the expedition to occupy Phylè.' Slakéouvto 'were in a position.' The form is Ionic, but was used by the Attic writers (e.g. Thucyd. 4, 33); the e being always retained in subjunctive and optative, except in the Epic form, katal. Il. xix. 32. See Veitch. [T'he stem is kel

, keluar, koi-tn, Kol-uil-w. Lat. qui-eo, ci-vi-s. Root Ki. Curtius, 145.]

562. είπερ έμελλον σωθήσεσθαι if they were to be saved.' For construction of uéllw see ii. 1. 164.

563-66. ålX ÉTepov ' but here is another fact.' The ratlapxos would place a man in the ranks according to his tribe, there being one Taxiarch for each of the ten tribes. See Class. Dicty. and supra, l. 45. áletnplu 'one polluted,' i.e. with the crime of murder. [ålitaivw McTov 'to sin.']

568. αι διαλλαγαί προς αλλήλους “the mutual agreement, i.e. between the party of the city and that of Peiræus. See Appendix.

569. την πομπήν the procession to the temple of Athene on the Acropolis, as a sign of all being once more united under the guardian goddess of the city (Trolcoûxos).

572. συνέπεμπε την πομπής “was taking part in the sion,' cognate accus. 'đotu, see supra, l. 165.

574. ZOEVTO Tà tha had halted'; lit. 'grounded arms.' Trpòs rais túlaus 'close to the gates.'

586-7. rû êml Bulty odự the fact of his having gone to Phylė.' ÚTolapsávelv xpn you must retort by asking him.'

589. OÚK ela, see on iv. l. 39. 595. po@coulav 'statute of limitations.' See on ii. 1. 115. 87

599-602. KakóV TL TOLOÛVTas 'as being guilty of doing some harm to people.' Séov . Trpooņikov accus. absolute, see on ii. 1. 98.

604. éa' aŭropópw rộ átaywyn see on iv. 1. 64.

608. éqorávny 'as though he were, on the one hand, liable 88 to the arrest if the words (étr' aŭtopúpw) had not been added to the writ; and yet, on the other hand, considers that their subsequent addition afforded him some loophole for escape.' ws belongs to ένοχος ών. The speaker argues that whatever irregularity there was consisted in the original omission of these words, not in their subsequent addition.

proces- 86


other actions of his life.' llwy, i.e. other than the personal
wrongs of each individual.

9. Toll Loutroll ‘in the future,' genitive of 'the time within 93
which.' Goodwin, $ 179. Cp. VUKTÓs, ņuépas, K.T..

10. πεπραγμένα, sc. αμαρτήματα. ων attracted into the case
of an antecedent pronoun understood after évious. Goodwin, $
153, note 1.

13. após rojs Tatépas, i.e. the speaker's father, and the
elder Alcibiades.

16-17. MEB' úp@ov 'with your countenance and assistance.'
aŭtov riuwphorao dai 'to get full vengeance on him,' 'punish him
once for all." Notice the force of the aorist.

21. καθ' έκαστον in detail,’ opposed to έν κεφαλαίοις, vi.
1. 237.

22-5. Elkos Tolvvv yevéolai 'Now it is reasonable,
gentlemen jurors, that men acting as jurors for the first time
since the peace in a trial of this sort should be regarded not as
merely jurors, but as law-makers themselves.' vopodétas the
Nomothetae were a select committee of the jurors for the year
appointed to revise the laws and prepare new ones when neces-
sary. Hermann, § 131. He of course here means not that the
jurymen were technically Nomothetae, but that they should
regard themselves as such practically ; insomuch that now,
deciding on a case for the first time under the new régime, they
would be setting a precedent which would be really a law.
29. διαλαμβάνειν “define.'

.' The sense of the word may be
seen by Demosth. 278, στήλαις διαλαβών τους όρους, having
marked out the boundaries by pillars.'
30. μέλλει συνοίσειν. See ii. 1. 164.

32. ένοχός έστι λειποταξίου, sc. γραφής “liable to the charge.
of desertion.' In l. 353 we have čvoxos ypapộn; cf. l. 44 :
the dative is the more natural construction, but it admits of
the genitive on the analogy of other verba accusandi. Mady,
$ 61.

32-3. μάχην γαρ ουδεμίαν γεγονέναι. No direct indication of
the campaign referred to is given ; but the facts correspond to
that of 395 B.C., in which the Athenians sent a force to
Haliartus, before the arrival of which the Spartans were


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defeated and Lysander killed. Jebb, Att. Or. vol. i. pp. 257-8 ; Xen. Hell. 3, 5, 16. TOV Sè vópov KENEVELV whereas the regulations of the law are.'

35-6. περί τούτου δικάζειν “ that the soldiers should try such an one.' The court that tried military offences was composed of soldiers presided over by the Strategi.

37-8. οπόσοι άν. στρατία such as fail to appear in the ranks,' i.e. as opposed to those who, though appearing, show cowardice in the battle. This offence, he contends, has nothing to do with a battle ; it consists in a non-attendance on parade.

43. mv vliklav raútny either the age of the defendant,' or (more generally), the military age’: he says taútny as being well known to his hearers, and naturally suggested by the subject. The younger Alcibiades, according to Isocrates de big., § 45, was born in the year of or just before the banishment of his father, B.C. 415. He would therefore be in B.C. 395 about twenty. The military age was from the time a man became ephebus (see iv. 1. 209) to sixty.

