book is not the document referred to in l. 112 apparently, but some accounts of his guardianship which Diogeiton had produced under pressure.

165-71. όπου τρέψειε τα χρήματα και... “how to account for the money expended. He finds fault not only with the amount, but with the way the account is kept. For instance, he charges 6 obols a day for food (i.e. about 10d.); but for other necessaries, such as shoes, dyeing of clothes, haircutting, he made no charge by the month or by the year, but entered at the end of the eight years a lump sum of over a talent. Bpov properly is anything such as meat, fish, sauce eaten with bread, It seems here to be used generally for provisions.' Tenpence a day does not seem much for three children, but it was above the average of the cost of living at Athens, see Boeckh. p. 109. We must remember that an obol a day was considered sufficient for the support of a cripple. xiii. 1. 198.

171. els 8è K.T.N. And though he did not spend twenty-five minæ out of the fifty charged for their father's tomb, he charged half that sum to himself and half to them. What he did was this : by way of paying nothing himself he said that the tomb cost fifty minæ, of which he would pay half, the children's estate half. But as it really only cost twenty-five, the children's half covered the whole, and he paid nothing. For these tombs (in this case a cenotaph) outside the walls, see Becker's Charicles, p. 393 sq. There were laws to regulate the expense of these tombs, but one is mentioned in Demosth. 1125 as costing more than two talents.

174. εις Διονύσια τοίνυν κ.τ.λ. The estates of orphans were free from State burdens, except the clo popá (Hermann, g 162), but the offerings at the various festivals were made in their behalf.

176. εκκαίδεκα κ.τ.λ. “he entered a lamb as costing sixteen drachmæ. Such a lamb is estimated by Menander (quoted by Boeckh. p. 76), as worth ten drachmæ. Diogeiton, the speaker insinuates, had played the same trick as in the case of the

tomb. He pretended to go halves in the purchase, whereas the lamb had probably only cost eight drachma.

178. oix halota 'more than anything.' Cf. x. 1. 245. 188

187. ypájpata 'bare accounts,' i.e. without any money paid up.

188-90. αποδείξειε .. επιλάθωνται for the change of mood, cf. viii. 1. 40.

193-5. εξήν αυτώ .. μισθώσαι τον οίκον “he might have farmed out the estate.' See xiv. 1. 19, 101 ; x. l. 304. Cf. Iseus. 59, 43, μισθούν εκέλευον τον άρχοντα τους οίκους, ως ορφανών όντων. The speaker says two courses were open to Diogeiton—(1) to get rid of all trouble by giving over the property to some one else at a fixed price, to be paid for the benefit of the orphans yearly, or (2) to have invested in land and used the rents (a pooibyta) for their benefit. 200-1. ουδεπώποτε .. ουσίαν never once to have taken any

189 thought of how he might secure their property for them.' See 1. 31.

202. kinpovópov ‘heir.' Cf. a similar use of émikinpos, xiii. 1. 106.

205,7, outpinpapxã ‘going partners in a trierarchy with Alexis' brother, Aristodicus.' báokwv, iv. l. 56 : supra, 1. 57. ovußaléolai contributed,' xv. I. 122.

207-9. Orphans, for the first year of their majority, were exempt from all liturgies. Hermann, $ 162. και επειδάν δοκιuaobãow even when they have come of age.' See iv. 1. 209.

213. πράττεται exacts.’ και αποπέμψας κ.τ.λ. A breach of law as well as of equity was involved in this.

For (1) a guardian could not invest his ward's money in bottomry [Suidas, s. v. čyyelov, quotes Lysias (from some lost speech), Toll vóuov κελεύοντος τους επιτρόπους τους ορφανοίς έγγειον την ουσίαν καθιστάναι, ούτος δε ναυτικούς ημάς αποφαίνει]; and (2) it was unfair to make the estate run the risk, and then to take the bargain himself when the risk was over. Boeckh, p. 134.

214. εις τον 'Αδρίαν to the coast of Illyria probably. ολκάδα 'a corn ship.' Suoîv talávTouv' with a cargo worth two talents.'

217. εδιπλασίασεν “had doubled itself.'

218. τας ζημίας “the possible loss.’ αποδείξει he suddenly turns to and addresses Diogeiton himself, cp. vi. 1. 181.

219-22. όπου μέν Touthoe. You will find no difficulty 190 in entering in the ledger on what the money has been spent; but you yourself will easily be enriched from money not your

He means · This is a delightful way of keeping accounts !
All the loss is put down to your wards—all the gain to yourself.'
For όποι, cp. 1. 165.
224. μόλις

γράμματα. “I got the accounts from him with difficulty.'


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227. ο λόγος .. τριηραρχίας “ the account of the trierarchy.' { paokev elvai 'said yes," he had.' Cf. v. 1. 59.

229. τέτταρας και είκοσι whereas he professed to have contri- . buted forty-eight minæ (1. 206), the whole expense of the trierarchy. By this trick the whole of his contribution was really paid by the orphan's estate, just as in the other cases (11. 169, 176). ouußeßi nuévov 1. 207. Perf. pass. as middle, see ii. l. 72.

232. deloylobal perf. pass. for middle again, as in l. 229. 236. ετόλμησε 1. 159.

241. 80a TeleUT@V wuodóynoey “the amount which he did 191 eventually acknowledge to.' He says he will accept the accounts as found in the mislaid account-book (though it is not a full or fair one). The amount there accounted for (ií. 116-119) was 9 talents 40 minæ. Deducting the two talents for the dowries (and that is not noticing the 10 minæ short, 1. 65), the amount to be accounted for as spent on the children is 7 talents 40 minæ.

