superintend the cavalry of each tribe. The proper officer in command of the φύλακες was called φρούραρχος. Χen. Econ. 9, 15.

311. taphyyellov 'always passed the word.' See on l. 112, i.e. they sent orders by their clubsmen to see that the votes of the ecclesia were such as they required (the ecclesia being still nominally supreme).

314. éneßouleucode 'you were having plots laid against you.'

315-6. ψηφίσαισθε .. έσεσθε. For these tenses, see Goodwin, $ 217. πολλών .. ενδεείς, .e. of provisions. For the distress of Athens at this time, see Xen. Hell. 2, 2, 11, étel martes ήδη ο σίτος επιλελοίπει, κ.τ.λ.

316-8. ότι .. έσονται Suvhoovtal. For the tenses, see 43 Goodwin, § 243. The original mood and tense is retained, for they would have said, εσόμεθα-δυνησόμεθα.

321-4. των εφόρων one of the Ephors,” see 1. 305. τούς . åkotoavras those who heard it from Eratosthenes himself.' He could not bring as witnesses those actually engaged with him, because they were all either banished or killed, or were afraid to come forward.

324. low póvouv' were in a right frame of mind.'

327-8. oúk dv éri Mèv . . éml 8è toîs . . In English pèr may be left untranslated, and oè translated by while.' επί.. κακοίς, cf. 1. 164-6.

331. åváßnte. Cf. 1. 168.

334-6. άλλων δέ πολλών “but of many measures of a different character,' i.e. bad. un: Trapavouws 'to refuse to hold office at all unconstitutionally.' lelta 'but if he did do so.'

337-8. είεν .. μηνύουσιν. See on 1. 317. Βάτραχος και Aloxullons two informers employed by the Thirty, whose names we only learn from Lysias. The former is mentioned in the kat' 'Avdokidov, § 45. (Lysias (?) 6).

341-7. και μεν δή .. αποτρέποντες. His argument is : ‘he 44 showed his ill-will to the Demus by his silence ; for a hater of the Demus lost nothing by saying nothing, as there were plenty to do the damage ; while a lover of the Demus could have had no fairer opportunity of showing his goodwill by speaking in its defence. évraida at that crisis,' 'in those circumstances.' Tr@s oùK . . {Selgav .of course they could have shown.'


349-55. όπως .. φανήσεται .. έναντιούμενος let him, however, take care not to be shown to have opposed the Thirty in open speech.' The pres. évavtLoúuevos is historic. The argument is: if he could safely speak against the wishes of the other members of the Thirty, it is plain that he had great influence, and must be held to have concurred in all their acts which he did not openly disapprove. αλλά μη υπέρ Θηραμένους. We do not hear of Eratosthenes' defence of Theramenes, but we know generally that he was of his party, and was one of the two moderates who afterwards remained in Athens when the rest of the Thirty retired to Eleusis.

359. ως. Trapaothow 'as I will in both points establish by 45 many proofs.' Tapaotńow 'I will bring it before you.' Cř. the use of the intrans. tenses, infra 1. 429.

361. Tallra i.e. the confiscations, murders, etc., which the Thirty were carrying out. ómótepol which of the two parties in the Thirty,' i.e. the extreme party, headed by Critias and Charicles ; or the moderate party, headed by Theramenes and Pheidon.

364. paoußoúlov. See Appendix, 'The Thirty.' Thrasybulus seized Phylè in September and held it through the winter of B.C. 404, as is evident from the storm of snow mentioned both by Xenophon (Hell. 2, 4, 3) and Diodorus (14, 32). Phylè was a strong post commanding the pass over Mt. Parnes, by which the road from Thebes to Athens lay, and was 100 stades (about 12 miles) from Athens. Thrasybulus had before shown his devotion to the democracy, see note on l. 295.

