found a Church wherever he should find these upright stones. Many such monoliths as this Rudston pillar are found in close proximity to Churches in Ireland, the Isle of Man, Wales, &c. (See Archaelogia, vol. v., Pennant's Tour in Scotland, The Hist. of the Isle of Man, The Beauties of England).

We now come to the name of the village, and, perhaps I shall not be very far wrong if I say, that there have been as many conjectures as regards its nomenclature, as there have been respecting "the stone."

Mr. Wardell, in his Historical Notes, says: In the summer of 1852 I visited Rudstone, in order to obtain a view of the

Monhir,' or long stone there, which gives name to the place, it being known to the Saxons by the name of "Rodestan" or the Stone of the Cross." He then remarks respecting the stone, "The old antiquary, Mr. Pegge, supposes it to have been a funeral monument, and erected in memory of some Danish chieftan; and Mr. Wright, in his paper on the Remains of a Primitive People in the South East Corner of Yorkshire, is of opinion that it probably dates

from at least as far back as the Roman period," and "perhaps marks the head seat of the tribe," inhabiting this part; but I have no hesitation in assigning it to the earliest Celtic period, in which I am supported by Professor Phillips."

Another able writer, whose name I am not at present able to give, and from whose valuable and able MS., which has been kindly lent to me, I have gleaned many remarks in connection with this paper, says, "It will be naturally asked why is this obelisk named Rudstone seeing that it is of grey colour?" The colour of the stone has has nothing whatever to do with the name of the stone. In India such stones are called "Linga," or "Lingas."* In other places various terms are used, such as "Penis Sanctus," "the God of Nature," "the Corporeal Spirit," "the Agent of Production," "the Type of Life," "the Ruber Palus," or "Red Stone." Ruber in British is Rhudd, i.e. red, ruddy. Palus, without

*Linga Sans-crit-Vocula hæc Indica valet natura Masculina. Fabula procul dubio ad nefanda phalli pertinet mysteria.

+O'Brian's Round Towers of Ireland, p. 217.

the Latin ending, signifies stone, rock.* Hence Ruber palus means Rudstone.

These several terms, which are each and all convertible, pourtray not only the procreative powers of the male world personified, but likewise its symbols the obelisks are naturally erect stones which though not circularly fashioned yet typified in their ascension, the upward bent of vegetable growth."

If there is one fault in archeologists it is that every one is found starting a theory of his own, and every one affirms that his theory is the correct one. It will not, therefore, be very surprising that we should find at the back of a small carte, executed by Mr. Fisher, the photographer, of Filey, another account, for the origin of this stone: “The following extract from Thompson's book on Welton and its neighbourhood, seems to throw more light upon the history, of the Monolith in Rudston Church yard, than

Pal, in Celtic, according to Bullet, signifies Pierre Roc, i.e. stone-rock. The Latin Palus, the German Phalet, is the same as our pale, Pole; the Greek Palos membrum virile, especially a figure thereof which was borne in solemn procession in the Bacchic orgies, as an emblem of the generative power of Nature.-HESIOD, 2, 48, 49, and Асн. 243, &c.

any previously published record: The Scandinavians planted near the graves of their great men and warriors large upright stones called Beauta Stones, and it seems probable that the huge Monolith in Rudston Church yard may be one of them. An ancient saga, still preserved at Copenhagen, states that a Viking called Rudd died in England, and was buried on the Yorkshire Wolds, and that afterwards his Beauta Stone was sent over from Denmark, and erected at his place of sepulchre, which ever afterwards was called Rudston having before borne another name."*

It appears as if Thompson could most thoroughly enter into that verse of Longfellow's, which runs thus :


"I was a Viking old!

My deeds, though manifold,
No Skeld in song hath told,
No Saga taught thee!

*In a letter received from Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A., the editor of the "Reliquary," and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries, of Copenhagen, he says "I am extremely sorry to say that I know of no Saga containing the matter alluded to in the extract." Mr. E. H. W. Dunkin, a contributor to the "Antiquary," writes-"The prefix 'Rhud' was unknown until the middle of the thirteenth century, the name before being called Rodestan."-Vide pp. 74-79.


Take heed, that in thy verse
Thou dost the tale rehearse
Else dread a dead man's curse!
For this I sought thee."

I may add, here, that by some it is supposed that a cross was placed at the top of the Monolith " Rod," signifying a cross; whilst others believe that a "Rood,” i.e. the Virgin with the infant in her arms-was put thereon.

I think, however, that Mr. Thomas Waller has conjectured the right meaning of its name: in writing upon the subject he says: "With respect to the ancient Saga at Copenhagen, such account therein recorded could only occur during the Danish dominion, or inroads in England. The first recorded invasion of England by the Danes took place A.D. 787, and then their dominion ceased by the accession of Edward the Confessor, in A.D. 1041. The change of name to Rudston did not take place till long after this, for we find it recorded in Domesday-book as Rodestan, and I believe long afterwards as Rhodestan, before it became Rudston. It is in Rode where the only difficulty has taken place in the derivation of the word Rudston: and it occurs in the name of a place called

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