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property passed into the hands of Gillis & Ogle, the present editors and proprietors of the Bryan Press.

It will have been noticed, in what is said above of Gen. Sherwood and Gen. Hayes, that the public career of those gentlemen has been singularly fortunate. Scarcely less so has been that Mr. Singer. After his sale of the Press he immediately crossed the border, and purchased a Republican press at Charlotte, Mich. ; a year later, however, he was appointed to the responsible and lucrative position of Postmaster at Washington City, in which office he yet continues. The Bryan friends of these genttlemen, who are many in both parties, rejoice in their prosperity. It is proper to add here that the present editors of the Bryan Prp.88 rendered. both of them, gallant service in the war for the Union.

The Fountain City Argus, Shouf & Williams, editors, issued No. 1, Vol. I, May 25, 1876. April 26, 1877, the name of Van B. Shouf appears alone as editor and publisher, and June 7 following, Van Shouf & Plummer, and in August, 1879, Van Shouf again appears alone. The Argus was radically Democratic in politics, but directly after the close of the October election of 1879, the Fountain City Argus closed its newspaper life, and the material was disposed of to different parties at private sale. It was generally understood, although his name did not appear, that Judge M. R. Willett was the managing editor throughout the term of the existence of the Argus. As a partisan Democratic journal, it achieved wide prominence. Vol. I, No. 1, of the Buckeye Vidette, made its appearance April 22, 1880–J. W. Northrup, editor, and J. R. Douglas, assistant. The Vidette was an organ of the Greenback party, and early in 1882, the material and publication were transferred from Bryan to Columbus.

On the last Saturday of June, 1879, the first number of the Border Alliance, a six-column folio newspaper, made its appearance at Pioneer; editor, C. J. De Witt; publishers, the Alliance Printing Company. In four weeks, the paper was enlarged to a seven-column folio, and its name then became the Pioneer Alliance; but two years later the name was changed to, simply, the Alliance. The paper is Republican in polities, has a circulation of nearly eight hundred, is read by the citizens of Ohio, Indiana and Michigan, and was again enlarged, July 8, 1882, to a sixcolumn quarto, and its name changed to the Tri-Statr Alliance, named thus from its large circulation in three States. Mr. De Witt, an able editor and an excellent man, claims to have in his office “ the brightest and biggest and devil in Northern Ohio." A small paper, called the Christian Messenger, was issued for about four months, at Pioneer, in 1850)—first appearing as a monthly, then as a semi-monthly, and finally as a weekly. Its aim was to reform the questions of politics and intem

perance, and to advocate strenuous moral measures. Its editor was Rev. J. L. Rusbridge. A very mysterious little sheet, called the Brush Creek Herald, appeared semi-occasionally, for a short period, at Pioneer, some two or three years ago.

The Montpelier Eagle was the first newspaper experiment at Montpelier. It was an organ of the Spiritualists, and expired after a few issues. Second, was the Star of the West, a neutral paper, devoted especially to local iuterests, and established in 1855, by T. D. Montgomery, a practical printer, who removed from Hillsdale, Mich., and, after running it two months, sold to D. Stauffer and Aaron Crissey, by whom it was conducted about six months, when the material was sold to Frank Rosenberg, who afterward removed it to Ottokee, then county seat of Fulton County, and there founded a Democratic organ. The Star of the West was about one-half the dimensions of the present Montpelier Enterprise. It may not be improper to add that David Stauffer, abovenamed, is the senior member of the important hardware firm of Stauffer, Garver & Co., Montpelier.

Notwithstanding the adverse circumstances due at a time which would render the undertaking hazardous, when the publication of a newspaper was not warranted by the support of business men, Messrs. Ford & Smalley, with a keen foresight of the advantages that would be afforded Montpelier by the opening up of the Wabash Railroad, commenced the publication of a paper, styled-significant of the growth and prosperity of the place-Montpelier Enterprise. The paper was established September 18, 1880, Mr. Ford as editor, and Mr. Smalley as publisher, being equal proprietors. The Enterprise is an independent paper, and ignores politics, its columns being devoted exclusively to local and general reading matter. Until July 1, 1881, it was a seven-column folio, since which time it has been issued as an eight-column folio, weekly ; subscription price, $1.50 per year. Although the Enterprise is less than two

. years old, it now boasts of a widely extended circulation, a happy and merited result of the energy of its founders, and the activity and enterprise of the town and surrounding country. Without doubt, the Enterprise has been, and still is, the most powerful auxiliary of any business institution of the place, and the greatest factor in Montpelier's rise, progrees and permanence.

THE OHIO AND MICHIGAN WAR.

BY WESTON A. GOODSPEED.

After the American colonies had thrown off the yoke of Great Britain, and the settlers had begun to pour into the Northwest Territory, it was soon perceived by Congress that new States would eventually have to be created out of the broad domain lying northwest of the Ohio River. While the thirteen separate colonies were yet independent of each other, and even for a time after the constitution of union had been adopted by all, each colony was more or less jealous of the boon of independence which it had gained through eight long years of war, and only by degrees relinquished its claim to State or colonial sovereignty, as the splendid provisions of the constitution were gradually unfolded, and the wisdom of indissoluble union became apparent. Each colony (and for a time afterward as a State), claimed under a charter from the European monarchs an extension of its territory from the Atlantic to the Pacific, the latter at that time being thought only a comparatively short distance inland, and known as the “ Great South Sea.” New York was the first to relinquish her claim to this Western Territory, which she did by act of her General Assembly March 7, 1780. The other States afterward did likewise from time to time. On the 10th of October, 1780, Congress enacted that such territory when ceded to the General Government should be disposed of for the common benefit of the United States, and finally formed into new States. By the “ Ordinance of 1787,” Congress divided the Northwest Territory into three parts ; the Western to include all the present States of Illinois, Wisconsin and a portion of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; the middle to include the present State of Indiana, and north to the British line; the eastern to include the territory bounded by Indiana, Canada, Pennsylvania, and the Ohio River, with the proviso that, if expedient, one or more States might be formed out of the territory lying north of an east and west line passing through the southern extremity of Lake Michigan. This is known as the “ Fulton Line," and now separates the northern tier of townships of Williams County from the middle tier. Afterward, the surveys in both Michigan and Ohio were made with reference to this line, and a tier of fractional townships occurred on each side of the same, one being No. 8 north, and the other No. 10 south.