367-70. ελθών kateynploato "he went with his col. leagues (the Thirty) to Salamis and Eleusis, and haled to prison three hundred of the citizens, and voted for their death -one vote being passed upon them in a mass. This took place after Thrasybulus, in Sept. 404, had occupied Phylè. The Thirty determined to secure Eleusis as a place of retreat ; and in order to do this, under pretext of taking a list of citizens in Eleusis fit to act as guards, etc., got all suspected of being opposed to them into their hands; and, next day, summoning a meeting of the Hoplites included in the 'Catalogue,' and the Knights in the Odeon, they secured a vote condemning them all to death (Xen. Hell. 2, 4, 8-10). Xenophon only mentions Eleusinians, but Diodorus (14, 32) adds also Salaminians. See Appendix, “The Thirty,' Lysias is careful to say, uca yhdo; for it was against the law to condemn a number of citizens by one vote of the ecclesia. Each should be subjected to a vote

individually, in accordance with the ynploma Kavvávov; a constitutional principle violated in the condemnation of the generals after Arginusæ (Xen. 1, 7, 21-37). Hesychius gives the decree thus (s.ν. Καννώνου) διειλημένους τους κρινομένους εκατέρωθεν αποRoyciodai. Of Cannonus we know nothing else.

371. επειδή Boulev. Late in the year 404 Thrasybulus succeeding in entering the Peiræus and occupying the eastern elevation Munychia, the party of the Thirty occupied the Agora of the western town ; and after a battle in which Critias and Hippomachus were killed, the party of Thrasybulus occupied the entire Peiræus, and to them flowed in from all sides members of the democratical party from their places of exile, or escaping from the city (dotu) itself.

372. Sallay@v 'there followed attempts at coming to terms.' The remaining members of the Thirty (except Pheidon and Eratosthenes) retired to Eleusis, and Ten were elected to conduct the government. Diodorus (14,33) says that they were simply elected as ambassadors with full powers to make the peace. They, however, acted much in the spirit of the Thirty.

375. Kpelttovs Órtes 'having got the upper hand,' i.e. in the fight between the party of the City and that of the Peiræus. attoús the remains of the army of the City who stayed for a time to try and make terms. Nep. Thrasyb. 2, 6.

376. οι δε εις το άστυ ελθόντες but they went to the upper city and expelled.' dotu Athens proper is so called, as distinguished from the lower town or Peiræus. Thus the Thirty had immediately after the death of Theramenes forbidden all whom they did not trust to enter tò dotv, confining them to the Peiræus. Xen. Hell. 2, 4, 1. The meaning of dotu as a general term for what we should call the capital' is illustrated by Isocr. xvi. § 27, where the speaker says that some called Athens dotu rîs 'Elládos ‘the capital of Hellas.'

381-3. Φείδων .. Ιπποκλής.. Επιχάρης. These are the only names of the Ten elected after the expulsion of the Thirty which we know. ó Aauittpeùs of the deme Lamptra,' a deme of the tribe Erectheis.

385-7. εταιρεία. See on 1. 305-6. trolù peilov 'they em. bittered the party-feeling, and the war waged by the City party against the party of the Peiræus.'

390. cotao laçov 'they were splitting into parties,' i.e. in the 46 Thirty.

393. Tès dpxàs 'their offices.' The Ten would have all the power of supreme government, each in equal degree.

396-7. εκείνοι “the Thirty.' υμείς he always addresses the judges as though they were identified with the popular party.

401. katayayeîv 'to bring home from exile.'

405. ελθών εις Λακεδαίμονα. When the first attempts at coming to terms failed, the Ten, and the remains of the Thirty at Eleusis, seem to have made great efforts to induce the Spartans to interfere ; and eventually, though direct help is refused, Lysander obtains them a loan of a hundred talents, and gets himself appointed harmost, and his brother Libys admiral (Xen. 2, 4, 28 ; Diod. 14, 30); and he would have interfered with crushing effect, had it not been for the jealousy or corruption of King Pausanias. See Appendix.

