacket, part tion of the two kings will be able to stop and impedite the i. p. 107, we are informed, that "there was not a cause of growth of any such evil.

moment, but, as soon as it came to publication, one of the These discourses you shall do well frequently to treat upon, parties brought letters from this mighly peer, and the Lord and therewithal to fill up the spaces of the active part of your Keeper's patron. negotiation; representing that stands well with the great * Sir Thomas Edmondes, who had been appointed to that ness and majesty of the two kings to extend their cogitations office, December 21, 1616, and January 19, 2017-8, was made and the influence of their government, not only to their own treasurer of the household. He had been married to Mag. subjects, but to the state of the whole world besides, specially dalen, one of the daughters and coheirs of Sir Jobn Wood, the Christian portion thereof.

knight, clerk of the signet, which lady died at Paris, De + Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.

cember 31, 1014. $ This is the first of many letters which the Marquis of The proposal for a second marriage between him and the Buckingham wrote to Lord Bacon in favour of persons who lord keeper's niece does not appear in have had success.

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he can receive no assurance from your lordship IT HONOURABLE LORD,

of any precedent in that kind, his majesty intendI have acquainted his majesty with your letters, eth not so to precipitate the business, as to sho liked all your proceedings well, saving only expose that dignity to censure and contempt, in the point

, for which you have sinee made amends, omitting the solemnities required, and usually
in obeying his pleasure touching the proclama- belonging unto it.
B. His majesty would have your lordship go His majesty, though he were a while troubled
troughly about the business of Ireland, where with a little pain in his back, which hindered his
isto you are so weil entered, especially at this hunting, is now, God be thanked, very well, and
ting, that the chief justicet is come over, who as merry as ever he was; and we have all held
bath delivered his opinion thereof to his majesty, out well.
and hath understood what his majesty conceived I showed his majesty your letter, who taketh
of the same; wherewith he will acquaint your very well your care and desire to hear of his
landship, and with his own observation and judg- health. So I commit you to God, and rest
Bent of the businesses of that country,

Your lordship's most assured friend
I give your lordship hearty thanks for your care

to do you service,
to satisfy my Lady of Rutland'sť desire; and will

G. BUCKINGHAM. be as careful, when I come to York, of recom Aukland, the 18th of April, 1617. mending your suit to the bishop.S So I rest Since the writing of this letter I have had some Your lordship's ever at command, farther speech with his majesty, touching my

G. BUCKINGHAM. Lord Brackley; and find, that if, in your lordNewark, the 5th of April, 1617.

ship's information in the course, you write any
thing that may tend to the furthering of the de
spatch of it in that kind, he desireth it may be

I spake at York with the archbishop, s touching

the house, which he hath wholly put into your My HONOURABLE Lord,
hands to do with it what your lordship shall be I send your lordship the warrant for the queen, t

signed by his majesty, to whom I have likewise I have heretofore, since we were in this journey, delivered your lordship’s letter. And, touching moved his majesty for a despatch of my Lord the matter of the pirates, his majesty cannot yet Brackley's** business: but, because his majesty resolve; but within a day or two your lordship never having heard of any precedent in the like shall see a despatch, which he purposeth to send case, was of opinion, that this would be of ill con- to the lords of his council in general, what his sequence in making that dignity as easy as the opinion and pleasure is in that point. pulling out of a sword to make a man a knight, I would not omit this opportunity to let your and so make it of little esteem, he was desirous lordship know, that his majesty, God be thanked, to be assured, first, that it was no new course, is in very good health, and so well pleased with before he would do it in that fashion. But since his journey, that I never saw him better nor

merrier. So I rest † Sir John Denham, one of the Lords Justices of Ireland

Your lordship's ever at command,
in 1616. He was made one of the Barons of the Exchequer

in England, May 2, 1617. He died, January 6, 1638, in the From Newcastle, the 23d of April, 1617.
eightieth year of his age. He was the first who set up cus-
toms in Ireland, (not but there were laws for the same be.
fore ;) of which the first year's revenue amounted but to
504,; but before his death, which was about twenty-two
years after, they were let for 54,0001. per annum,- Borlase's
Redzction of Ireland to the Crown of England, p. 200. Edit.

