hence Demosthenes (in Olympiod. 1176, 31) says, ownû êkaθήμην επί του ετέρου βήματος. .

102. Tpáyuara. See on ii. 1. 3.

103. Σόλωνος, for the κύρβεις on which these laws of Solon were written, see Orat. xvi., The laws written on wooden rollers (agoves) and triangular tablets (kúpßels) preserved in the Prytaneion, were known as the laws of Solon,' R. C. J. These were written Bovo Tpnondov, i.e. the lines continued from left to right, and from right to left.

104. Sedeo Bai, infinitive as imperative. Todokánky stocks.' Suidas gives two derivations of the word-(1) πούς .. κακώσεις ; (2) πούς.. κατοχή. Ηesychius notices both forms, ποδοκάκη and modokákkn. The law from which this is an extract is found inserted in Demosth. Tim. 733, 105. The wooden stocks (od fúrov) had a hole for the neck and hands and feet. Aristoph. Lys. 680, αλλά τούτων χρήν απασών ές τετριμμένον ξύλον Εγκαθαρμόσαι λαβοντας τουτονι τον αυχένα. See also Equit. 367.

105. tpootiphou have awarded it in addition, i.e. to a fine.

109. εν ταις .. ένδεκα when the eleven were undergoing their audit.' See on iii. 1. 69.

113. éreyyuâv 'let him give security.' This quotation must consist of two separate phrases, quoted for the sake merely of the obsolete word in each. ÉTTLOPKhoavra, which in Lysias's day would mean 'having sworn falsely,' is here used for the simple ομόσαντα having sworn by.’ δρασκάζειν is used for the common αποδιδράσκειν. [Ηesychius explains it by κρύπτεσθαι αποδιδράσκειν ; the former word indicating some confusion between δρασκάζειν and δασκάζειν (?), or arising from some notion of secrecy in Opao káŠELV 'to effect one's escape like a runaway slave.' Cf. páo kw.]

117. απίλλει shuts to’ [ απίλλω, better απείλλω from root Fel, whence etlw elléw &n-v-Ol-s, a chain --ål-é-ok-oual, etc. Curt. Gr. Et., § 656.' R. C. Jebb). This fragment again is quoted without its context merely for the sake of the obsolete word å llev: It seems to be referring to the crime of “aiding and abetting' a thief. “Whoever shuts to the door when a thief is inside,' i.e. to protect him by keeping off help from without.

121. otáo nuov'may be put out to interest.' (Hesych. ex. 27 plains στασάμενον by δανεισάμενον]. Jebb quotes Andok. do



Red. § 11, 8oor geuol kattotnoar, quanti mihi steterunt, 'cost.' For otáoquor 'weighable,' see L. and Sc.

126-32. όσαι .. θεράποντος. These fragments of laws seem to refer to assaults on women and slaves. '[Except] those females who walk about openly,' i.e. for prostitution. Let a man be accountable for damage done to a domestic or female slave.' The elval seems to be unaccountable without the context. Of the obsolete words rebao uévws from the perf. part. of φαίνω, of which we have πέφανται, Esch. Ag. 374 ; πέφασμαι, Soph. 0. C. 1543, etc. And the participle πεφασμένος in Solon's Poems, xiii. 71: see Veitch. Toloûvtai, survived in poetical language, Æsch. P. V. 645, as also the active toléw. In

prose the compound #repliéw was still in use, and is found in Plato, Xenophon, etc., and replmolos a patrol, in Thucydides, etc. οικήoς (οικεύς) equivalent to oικέτου, is often found in Homer, and oikeus once in Sophocles (O. T. 756). For Depátwv, see on Orat. ii. 1. 105.

133-5. oonpous stupid.' The only other use of this word, in an intellectual sense, is in Æschines, where it appears to mean stubborn' or 'stern.' vûv te kal ráda."

perpetual' or mon to antiquity and to us.'

