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narrating his achievments in Britain; he then notices the car in terms which bespeak his admiration of its novelty.

In these military cars we have another proof of an early intercourse between the Britons and some of the nations among whom this species of warfare was practiced. The Egyptians pursued the Israelites with 600 chariots; the enemies of King David brought 32,000 of them into the field; Xenophon notices 100 currus falcati, or chariots armed with scythes, as employed in the army of Cyrus; and an equal number in that of his ally Abradates. He attributes the origin of the car to the Egyptians, Trojans, and Lybians. In Homer's time the military car was in great request among the Grecians, and the poet is never more animated than when describing the elegant splendour of the car, the high spirit and activity of the steeds, or the skill and dexterity of the drivers. Nor is the Gælic bard less enthusiastic on the subject. Homer thus describes the car of Juno:

"And now heav'n's empress calls her blazing car:-
At her command rush forth the steeds divine,
Rich with immortal gold their trappings shine;
Bright Hebe waits! by Hebe, ever young,

The whirling wheels are to the chariot hung:
On the bright axle turns the bidden wheel
Of sounding brass: the polished axle, steel;
Eight brazen spokes in radiant order flame,
The circles of gold of uncorrupted frame,
Such as the heav'ns produce! and round the gold,
Two brazen rings, of work divine, were roll'd:
The bossy naves of solid silver shone;
Braces of gold suspend the moving throne:
The car behind an arching figure bore:
The bending concave formed an arch before.
Silver the beam; the extended yoke was gold:
And golden reins the immortal coursers hold."
(ILIAD, BOOK v. 885).

"Now mount my seat, and from the chariot's height,
Observe my father's steeds, renown'd in fight:
Practiced alike to turn-to stop-to chase-
To dare the shock, and urge the rapid race."

"I know to shift my ground, remount my car, Turn, charge, and answer all the calls of war."

(ILIAD).

I shall conclude this portion of our subject with Ossians decription of the Celtic car, which he gives with so much enthusiasm and poetic ardour, when he says:

"The car of war comes on like the flame of death, "the rapid car of Cuthullin the noble son of Semo. "It bends behind like a wave near the shore, like

"the sun-streaked mist of the heath: of polished yew "is its beam: its seat is of the smoothest bone: the "sides are replenished with spears: the bottom is the "footstool of heroes. Thin thongs, studded with 'gems, bend on the stately necks of the steeds; the "steeds that like wreaths of mist fly over the streamy "vales. The wildness of deer is in their course : "the strength of eagles descending on their prey: "their noise is as the blast of winter on the sides of "the snow-headed Gormal: within the car is seen "the chief, the strong-armed son of the sword-the "hero's name is Cuthullin, the noble son of Semo."

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Cæsar says, "the Britons quitted and resumed their chariots at pleasure; and thus by occasionally fighting either on foot, or in their chariots, combined the firmness of the infantry with the celerity of the cavalry."

The embankment above mentioned, at the North side of the parish, is presumed to have been thrown up by invaders landing at Flambro', who, driving further inland the aborigines, would have a stronghold to the East; and as in all probability, the Holderness country, which joins the parish at the South, was one mass of water or bog, these settlers would have the most important and advantageous position on the North-east

coast.

We must not, however, let this long, and I trust, interesting dissertation, make us forget that we are writing about Rudston proper, which has many points of interest attached to it. Perhaps the greatest points of interest, which during the summer season attract hundreds of visitors from the neighbouring salubrious watering-place of Bridlington Quay and the neighbourhood, are the Church and Monolith.

As regards the former of these, before particularizing, I may say, that doubtless it is the gem of the Eastern division of this giant county of York.

In 1861, it was restored under the superintendence of Mr. G. Fowler Jones, of York (architect); and in the Autumn of 1869, the Chancel was exquisitely decorated by Mr. Collmann, of Great George Street, Portman Square, London, whilst, he, at the same period, embellished the Nave and North and South Aisles.

The reasons which prompted the restoration of the Church, and the improvements in the Church yard in connection with it, may be gathered from the inscription upon a brass plate at the foot of the Communion

Table, "To the glory of God, and in dear memory of Matilda Bosville, this Church was restored A.D. 1861." The whole expense of restoring the Church was borne by a sincere friend of this above named lady, whilst the landowners, the vicar, and the land occupiers in the parish contributed several hundred pounds towards the improvements in the Church yard.

This venerable edifice, which is dedicated to All Saints, is entered by a fine porch on the South, and consists of a three storied tower, surmounted by a modern battlement, a Nave, two Aisles (North and South) and a Chancel. We have just previously drawn attention to the decorations of the Chancel, and, without here particularizing, may add, that it presents features of beauty and workmanship that cannot fail to be attractive to the lover of Church architecture, as well as to the antiquary and student of archæological lore. The restoration has been carried on with taste and spirit.

An old Norman Church, corresponding with the present tower, no doubt existed on the present Nave, and many stones were found walled into the late Church which

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