At the time Congress established this line by the “ Ordinance of 1787," no accurate map of the Western country was in existence, and the southern extremity of Lake Michigan was erroneously thought to be a few miles north of where it really was. In 1802, Congress bounded Ohio “east by the Pennsylvania line, south by the Ohio River to the mouth of the Great Miami west by a line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami, and north by an east and west line drawn through the southern extremity of Lake Michigan, running east (after intersecting the due north line aforesaid from the mouth of the Great Miami River) until it shall intersect Lake Erie on the Territorial (British) line, and thence on the same through to the Pennsylvania line.” When the first Constitution of Ohio was adopted, the above boundaries were accepted; but, as it was learned immediately afterward that the southern extremity of Lake Michigan was farther south than formerly supposed, and as it was seen by the Constitutional Convention that a strip of country on the north, which had been thought would be included within the boundaries of Ohio, would fall north of the northern boundary and be in Michigan, it was provided “that if the southerly bend of Lake Michigan should extend farther south than Lake Erie, or if a due east and west line through such southerly bend should intersect Lake Erie east of the mouth of the Maumee River, then, with the assent of Congress, the northern boundary should be established by and extended to a direct line from the southerly extremity of Lake Michigan to the most northerly cape of the Maumee Bay, intersecting the due north line from the mouth of the Great Miami River, thence northeast to the Territorial (British) line."

Michigan Territory was created in 1805, the old erroneous map being used as a guide. As Congress paid no attention to the proviso of the Ohio Convention, the northern boundary was left as above in the Congressional enactment, and upon this technicality arose the “ Ohio and Michigan Boundary War.” After this, and prior to 1816, Ohio, through her General Assembly, made several attempts to have the boundary question settled; but the war of 1812 came on, and other matters combined to postpone the adjustment of the controversy. In 1816, pursuant to an act of Congress, approved in 1812, the SurveyorGeneral-Edward Tiffin-employed William Harris, an experienced surveyor, to run a portion of the western line of Ohio, and all the northern line, “noting particularly where the northern line intersects Lake Erie.” Indiana was erected into a State in 1816, and its northern boundary, as defined by act of Congress, included “a strip of land, ten miles wide, of the southern portion of Michigan Territory.” Harris found that a due east line from the head of Lake Michigan would intersect Lake Erie seven miles south of the north cape of Maumee Bay.

In 1817, Gov. Lewis Cass, of Michigan, after investigating the boundary question, claimed the boundary line to be the one established by the “ Ordinance of 1787” (the Fulton Line), and thus claimed the disputed territory. A lengthy discussion followed between the Surveyor General and Gov. Cass; and, in 1818, the Ohio Legislature held

one.

that the Harris line was the true one, and that Congress so decided when Ohio was organized as a State. Gov. Cass obtained an order through William H. Crawford, Secretary of the Treasury, to run the due east and west line; and John A. Fulton surveyed the saine in 1818. and upon this line the surveys of both States were run, Ohio finishing in about 1821 and Michigan in about 1828. All this implied that Congress entertained the idea during these years that the Fulton line was the true

Neither Ohio nor Michigan, however, would relinquish the disputed territory. As those were the years when the question of State sovereignty was obtaining a grasp on the minds of many citizens throughout the country, each State, conformably with the steadily spreading heresy, regarded it a right and a duty to secure the coveted territory and thus increase and strengthen its domain. Ohio claimed north to the Harris (the present) line, basing such claim upon the proceedings when Ohio was admitted into the Union, and insisting that the northern line, as established by the Ordinance of 1787, had not been accepted by the Convention unless the same intersected Lake Erie at, or north of, the northern Cape of Maumee Bay. This was a virtual denial by Ohio that Congress had power to establish the boundaries of the State regardless of what position the latter might take. Michigan claimed south to the Fulton line (that separating the present northern tier of townships of Williams County from the middle tier), basing her claim on the provisions of the “Ordinance of 1787," and on the fact that Congress had implied her right during the surveys in the two States to the lands south to the Fulton line. Civil officers were appointed by each State to administer public affairs in the disputed lands; but nothing serious occurred for several years.

In 1834, when the Lake Erie & Wabash Canal project was on foot, the Ohio Legislature authorized Gov. Lucas to appoint three Commissioners to locate the same through Ohio, but when the Territory of Michigan learned that such canal would pass through the disputed tract of land, and that the Commissioners appointed by Gov. Lucas expected to assume jurisdiction over such land in the survey and location of the canal, a law was enacted February 12, 1835, inflicting severe penalties upon any person interfering with any part of the territory without authority from the United States or the Territory of Michigan. Eleven days later, the Ohio Assembly enacted that the true boundary was the Harris line, that townships should be organized out of the claimed strip of land, and that three Commissioners should be appointed to re-survey the Ilarris line. This was during the spring of 1835. Michigan organized her militia to arrest the Commissioners should they invade the disputed ground, and Ohio, in response, prepared to enforce her orders and appointments. Events were

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