the imputation of interested motives ; and among the first to be attacked were Lysias and his brother Polemarchus, who were carrying on a prosperous trade as armourers. Polemarchus is seized and put to death. But Lysias managed by liberal bribes to secure the connivance of his captors in his flight. He escaped to Megara, and shared in the subsequent return of the popular party, giving them such substantial assistance that he was at once granted citizenship, though this grant was immediately cancelled as illegal, and he subsequently resided in Athens as an Isoteles.

In November - December, 404 B.C., those of the Thirty who were still alive retreated from Athens to Eleusis, with the exception of two, Pheidon and Eratosthenes. Their government was replaced by a board of Ten, of which Pheidon was one.

Thrasybulus establishes himself in Phylè in September, and afterwards in the Peiraeus, in November - December (Poseideon), B.C. 404, and in the early months of the following year, B.C. 403, carried on war against the Ten who succeeded the Thirty.

This eventually resulted in the victory of the popular party, the deposition of the Ten, and the return of the fugitives to Athens, about June B.C. 403 ; and by August of that year the old constitution was completely restored. Almost immediately after this Lysias impeached Eratosthenes, as the member of the Thirty who had arrested him, for the murder of Polemarchus, and for his general conduct as one of the Thirty;—probably on his giving an account of his office (eŰðuval), and before the expedition which took place later in the year to drive the Thirty from Eleusis, § 80. [See Professor Jebb, Attic Orat., vol. i. pp. 261-4.] If this supposition be right, the trial would be before an ordinary Heliastic Court.

This account of the Thirty should be compared with that of Xenophon [Hell. ii. 3-4). See also Appendix, "The Thirty.'

Lysias was able to impeach Eratosthenes, because the members of the Thirty, the Ten, and the Eleven, who served the Thirty, were expressly exempted from the amnesty (Hell. 2, 4, 38); unless they would submit to a scrutiny. Andoc. i. & 90. For the result of the trial, see on iv. l. 209.]

4. μήτ' αν ψευδόμενον ... κατηγορήσαι not even if he 31 took to lying could a man make his accusations worse than the facts.'

7. STTELTEîV 'to give in,''to be tired.' Toy Xpovov. The reference seems general, not to any particular time allowed for his speech.

9. mpo toû before this.' Goodwin, § 143, 2. 15. olkelas personal,' because the accused had been the cause of the death of his brother.

16. άφθονίας .. οργίζεσθαι infinite motives for anger.'

18. ούτ' έμαυτού πώποτε .. κατηγορείν. This speech of Lysias (B.C. 403, soon after the final defeat of the oligarchs) was his first. Perhaps the reputation it gained him suggested to him professional speech-writing as a means of repairing the losses he had suffered under the Thirty. 22-25. und

Trocha wpal, for subj. after the historic tense κατέστην see Goodwin, 8 216, 2. δι' ελαχίστων in the fewest words possible.'

27. επείσθη υπό Περικλέους. He was persuaded by Pericles 32 to come to Athens from Syracuse. See Life, $ 1.

29. δίκην ούτε .. έφύγομεν we were never prosecutors or defendants on any private suit whatever.'

33. rukopávtal 'vexatious.' See on ü. 1. 140. 34. þáo KOVTES " pretending.' See on iv. 1. 56.

40-1. Θέογνις-και Πείσων. These two names are in the list of the Thirty given by Xenophon (Hell. 2, 3, 2). We do not hear of them again. The proposal here attributed to them was, that each of the Thirty should select one Metic for confiscation. This detail, -the selection first of ten, among whom were to be two poor men to avoid the scandal of interested motives, -we owe to Lysias. τη πολιτεία αχθόμενοι disafected to the con. stitution,' i.e. to the government of the Thirty.

43-4. tý 8' {py« 'but in reality,'answering to dokeiv, [equivalent to the usual opposite of tpyw, i.e. 1674] . an excellent pretext for pretending to punish, but in reality for making money.' For δοκεϊν pretend,' cf. Arist. Ran. 564 ; Nub. 1974; Eur. Med. 79. Tv-ápx hv 'the government.' See iv. l. 90.

47. Tepl oudévos nyoûvto 'they made no scruple,''they cared nothing at all.' See ii. 1. 162.

48. Sofev : . Séka. Xenophon (Hell. 2, 3, 21), says that the Thirty agreed to take one each. But the number seems too large to have been at once arrested. And probably Lysias, giving more full details, is right in saying that they began with ten. Bremi supposes the number to have been reduced in deference to the vehement remonstrances of Theramenes. Others would alter déka to TPLÁKOVta, but see on l. 76.

50. mpos tous drovs 'in the case of the others,' i.e. the rich


52-3. ώσπερ τι. TTETTOLYKÓTES 'by pointing to the fact of their having carried out some of the other executions from disinterested motives.' Twv ållwr i.e. the two poor men, answer: ing to τους άλλους in 1. 50. ευλόγως in a good sense opposed to ευπρεπώς. διαλαβόντες having distributed the houses to be visited between them.'

56. els rd épyaothplov 'to the workshop. Lysias had in 33 partnership with his brother a manufactory of arms ($ 19). His stock does not seem to have been forfeited, as we find him afterwards supplying the Demus with 200 shields. Vide Life, $ 8.

ανδράποδα .. απεγράφoντo had a list of the slaves made, i.e. by their clerk. This is the force of the middle, the clerk åréypaye. See Herod. 7, 100. For the employment of slaves in manufactories, see Dem. Aph. 816, where he says that his father had two workshops, one of the same kind as this of Lysias, where he had thirty-two or thirty-three slaves, and one upholsterer's workshop, where he had twenty slaves at work. See Becker's Charicles, p. 303.

59. backev said yes.'