† Frances, Countess of Rutland, first wife of Francis, Earl I understand that Sir Lewis Tresham hath a
of Rutland, and daughter and coheir of Sir Henry Knevet, of
Charleton, in Wiltshire, knight. She had by the earl an only suit depending in the Chancery before your lord-
daughter and leír, Catharine, first married to George Marquis, ship; and, therefore, out of my love and respect
and afterwards Duke of Buckingham; and secondly to Ran toward him, I have thought fit to recommend him
dolph Macdonald, Earl, and afterwards Marquis, of Antrim,

unto your favour so far only as may stand with & Relating to York House.

justice and equity, which is all he desireth, || Harl. MSS. vol. 7000.

| Dr. Tobie Matthew.
** Who desired to be created earl in an unusual manner,

having to encounter a strong party. And, because
by letters patents, without the delivering of the patent by the
king's own hand, or without the ordinary solemnities of crea.
tion. He was accordingly created Earl of Bridgewater, May

+ Relating to her house. See the lord keeper's letter of April 7, 1617, printed in his works.


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* Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.


London, 1675.

in Ireland.

Harl. MSS. vol. 7006,

97, 1617.

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he is shortly to go into Spain about some other When I had written this letter, I received your business of his own, I farther desire your lordship lordship’s letter of the third of this present, whereto give him what expedition you can, that he may in your lordship showeth your solicitous care of receive no prejudice by his journey.

my health, which did wonderfully comfort me. Your lordship's ever at command, And it is true, that at this present I am very well,

G. BUCKINGHAM. and my supposed gout quite vanished. Endorsed-May 6, 1616.

I humbly pray you to commend my service, sem to infinite in desire, howsoever limited in ability, to

his majesty, to hear of whose health and good TO THE LORD KEEPER.*

disposition is to me the greatest beatitude which MY HONOURABLE LORD,

I can receive in this world. And I humbly be I have, by reports, heard that which doth much seech his majesty to pardon me, that I do not now grieve and trouble me, that your lordship hath,

send him my account of council business, and through a pain in one of your legs, been forced to other his royal commands, till within these four keep your chamber. And, being desirous to un

days; because the flood of business of justice did 7 derstand the true estate of your health, which hitherto wholly possess me; which, I know, reports do not always bring, i entreat your lord- worketh this effect, as it contenteth his subjects,

and knitteth their hearts more and more to his ship to favour me with a word or two from yourself, which, I hope, will bring me the comfort I majesty, though, I must confess, my mind is upon desire, who cannot but be very sensible of what- other matters, as his majesty shall know, by the soever happeneth to your lordship, as being

grace of God, at his return. God ever bless and Your lordship’s most affectionate

prosper you.
to do you service,

Your lordship's true and most

devoted friend and servant,

Fr. Bacon. From Edinburgh, the 3d of June, 1617.

Whitehall, this 8th of June, 1617.
His majesty, God be thanked, is very well, and
safely returned from his hunting journey.


Your lordship will understand, by Sir Thomas

Lake's letter, his majesty's directions touching

the surveyor's deputy of the Court of Wards. This day I have made even with the business And though I assure myself of your lordship’s of the kingdom for common justice; not one

care of the business, which his majesty maketh cause unheard; the lawyers drawn dry of all the his own: yet, my respect to Sir Robert Naunton* motions they were to make; not one petition maketh me add my recommendation thereof 10 unanswered. And this, I think, could not be your lordship, whom I desire to give all the fursaid in our age before. This I speak, not out of therance and assistance you can to the business, ostentation, but out of gladness, when I have that no prejudice or imputation may light upon done my duty. I know men think I cannot continue Sir Robert Naunton, through his zealous affection if I should thus oppress myself with business: but to attend his majesty in this journey. that account is made. The duties of life are more

I will not omit to let you know, that his majesty than life; and if I die now, I shall die before the is very well, and receiveth much contentment in world be weary of me, which, in our times, is his journey. And with this conclusion I rest somewhat rare. And all this while I have been

Your lordship's most affectionate a little unperfect in my foot. But I have taken

to do you service, pains more like the beast with four legs than like

G. BUCKINGHAM. a man with scarce two legs. But if it be a gout, Edinburgh, the 11th of June, 1617. which I do neither acknowledge, nor much disclaim, it is a good-natured gout; for I have no rage of it, and it goeth away quickly. I have hope it is but an accident of changing from a field TO THE LORD VISCOUNT FENTON. airf to a Thames air;f or rather, I think, it is the MY VERY GOOD LORD, distance of the king and your lordship from me, I thank your lordship for your courteous letter; that doth congeal my humours and spirits. and, if I were asked the question, I would always

* Surveyor of the Court of Wards. t Gray's Inn.

+ Sir Thomas Erskine, who, for his service to the king, in | Dorset House, originally belonging to the Bishops of the attempt of the Earl of Gowry, was, upon his majesty's Salisbury, afterwards the bouse of Sir Richard Sackville, accession to the throne of England, made captain of his guard and then of his son, Sir Thomas, Earl of Dorset, and lord in the room of Sir Walter Ralegh. He was afterwards

created Earl of Kelly.