138. roll Bhuatos 'the platform of the defendant.' See on 1. 101.

141. åkowo al piva that one should be said,'. 1. 74.

143. yoûv "at least.' yoûv introduces a reason for thinking 28 that what has been said is true, or at least reasonable.

144. τοιαύτην γνώμην έχειν to have such an idea current about me.' yróun here stands for the opinion, not of the speaker, but that held about him, his reputation.' Cf. the use of opinio.

146. rñs ovudopâs, the consequences of a conviction, i.e. ατιμία. [Cf. Demosth. Mid. 533: ούτος αστρατείας εάλω και κέχρηται συμφορά. The Latin calamitas is used in the same sense); whereas if the speaker could be shown to deserve the imputation of parricide the penalty would be death.

147. αλλά .. ήτίμωσεν nay, he even secured the disfranchisement of the man who gave evidence against him,' i.e. for perjury.

148. ékeivo, i.e. the throwing away of his shield.

152-3. oudévos . . ålboetal whereas his penalty, if convicted of slander, would be not at all equal to his deserts.'

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154. τίνος .. εγκλήματος what charge have you against me that should prevent it?' For constr. and meaning see viii. 1. 78.

155. πότερον- ακήκοα. “ can it be because I have deserved the imputation ?'

156. βελτίων και εκ βελτιόνων a better man and of better extraction. For the importance attached to family, see Orat. vi. $ 64, and cf. Arist. Eq. 185; Ran. 727 sq. The opposite would be πονηρός και εκ πονηρών. .

159. ålr'. KATEO KÉSCOTAL well, this is not the story which has been spread broadcast through the city. There is a notion of hostility in the word,—against him or me,' cf. Plat. Apol. 18 c, οι ταύτην την φήμην κατεσκεδάσαντες

164. Διονύσιον the witness who had been disfranchised for perjury. Ovudopą i.e. årlula. See supra, l. 146.

166-171. είημεν .. χρήσθαι. Τhe words of Dionysius are given first as indirect speech, and the perfect optative is used; and then, as often in Greek, the very words are given with the verbs in the indicative, årboavov εαλώκασι . nu. Goodwin, $ 242 b. otpatelav cogn. accus., Goodwin, § 158. KpeitTov-iv aúto 'it had been better for him.' For the omission of dv see Goodwin, $ 222, note 1.

172. tà apoohkovta sc. ákoveLv, 'as he deserves.' iii. 1. 6.

173. παρά τους νόμους, joined with υβρ. and λέγοντι, using 29 words forbidden by the laws.'

178. ούτε τους πολεμίοις κ.τ.λ. 1.e. was never taken prisoner.

180. blev eúdúvny 'was cast in a suit on his audit,' i.e. so conducted every office he held as never to lose a suit brought against him when he stood his examination after it. eúčúvn (see iii. 1. 19) is here used not for the audit itself, but for a suit in regard to it. όφλεϊν ευθύνην as oφλεϊν δίκην, Andoc. i. $ 73. [Le. and Sc. would alter the form eúdúvny to eðduvav here and in other places.]

181. év ólyapxlą i.e. during the reign of the Thirty. årédavey he was put to death,' vi. l. 474.

183. ékelvou sc. the father. • As though it were his father and not himself who had been slandered.' He argues that to be said to have been murdered by his son was an insult to the father's

's memory

laid up.

184-186. áviapótepov 'more distressing.' alrlav 'reproach,' glur on his memory.’ ανήρησθαι, αναιρέω, “to be made away with.'

186-90. ου έτι .. δειλία. He means that his father, having brought home his own arms and trophies taken from the enemy, has dedicated them in temples at Athens, whereas the defendant's shield, having been thrown away, is hung up as a trophy in an enemy's temple. Após 'at,' not inside, but either on the walls or near the temple. åvákeltal are dedicated,

For such a dedication of spoils taken in war, see Thucyd. 3, 114, τα δε νυν ανακείμενα σκύλα εν τοις 'Αττικούς lepois. Cúp butos “inborn,''hereditary.'