44. καταλέξωσιν. See on iii. 1. 18.

45. 8/9 tớ vóuw i.e. to both provisions of the law,—that 95 against cowardice on the field as well as that which regarded non-appearance.

49-50. παρέσχε .. τάξαι submitted to be placed in his proper place in the ranks with the rest.' After Tapéoxe must be understood ταξιάρχους οι στρατηγούς. For the use of παρέχειν 'to place oneself at the disposal of,' followed by active infin., see τους ιατρούς παρέχουσι . αποτέμνειν και αποκάειν, Χen. Mem. 1, 2, 54 (L. and Sc.) Séov acc. abs. See ii. l. 98, etc.

55. εάν τις αδοκίμαστος ιππεύη if any one serve in the cavalry without passing his scrutiny.' The cavalry was under the special charge of the Boulè, under whose auspices the scrutiny would take place. The object of it would probably be to secure that only those of the right class (Thunua) served in it. This appropriation of cavalry service dates from the time of Solon, but seems to have been loosely observed since Pericles introduced military pay. The Knights received pay even in time of peace, which would partly account for the endeavour of men, not qualified, to be put in their ranks, as we have seen did take place [on iii. 1. 18]." See Hermann, § 152. According to Lycurgus (apud Harpocr. s.v. dokluaola) there were three classes of officials who had to pass the scrutiny, viz. Archons, Strategi, Rhetores,—and besides them the ghts.

613-18. σώζεσθαι “to be acquitted.’ δοκούσι .. όπου αν η 'but I think that the Eleven who received this arrest, not thinking at the time that they were helping Agoratus, and being strongly of opinion that Dionysius made the arrest with strict justice, — by way of forcing ħim to complete it, added the words én' aŭropópw then or at some subsequent time. A man summarily arrested was brought before the Eleven, and the speaker seems to mean that they considered the omission of the words én' aŭtopópw as a mere technical inaccuracy, and caused the èv delgus to be amended by their addition. But the text is obscure. The argument, too, is fallacious, for in none but a rhetorical sense could Agoratus be said to be detected in the act' of murder. Øs a man who.' See on ii. 11. 98, 153.

622. Sýtov ''I presume,' introducing a supposition which the speaker considers manifestly absurd. Supra, 1. 349.

624. čk ye toll coll dóyov 'according to your argument their will be no murderer producible of the men whose death you caused.'

631-2. όρκων και .. συνθηκών here refers to the oaths and 89 agreement of amnesty made finally between the party of the Peiræus and of the Asty, from which the only exceptions were to be the Thirty, and the Eleven who served under them, and the ten commissioners appointed by them to govern the Peiræus.

633. åywvlçeral ‘he is being put on his trial.' See supra, 1. 418.

636. yoûv ‘at least,'. introducing a reason confirming what has just been said, see iv. 1. 143. By urging the amnesty he acknowledges his crime ; at least he is always putting up technical pleas to bar proceedings.'

637. én aútobúpw the addition of these words, as referred to above, l. 613-8.

638. αυτό δε τα πράγματι “but on the bare merits of his


643-4. ουδέν ηγούμαι . . τούτον I do not consider to be in point as between us and him.' The argument that the agreement, being between the city party and the party of Peiræus, did not cover the case of a man who was of the same party as his prosecutors, has been often blamed as wholly sophistical. But it is not substantially inequitable. Agoratus had deserted the city party, and been rejected by the party of the Peiræus

and might in a sense be considered outside the agreement altogether; that is to say, if the speaker has given a true view of the facts.

646-7. είχον αν .. συνθήκαι “the agreement would have given him something to go upon.'

649. οι τούτον τιμωρούμενοι “who are now seeking to punish him.'

653-5. ÚTÒ Toll Shuov. Some word or words are lost, perhaps 90 Αθηναίος πεποιήσθαι, that he has been made a citizen by the Demus.' palvetal Kakboas 'is shown to have injured.' See ii. 1. 119.

655-7. kal åpels . . éyiyveto and is shown to have abandoned and betrayed the persons by whose means it (the Demus) was ever exalted and strengthened.' ékelvos refers to the Demus. The imperfect éylyveto is used because the influence of these men was continuous.

659-60. τον .. ποιητον πατέρα sc. the Demus, as in 1. 654. και Sud TOÛTO 'even for this if there were no other reason.' κατά τον.. κακώσεως νόμον in virtue of the law regarding the doing an injury to a father.' To strike or ill-use a parent was an offence punishable by fine, disfranchisement, or death : the suit was called ypaon KaKto EWS yovéwv. See Arist. Av. 1344. Nub. 1419-1430.

665. επέσκηψαν. See 11. 28, 287, 668. čußpaxu 'in a word.'

676-7. vvvl Sh now at any rate.' on emphasises the preceding word, see supra, l. 11. έπει .. απέθνησκον since at the time of their condemnation,' when they were being put to death,' imperfect because the whole period preceding their death is meant, during which many were condemned.

680-1. ενθυμείσθε .. εργάσησθε and take care that you do not commit what would be the cruellest thing of all.'

683-5. Toûto i.e. his acquittal. Bávarov katayndlfcode you are really passing sentence of death upon.'

690-2. ούτοι .. γενήσονται “these very men shall pass the 91 same sentence upon them as did the Thirty.'

697-8. και των κοινών .. ιδίων “both those which were common to the State and those which affected individuals.'

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