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ominous. Gen. Brown, of Michigan, was stationed at Adrian, witl: a large force of militia, and had scouts posted along the line to notify him of the approach of the Commissioners. Gov. Lucas, Zachary Taylor and other eminent men went north to see that the demands of Ohio were enforced. A conference was held on the 6th of April, 1835, between the hostile parties, in pursuance of an order from President Jackson, who had appointed two Commissioners to confer with the belligerents in the interests of peace. Nothing satisfactory to both parties was accomplished. and the Commissioners, with a large force, left Defiance to commence the survey, arriving at the Fulton line on the 19th. A parley was held, and, before proceeding, the Commissioners resolved to hear further advice from Gov Lucas. Orders were received to run the line at all hazards. Work was begun, and, after about thirty-eight miles of the line had been surveyed, Gen. Brown appeared with his militia, captured nine of the Buckeyes and forced the remainder to retreat. About this time, Gov. Mason, of Michigan, was removed by President Jackson, and Gov. Shaler appointed to succeed him, but the latter failing to accept, John S. Horner was appointed in his place. President Jackson had taken the position from the start that, without an act of Congress changing the boundary, the disputed territory belonged to Michigan. In September, 1835, % friendly correspondence was begun between Gov. Horner and Gov. Lucas. After this, nothing noteworthy occurred until June 15, 1836, when Congress enacted that the Harris line should be the permanent boundary between the two States. Michigan relinquished all further claims Decernber 15, 1836, as a condition of admission into the Union, and thus the war ended. The line adopted runs south from the northern Cape of Maumee Bay, 87° west, with a needle variation of 3°, 32 minutes, to a point between Ohio and Indiana 5 miles, 24 chains and 64 links north of where a due east and west line from the head of Lake Michigan would intersect such north and south line. This is the present boundary.

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ARCHÆOLOGICAL REMAINS.

BY FRANK 0. HAPT, M. D. The following is but a short sketch of the archæological remains of this county, yet it is sufficiently comprehensive for the uses of this work :

In this county we have traces of another race of beings, who lived in ages past, not one word of whose language has come to us, yet they must have been a numerous, intelligent and busy people, who tilled the soil, worked the copper mines and built themselves commodious dwellings. Here we find knives, chisels, axes, beads, pottery, pipes, etc., of all sizes and shapes. How eloquently they speak of a race that is gone! To

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gaze upon these mute legacies of the past is like going into a chamber where oppressive stillness prevails. The works left by this people vary in character. Prominent among these, and the special cause of bestowing the name, are the tumuli, or mounds. The works of this character most worthy of mention are situated at the confluence of Silver Creek and the St. Joseph's River. In Northwest Township, near Nettle Lake, is found another group of interesting mounds. On the northeast corner of the southeast half of Section 22, Township 7 north, Range 4 east, was a re

4 markable group of mounds.

These mounds were uniform in size, i. e., about six feet long, three wide, and about two feet high. Commencing at the north, the first one extended north and south. The west one extended due east and west, and on the south, the last extended due north and south, forming a complete half-circle of about five hundred feet in diameter. Two of these half-circles were complete, one within the other, and one commencing at the north, about half finished.

Quite a number of them were opened, and about two feet from the original surface were found fragments of human remains and numerous stone implements. I am sorry to say, at present nothing remains to mark this ancient cemetery except a fragment of bone or stone implement, which occasionally finds its way to the surface.

On the south half of the north west quarter of Section 10, Township 7 north, Range 4 east, was a solitary mound of considerable magnitude. On opening it were found six full-developed skeletons, and one of a child about eight or ten years old. They were lying in a circle with their heads in the center, in close proximity to each other. I have the skulls in iny possession. They are very thick. The superciliary ridge is very proininent. The orbital processes are profoundly marked. Average distance between temporal ridges of frontal bone, three and a half inches; from temporal ridge of frontal bone to occipital point, nine inches ; length from beginning of frontal bone to occipital point, twelve inches; from occipital point to foramen magnum, three inches.

On the southeast quarter of Section 27, Township 7 north, Range 4 east, a skeleton was exhumed eight feet long, with which was found part of a gun, fragments of knives, a cup of red paint, about one thousand beails of various colors and sizes, and a braid of black hair around its neck, in which were thirteen silver brooches. [The relics here found would indicate the skeleton to be that of an Indian.—ED.]

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STONE IMPLEMENTS. Stone implements have been found in all parts of the county, but more numerous along the banks of Tiffin and St. Joseph's Rivers.

Arrow-heads made of sandstone, schist, chalcedony, flint and jasperSir R. W. Wilde's five divisions of Europe—first, those which are triangular; second, those which are indented at the base; third, those which are stemmed; fourth, those which are barbed ; and fifth, those which are leaf-shaped ; also, Col. J. W. Foster's divisions—sixth, those which are lozenge-shaped; seventh, those dirk-shaped; eighth, those which are beveied; and we may add, as ninth, those which have serrated edges-all are found in this county.

Rimers and borers of schist and chalcedony of various sizes and lengths have been found. I have two three inches long that taper to a fine point from the base, which is one-half inch thick. From the base there is a handle-like projection each way one-half inch long.

Specimens of agricultural implements, which are chipped out of schist or quartzite, have been found in various parts of the county.