192. ràs ÓLSELS 'outward appearance.' Cf. viii. l. 155. veavia. 'gallant.' Cf. Dem. de Cor. 8 313, ¿v Tlow oŮv veavias και πηνίκα λαμπρός ; hence the verb νεανιεύεσθαι, to Swagger like a youth,' and in later Gk. to 'act with spirit.'

194. yoxds animos, 'courage.'

196. óprio bels'in a moment of anger.' Obs. the aorist of a momentary effect.

199. ουδεμίαν .. δίδωσι makes no allowance for.'

202-3. oủ yáp tw dely ‘for I had yet to learn.' 'I did not know then, nor do I think now.' τους μεν ιδόντας - those who saw the shield thrown away.'

206. KaraynploaoBau condemn,' 'to give votes against.' Katà in composition with a verb takes a genitive when its sense is adverse or hostile ; when its sense is completion, it takes the accusative. The opposite to acquit' is ároynolfeodal. Each dicast had two yapou given him, one for acquittal, the other for condemnation, distinguished either by colour, or by being pierced ; and he put into a voting box whichever he pleased. For various methods of doing this, see Dict. of Ant., Article yapos, and cf. Orat. vi. $ 37.

209. 8s povos • : máyą. I, who all by myself, as soon as I had come of age, indicted the

Thirty (for murder) before the court of the Areopagus.' The time of the doktuaria of Athenian youths, like that of the assumption of the toga virilis at Rome, is a matter of some doubt, and probably varied according to cir. cumstances. Different ages from fourteen to eighteen have been assigned ; but what seems certain is that it was not later than the eighteenth year, and that the youth, thenceforth called onßos, was on passing the scrutiny enrolled on the register (TO


AnšlapxikÒY) of his deme; and having taken the oath as citizen was armed publicly, and could thenceforth marry, appear in the law courts, and perform other civil functions ; but even then he had to do frontier duty as a repitoos for two years before having the right of voting in the Ecclesia. This interval was expressed by ÉTT OLET'S ÝBioan. See, for a fuller discussion, Becker's Charicles, p. 239. Hermann's Polit. Antiquities, p. 239-40. Cp. xvi. § 9. The object of this dokujasla was chiefly to secure the purity-in point of extraction-of citizens entered on the registers of the demes, and it was always subject to a revision by a δίκη ξενίας.

He says 'directly I came of age': we know from § 4 that in 404-3 B.C. he was thirteen ; if the dokiuaola is to be taken as in the eighteenth year, this would date his indictment of the Thirty as taking place 399-8; 'of the Thirty only Pheidon and Eratosthenes stayed at Athens; and we may gather from this that Eratosthenes probably escaped the penalty of death when impeached by Lysias in 403.' 'R. C. Jebb, Attic Or., i. 296.

213, roîs Spkous ois 'the oaths which you have taken;' ois is attracted into the case of its antecedent, Goodwin, § 153.

ORATION V. (12].

[This Oration possesses unique historical value, as being an exposition, though from a partizan point of view, of the conduct and policy of the Thirty Tyrants, composed immediately after their expulsion by one who had had personal experience of their rule, and who from his own sufferings would be likely to put every point against them with the most telling force. At the same time we must remember that it was addressed to an audience who also knew accurately the facts of the case, which would be a check on excessive exaggeration or directly false statement.

Athens is taken by Lysander in the spring of B.C. 404 [17th of Munychion (3d April), Plut. Lysand. 15 : see. Clinton), and the Thirty are soon after established, and retain power till November (Poseideon).

Early in their career they began to feel the want of money, and having exhausted the gains to be made by the death and confisca. tion of certain notorious characters, they resolve on using a similar severity towards certain rich resident aliens, who were known to be disinclined to the Revolution.

Ten are first selected, including two of small means to elude

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