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• Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.


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do you droge rather to have a letter of no news; for to take tobacco, and to speak neither Scottish nor

Es imports alteration; but letters of kindness English. Many such diseases of the times his and respect bring that which, though it be no majesty was pleased to enumerate, not fit for my tess amongst friends, is more welcome. pen to remember, and graciously to recognise

l'am exceedingly glad to hear, that this journey how much he was beholden to the English nation e bis majesty, which I never esteemed more than for their love and conformity to his desires. The a long progress, save that it had reason of state king did personally and infallibly sit amongst jorged with pleasure, doth sort to be so joyful and them of the Parliament every day; so that there so comfortable.

fell not a word amongst them but his majesty was For your Parliament, God speed it well: and of council with it. blr bis for ours, you know the sea would be calm, if it The whole assembly, after the wonted manner,

pare not for the winds: and I hope the king, was abstracted into eight bishops, eight lords, whersoever that shall be, will find those winds eight gentlemen, knights of the shires, and eight Fasonably well said. Now that the sun is got lay burgesses for towns. And this epitome of op ? little higher, God ordains all things to the the whole Parliament did meet every day in one

happiness of his majesty and his monarchy. room to treat and debate of the great affairs of the biet

Wy health, I thank God, is good; and I hope kingdom. There was exception taken against this supposed gout was but an incomer. I ever some of the Lower House, which were returned

by the country, being pointed at as men averse in by che Your lordship’s affectionate

their appetites and humours to the business of the and assured friend,

Parliament, who were deposed of their attendance

Fr. Bacon. by the king's power, and others, better affected, Whiteball, June 18, 1617.

by the king's election, placed in their room.

The greatest and weightiest articles, agitated

in this Parliament, were specially touching the TO THE LORD KEEPER, WRITTEN FROM SCOT-government of the kirk and kirkmen, and for the LAND, JUNE 28, 1618.*

abolishing of hereditary sheriffs to an annual I will begin to speak of the business of this charge ; and to enable justices of the peace to day ; opus hujus diei in die suo, which is of the have as well the real execution as the title of their Parliament

. It began on the 7th of this month, places. For now the sheriff doth hold jura regaand ended this day, being the 28th of June. His lia in his circuit, without check or controlment; barang majesty, as I perceived by relation, rode thither and the justices of the peace do want the staff of

in great state the first day. These eyes are wit- their authority. For the church and commonnesses that he rode in an honourable fashion, as I wealth, his majesty doth strive to shape the frame have seen him in England, this day. All the of this kingdom to the method and degrees of the lords rode in English robes ; not an English lord government of England, as by reading of the on horseback, though all the Parliament House at several acts it may appear. The king's desire his majesty's elbow, but my Lord of Bucking- and travail herein, though he did suffer a momenham, who waited upon the king's stirrup in his tary opposition, (for his countrymen will speak collar , but not in his robes. His majesty, the first boldly to him,) hath in part been profitable

. For, day, by way of preparation to the subject of the though he hath not fully and complementally Parliament , made a declaratory speech, wherein prevailed in all things, yet

, he hath won ground he expressed himself what he would not do, but in most things, and hath gained acts of parliament what he would do. The relation is too prolix for to authorize particular commissioners, to set down a sheet of paper; and I am promised a copy of it, orders for the church and churchmen, and to treat which I will bring myself unto your lordship with with sheriffs for their offices, by way of pecuniary all the speed I may. But I may not be so reserved composition. But all these proceedings are to as not to tell your lordship, that in that speech have an inseparable reference to his majesty. If his majesty was pleased to do England and any prove unreasonably and undutifully refractory, Englishmen much honour and grace; and that he his majesty hath declared himself, that he will pro

studied nothing so much, sleeping and waking, ceed against him by the warrant of the law, and by )

as to reduce the barbarity (I have warrant to use the strength of his royal power.
the king's own word) of this country unto the

His majesty's speech this day had a necessary sweet eivility of ours; adding, farther, that if the connexion with his former discourse. He was Scottish nation would be as docible to learn the pleased to declare what was done and determined goodness of England, as they are teachable to in the progress of this Parliament; his reasong limp after their ill, he might with facility prevail for it; and that nothing was gotten by shoulder. in his desire : for they had learned of the English ing or wrestling, but by debate, judgment

, and to drink healths, to wear coaches and gay clothes, reason, without any interposition of his royal

power in any thing. He commanded the lords * From a copy in the paper-office.

in state of judicature to give life, by a careful

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VOL. III.-14

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