Celts, a class of instruments represented by the ax, chisel, flesher, armulet, pendent, etc., also are found. Axes, generally of green stone or porphyry, are fashioned into various forms. One was found four inches long, with a stone handle six inches long. One prevailing form has a crease cut around the head on three sides, one being left flat, so that when lashed to the handle it could be tightened by wedging. In another form, two sides are left flat for wedging. In another, the crease is cut clear around the head. Another form is made without any crease, ground down wedge-shaped; all are tapered to an edge and vary in weight from a few ounces to eight or nine pounds.

Fleshers and scrapers of various sizes and shapes are numerous.

PIPES.

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A few pipes of special note have been found. Three were found in the south part of Brady Township, of which one represented a tortoise, one a frog and one a duck. I have one beautifully carved, about one inch in height of bowl and length of stem.

DOMESTIC AND OTHER UTENSILS. Pestles to grind maize so as to fit it for cooking have been found in a variety of forms—some cylindrical, some bell-shaped and some cone-like. The materials are also various, consisting of green stone, syenite, quartz, etc., and sometimes sandstone.

I have two implements, ten inches long, two inches wide, cylindrical in form, with one flattened surface, one end being tapered to a concavo-convex edge. They were probably used as bark-peelers. Two implements, circular in form, pierced through the center, have been found. Totems, or saddle shaped birds, of a ribbon silicious slate, have also been found—two with eye-like appendages, and several without.

Perforated plates, thread sizers, shuttles, etc., generally made of striped slate, are met with in an almost endless variety of forms. Badges and wands, in a variety of forms, are frequently found. I have a perfect specimen of a double crescent, found by George Kunkel, of Brady Tow? ship. Several single crescents have been picked up from time to time; also two implements called “What is it" have been found. So far, but few perfect pieces of pottery have been discovered. Some pieces of vessels that would contain twenty or thirty gallons were found. Slight elevations, strewn with numerous fragments of pottery and charcoal, are often met with. Spindle-whirls, sockets and spindle foot-rests have also been exhumed.

From the great number and variety of stone implements found in the county, one would suppose that this section was a favorite locality of that ancient race called the Mound-Builders.

Thus it is that nations rise and fall. All we can know of this prehistoric nation, we must obtain by a careful study of the implements and works they have left behind them. However careful we inay study and compare these rude and imperfect records, yet much will doubtless remain shrouded in obscurity. (For additional information on this subject, examine the chapters on Northwest, Bridgewater and Madison Townships.]

MILITARY HISTORY OF WILLIAMS COUNTY.

BY WESTON A. GOODSPEED,

THE MEXICAN WAR. From the time of the existence of Williams as a distinct county until the commencement of the war with Mexico in 1846, the martial spirit of the people had become nearly extinct, and that war did not greatly revive this sentiment, as the first requisition upon Ohio was only for three regiments, and Gov. Bartley found himself greatly embarrassed by a tender of the services of several times the number called for. A recruiting station for the Fifteenth United States Infantry was opened at Defiance, where Company B, of that regiment, rendezvoused and was organized. Although the muster-roll of this company could not be found, still it is quito certain that some ten or twelve boys from what is now Williams County joined this company and regiment, and went to Mexico. The officers of Company B were Daniel Chase, Captain ; Mr. Goodloe, First Lieutenant; J. W. Wiley, Second Lieutenant. The following constitute the remnant of Mexican war soldiers, now residents of Williams County : Jacob Ryan, Third Regiment, Col. Curtis-enlisted in Wayne County, Ohio. Peter Brown, Fourth Regiment, Col. Charles H. Brough, Cincinnati.

Houk, Third Regiment, Col. Curtis, and in the company of Capt. Thomas H. Ford, Mansfield. Henry Good, in the same company and regiment; enlisted in Mansfield.

Wyland, Rev. William Taylor, F. S. Bradley. The Christian names of two cannot be positively given, and neither can the company or regiment in which they served; but each one of the above seven claims residence in Williams County.

THE MILITIA SYSTEM.

Prior to the war with Mexico, a more or less nominal militia organization was effected and carried on in Williams County, and annual musters were enjoyed by large and motley crowds, intent more on frolic and roystering than improvement in military discipline. And thus a system that had been so popular and efficient during the old Indian wars on the frontier, and directly after the close of the war of 1812–15, had loosened its hold upon the public mind during a protracted period of profound peace.

. The cities and larger towns of the State were the only places where military drill was appreciated, and where strict discipline and military pride attained a proficiency nearly equal to that which prevailed in the regular army. In Williams County, there were the usual musters, and several townships formed independent companies. Bryan had an artillery squad, and secured from the State a brass field-piece.

POLITICAL SENTIMENTS IN 1860. During the latter part of 1860, and the early part of 1861, the warmest interest of the citizens of the county was centered upon the important political events and changes that were overshadowing the country with dire and ominous import. All felt the coming storm, and many accurately predicted the prolonged and dreadful results of the impending struggle. The Leader, though mild throughout and hopeful that war might be averted, was loyal to the core, and endeavored to reconcile those political antagonisms which threatened the safety of the Union. All the better citizens of both parties were united upon the question of maintaining the administration of Mr. Lincoln and upholding the constitution and the laws. As yet the all-important question of slavery had not been seriously considered as to its total obliteration ; and all those bitter sentiments which were to array one section of the North against the other almost to the extent of open war, were yet unengendered and unfelt, and the county as a whole were united and hopefully tranquil.

THE FIRST WAR MEETINGS IN THE COUNTY. When the news of the fall of Fort Sumter was received, and doubt and

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