243-5. mpoo odov 'income' arising from the investment of the money.' ÚTAPXÓVtWV capital. onow ‘I will put down' or 'reckon.' 245. The calculation he now makes is as follows:Expenses of two boys and their paedago

gus, one girl and her maid for eight

years, at 1000 drachmoe per annum 8000 drachma which equals 1 talent 20 minæ.

And this sum, deducted from 7 talents 40 minæ, leaves a balance of 6 talents and 20 minæ unaccounted for.

The calculation is a rough one, for, to be accurate, 3 drachmä a day for eight years is 8760 drachmæ, or 1 talent 27 minæ 60 drachmæ.

That 1000 drachmæ (about £40) should be spoken of as an excessive allowance per annum for two boys, a girl, and two servants, seems astonishing. But see on l. 165, and Boeckh, pp. 113, 114.

251. ου γαρ κ.τ.λ. “For you will not be able to show that you have lost by pirates (i.e. in the bottomry loans), or in business, or that you have paid debts for the deceased. ζημίαν 1. 218. .




The disaster sustained by the Athenian fleet at Ægospotami was at once recognised at Athens as extinguish- June-July, 4051 ing all hope of further maintaining against B.C. Sparta her power in the Ægean and Asia. The city itself, it was at once felt, must prepare to sustain a siege. The Paralus, which was among the few ships that escaped, hastened to carry the tidings home. It arrived in the Peiræus after nightfall

. A cry of anguish was raised when the tale was told. The cry was caught up, and passed along from mouth to mouth by those who were stationed on the long walls, and quickly reached the city.

"That night no one slept. Preparations for a siege were hurriedly made. The harbours were blocked, the walls repaired, the guards stationed at their posts. And then followed a period of terrified expectation. What would be their fate? Would it be like that which they had inflicted on the Melians, Histiæans, Scionæans, Toronæans, and Æginetans, and others whom they had massacred or sold into slavery? When would the terrible Lysander appear? When would the Spartan Ephors send their orders ? All that was certain was that the city was getting crowded with citizens sent home by Lysander, who had granted their lives on condition of returning to Athens. * Lysander himself meanwhile was in no hurry.

He sent no message home until he had reduced Lesbos, and despatched Eteonicus with ten triremes to Thrace, and had seen all the Hellenic States, except Samos, in open revolt from Athens. Even then he did not hasten back. He sent a message to the king, Agis, who was in Decelea, and another to the other king, Pausanias, who was at home, saying that he was on his way with 200 ships. The Spartans at once marched with all their available forces (Travònuel), and occupied the Academy, a gym nasium and gardens about a mile north-west of the city, where the two kings, Pausanias and Agis, coming respectively from Sparta and Decelea, joined each other. 3 This had not long taken place when Lysander arrived at Ægina. There he expelled the Athenian settlers, and collecting as many of the Æginetas as he could, put them in possession of the city. He then ravaged Salamis, and finally dropped anchor at the Peiræus. * His large fleet effectually prevented the ingress of corn ships, while the Spartan army in the Academy shut out all hope of relief from the land side.

1 In the year of Alexias (Diodor. xiii. 104), which begins June 21, 405 B.C. For account of Ægospotami, see note on vi. 1. 33.

2 Xen. Hell, 2, 2, 3-4.

* Lysander purposely sent them home that the city, being crowded, night the sooner suffer from starvation, ειδώς ότι όσο αν πλείους συλλεγώσιν ες το άστυ και τον Πειραιά θάττον των επιτηδείων ένδειαν έσεσθαι. Xen. Hell. 2, 2, 2.

The Athenians now knew their fate. They were to be starved into submission and surrender. They thought, however, that surrender meant death or slavery, and for a time they preferred to endure the pangs of hunger and the other miseries of a siege. The ordinary business of life was suspended, all political disabilities removed ; 5 the Senate of the Areopagus in this crisis took the direction of affairs into its hands ; 8 and though many were dying of hunger there was as yet no disposition to speak of making terms. We do not know exactly how long this state of things lasted. But perhaps we may conclude that about September the resolution of the people began to give way. They then sent commissioners to Agis in the Academy, offering peace and alliance on condition that the long walls and the walls of Peiræus should be left intact. Agis referred them to the Ephors; and they accordingly set out for Sparta. The Ephors met them at Sellasia, on the frontier of Laconia, at the junction of the roads from Argos and Tegea, and promptly dismissed them with the warning that they must much improve their offers if they had any hopes of success.

The demand now made by the Ephors seems to have been much less severe than

3 Diodor. xiii. 107. 4 Xen. Hell. 2, 2, 5-9. Xenophon says he anchored at the Peiræus with 150 ships. Diodorus (xiii. 107) says, with more than 200. The difference may be accounted for by supposing Diodorus to be thinking of Lysander's whole fleet, which was 200 (Xen. 2, 2, 7), but of which he doubtless left some at Ægina, and reserved others for the expedition to Samos.

και τους ατίμους επιτίμους ποιήσαντες έκαρτέρουν. Ηell. 2, 2, 11. 6 Lysias, Eratost. 1. 472.

7 Or to Decelea, as, according to Diodorus, the Spartan army was shortly withdrawn, the blockade being left to the ships, which was sufficient, as the supplies of corn came by sea. Diod. xiii. 107.

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