407. Bowwtwv. See on xv. 1. 175. This was skilfully contrived to arouse Spartan jealousy, and was plausibly supported by the fact that the exiled Democrats had been eagerly received by various Baotian towns, and that Thrasybulus had set out from Thebes on his expedition to seize Phylè, with the secret help, Diodorus (14, 32) assures us, of the Thebans themselves.

408. oủ Suváuevos. Xenophon says nothing about this failure to obtain help, but he implies that there were difficulties ; for he says that Lysander managed in their behalf (ouvée pašev) to get them a loan, and have himself appointed harmost. So that the most that Sparta did was to appoint a harmost known to be hostile to the Democrats, and leave him to do what he liked.

412. ápxovta, i.e. a harmost, or Spartan 'resident.'

419. el ug si ávpas åyadoús and they would have done 47 so if it had not been for some good loyal men.' For this compressed use of ει μη, cf. Dem. 680, εξ ου κυρωθέντες αν, ει μη δι' ημάς, ήδίκηντο οι δύο των βασιλέων. δηλώσατε make it clear once for all.' The aor. imperative is used as referring to one particular act, i.e. the punishment of Eratosthenes.

423-4. όμως δε sc. παρέξομαι. αναπαύσασθαι the speaker would sit down and rest, while the clerk read over the depositions to the witness, requiring his consent to them by word or sign. See on iv. l. 101. ús Thelotwv 'from as many mouths as possible.'

426. Onpapevovs. For an account of the part played by


Theramenes in the Revolution, see Appendix. It may be allowed to add here that this account of him is from a thoroughly unfriendly point of view. I think it is clear, from a careful review of our authorities, that Theramenes was an honest

But he was a philosopher and a doctrinaire, and had a Socratic ideal of a perfect state which, both in the time of the Four Hundred and in that of the Thirty, he thought he saw his way to realise, but was quickly undeceived by the development of selfish aims in his colleagues. As, therefore, he'sym. pathised neither with the prejudices of the Democrats, nor the self-seeking of the Oligarchs, he came to be trusted by neither.

429-30. mapaorû 'in mentem veniat.' Cf. ii. 1. 112. Onpajévous karnyopô 'I am really accusing Theramenes.'

433. μετά Θεμιστοκλέους πολιτευόμενον if he had been a citizen with Themistocles,' i.e. if he had lived in his time.

437-9. ο μεν γαρ .. ώκοδόμησεν. For the ruse by which 48 Themistocles secured time to build the walls, see Thucyd. 1, 90-2. TTEPLÉOTNKEV 'what has happened to the State is exactly the reverse of what one might have expected.'

440-6. &glov . . yàp. In spite of this unfriendly criticism the party of Theramenes were the moderate party in the Thirty, and might justly appeal to that fact in mitigating the anger of the restored Democracy. dvadepouévas resting on an appeal to his name.' αιτίου γεγενημένου, sc. θηραμένους.

447. tis Trpotépas óleyapxlas, i.e. of the Four Hundred. See on l. 295. B.C. 411.

449-51. TÔV TTpoßoulwv wv 'one of the (Ten) commissioners,' i.e. the Ten originally appointed (B.C. 411) to propose the revision of the constitution to the ecclesia, which they did in the temple of Poseidon at Colonus, a mile outside the city. Thucyd. 8, 87, 1-2. Thucydides calls them ourypapeis aůtokpáropes. Harpocration (s.v. ovrypapeis) asserts that thirty were elected. ταύτ' έπραττεν “was abetting this policy.' τοις πράγμασι • this policy.'

453. Πείσανδρον .. και Κάλλαισχρον. For the former, see on l. 295. Of the latter nothing seems known beyond the fact that he was one of the Four Hundred.

457. μετέσχε των 'Αριστοκράτους έργων joined the intrigues of Aristocrates.' According to Thucydides (8, 90), Thera. menes broke off from the violent faction of the Four Hundred

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