62. voulyel believed in.' 'I knew that he regarded nothing human or divine neither in gods nor men,' i.e. that from fear neither of gods nor men would he feel bound by an oath. vouíšel would properly apply only to beous. Cp. Arist. Nub. 818, etc. The expression is almost proverbial, and made more forcible by the zeugma. It is put more fully in regard to the unjust judge (S. Luke xviii. 2), τον θεόν μη φοβούμενος και άνθρωπον μη εντρεπόμενος. .

67. my kiBwróv 'my money chest,' arca ( posita nunc luditur arca'). It seems generally used for desk' or 'box for documents.' Ar. Eq. 1000. To which meaning there is also a reference in Vesp. 1056. Demosthenes uses the diminutive form Kißútlov (788 fin.) It was of wood, Arist. Pl. 710-11. δωμάτιον cubiculum.

72. κυζικηνούς.. δαρεικούς. The Kyzikene Stater was a gold coin equivalent to 28 Attic drachmä. Boeckh. p. 23; Dem. 914. The Daric, a Persian gold coin circulating in Greece, as equivalent to 20 drachmæ. Boeckh. p. 21.

Quádas pateræ, 'flat cups,' used especially for libations.

76. Μηλόβιός τε και Μνησιθείδης two of the Thirty. There cherefore appear to have been three in each party, which would account for the number ten mentioned by Lysias as that selected for the first raid on the Metics. Supra, l. 48.

82. els Aauvlitrov 'to the house of Damnippus,' as above εις του αδελφού του εμού. Damnippus was apparently trusted by the Thirty, but we know nothing more of him.

85. érépous another party of Metics, who had been arrested. 34

87. w . . Mon for in any case I should have to die.' ÚTápXOVTOS ‘there was death for me to start with whatever I did.”

92. ov O EQUtoll Súvajes everything in your power,' all the assistance you can give.' Here the singular dúvāues δυνάμεις 'opes.'

98. áp bloupos i.e. with a back door as well as a front door. 104. ébevyov. Notice tense, 'I attempted to escape.'

104-6. αυλείω θύρα τριών δε θυρών. The arrangement most common in a Greek house of any size was an entrance from the street by the αύλειος θύρα into a court (αυλή), round which the various rooms were arranged, the whole forming the part of the house reserved for men (årdpwvirus). This was separated by a door (dúpa méo avlos) from another court, which, with its surrounding rooms, was reserved for the women (yuvalkovitis). Some houses would have only one entrance, while others, if their position allowed it, would have another called the kntala Búpa, because it would often open into a garden. Here Lysias has to pass (1) the uéo avlos Búpa, (2) the knnala Qúpa ; but what is the third ? Becker suggests a door from the garden into the street. It may possibly be that the passage leading from the ανδρωνίτις to the γυναικονίτις had two doors, one at each end. See Becker's Charicles, pp. 251 to 271.

107. els 'Apxévew to the house of Archeneus the ship captain.' 'Apxévews-w-y.

111. Slétrievo a 'effected a passage to Megara.' Obs, the aorist compared with the imperf. in I. 104.

112-113. παρήγγειλαν .. παράγγελμα gave their usual order.' A word of military origin, from passing the word along the ranks, I. 311. The Thirty had the right of putting any to death who were not in the catalogos of the Three Thousand. See Appendix, "The Thirty.'

118. ébevex@îvai 'to be carried out for burial,' efferri. Kilolov 35 a small mean hut or bedroom. In Demosth. Mid. 270 it means a brothel. It is from root kl., kdc-vow, kil-vn, etc. See Curtius,

150. Others have connected it with κλει-, κλεί-ω, κλεί-s, and accordingly written it κλείσίον. .

129. els tò Snubolov 'to the treasury,' which let out slaves for a profit as private persons did. For the word see i. 1. 33, and ix. l. 60.

132. duktipas 'earrings of twisted gold. Rt. Fel expanded to ελικ (έλιξ, ελίσσω). Curtius, 361. They are enumerated among the ornaments of women in a fragment of Aristophanes, 309. Hesychius has έλικτηρες ενώτια. .

140. χορηγίας .. εισφοράς for χορηγία, the expenses of equipping a chorus, see Dict. of Ant. The elo popà was an extraordinary property tax, levied generally in war-time. We hear of it for the first time during the siege of Mytilene B.C. 428. See Thucyd. 3, 19. Boeckh. p. 471. Lysias and his brother, as Metics, would, unless specially exempt, pay their elo popà like the rest; but the xopryla of a Metic was, it appears, confined to the Lenean festival ; the Scholiast on Arist. Plut. 954 (quoted by Boeckh.), says that consequently others than citizens were then only allowed to take part in the choruses.

142. Tây TPOO TATTÓLevov .all the legal obligations of a Metic.' See Orat. i. l. 9.

144. Ivo apévous though we had ransomed.' lúelv 'to re- 36 lease on ransom,' Aveolaito obtain the release of a man by paying the ransom.

145. oủx . . éno LTEÚOVTO "though our conduct, Metics as we were, was so much superior to theirs, though they were citizens.' oux ouolws .better,' an instance of a phrase arising from a desire to avoid overstatement. For this figure, called by grammarians litotes or miosis, see vi. 1. 186.

146. πολλούς .. εξήλασαν ο.ε. by their tyranny they drovo many good men to take refuge with the enemies of Athens, and so became hostile to their own city. This is what Theramenes urges also in his speech in the defence against Critias, Xen. Hell. 2, 3, 42-3.

149. åriuous ris Trólewsdeprived of their citizenship. The genitive of the part following verbs of sharing, etc., because ατίμους είναι = = otepnonval. See Critical Note on iii. 123. Goodwin, $ 170, 2. This árcula does not include confiscation of property.

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