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" At u distanco he hears anothor, perhaps utterly unknown to him. Molody and verse immediately attach the two strangers ; he becomes tho responsive echo io tho forinor, and exerts hiinself to be heard as he had heard the other. By a facit convention they alternate verso for verso; though the song, should last the whole night through, they entertain themselves without fatigue : the hearers, who are passing bee tween the two, take part in the amusement.

“ This vocal performance sounds best at a great distance, and is then inexpressibly charming, as it only fulfils its design in the suntiment of remotenoss. It is plaintive, but not dismal in its sound, and at times it is scarcely possible to refrain from tears. My companion, who otherwise was not a very delicately organised person, said

quite unexpeciedly: E singolare come quel canto intenorisce, e molto più quando'lo cantano meglio.

I was told that the women of Libo, the long row of islands that divides the Adriatic from the Lagoons,* particularly the women of the extreme districts of Malamucco and Palestrina, sing in like nianner the works of Tasso to these and siunilar

“They have the custom, when their husbands are fishing out at soa, to sit along the shore in the evenings and vociferate these songs, and continue to do so with great violence, till each of them can distinguish the responses of her own husband at a disa tunce."

The love of music and of poetry distinguishes all classes of Venetians, even amongst the lunuful sons of Italy. The city itself can occasionally furnish respectable audiences for two and even three opera-houses at a time ; and there are few events in private life that do not call forth a printed and circulated sonnet. Does a physician or a lawyer take his degree, or a clergyman preach his maiden sermon, has a surgeon performed an operation, would a harlequin announce his departuro or his benefit, aro you to be congi arulated on a marriage, or a birth, or a lawsuit, tho Muses are invoked lo furnish the same number of syllables, and the individuai triumphs blaze abroad in virgin white or party-coloured placards on hall the corners of the capital. The last curisy of a favourite " prima donna" brings down a shower of these poetical tribuies from those upper regions, from which, in our theatres, nothing but cupids and Snow-storms are accustomed to descend. There is a poetry in the very life of a Venetian, which, in its common course, is varied with those 'surprises and changes 80 recomendubie in fiction, but so different from the sober monotony of northern existence ; amusements are raised into duties, duties are softened into amusements, and Hvory object being considered as equally inaking a part of the business of life, is anwounced and performed with the sumno carnest indifference and gay assiduity. Tho Venetian gazette constantly closus ils columns with tho following triplo advertise

mont:

Charade.

Exposition of the most Holy Sacrament in tho church of St.

Theatres.
St. Moseș, opera.
St. Bencdict, a comcdy of characters.

St. Luke, repose. When it is rocollccted what the Catholics believe their consecrated wafer to bo, we may perhaps think it worthy of a more respectablo niche than between poetry and the playhouse,

* The writer meant Lido, which is not a long row of islands, but a long island : litlus, the shore.

Curiosities of Literature, vol. ii. p. 156, edit. 1807 ; and Appendix xxix. to Black's Life of Tasso.

III.
THE LION AND HORSES OF ST. MARK'S.

St. Mark yet sees his lion where he stood
Stand,"-

Stanza xi, line 5.

The lion has lost nothing by his journey to the Invalides but the gospel which suv ported the paw that is now on a level with tho other foot. The Horses also are reiurned to the ill-chosen spot whence they sot out, and are, as before, half hidden under tho porch of St. Mark's church.

Their history, after a desperato strugg!o, has been satisfactorily explored. Tho decisions and doubts of Erizzo and Zanetti, and lastly, of the Count Leopold Cicognara, would hare given them a Roman extraction, and a pedigreo not more ancient than the reign of Nero. But M. de Schlegel stepped in to teach the Venetians tho value of their own trcasures, and a Greek vindicated, at last and for ever, the pretension of his countrymen to this noble production.* M. Mustoxidi has not been left without a reply; but, as yet, he has received no answer. It should seem that tho horses are irrevocably Chian, and were transferred to Constantinople by Theodosius. Lapidary writing is a favourite play of the Italians, and has conferred reputation on more than one of their literary characters. One of the best specimens of Bodoni's Typography is a respectablo volume of inscriptions, all written by his friend Pacciaudi. Several were prepared for the recovered horses. It is to be hoped the best was not selected, when the following words were ranged in gold letters above the cathedral porch :

QUATUOR EQUORUM • SIGNA A VENETIS • BYZANTIO • CARTA • AD TEMP • D. MARARS' MCCIV. POSITA QUÆ HOSTILIS. CUPIDITAS. MDCCIIIC. ABSTULERAT FRANCI'IMP PACIS ORBI. DATÆ 'TROPHÆUM'A'MDCCCXV

VICTOREDUXIT.

Nothing shall be said of tho Latin, but it may be permitted to observe, that the injustice of the Venetians in transporting the horses from Constantinoplo was at least c, jual to that of the French in carrying them to Paris, and that it would have been more prudent to have avoided all'allusions to eithor robbery. An apostolic princo should, perhaps, have objected to affixing over the principal entrance of a metropolitan church an inscription having a reference to any other triumphs than those of religion. Nothing less than the pacification of the world can excuse such a solecism.

IV.

SUBMISSION OF BARBAROSSA TO POPE ALEXANDER III.

« The Suabian sued, and now the Austrian reigns -
An Emperor tramples where an Emperor knelt."

Stanza xii. lines 1 and 2. After many vain efforts on the part of the Italians entirely to throw off the yoke of Frederic Barbarossa, and as fruitless attempts of the Emperor to make himself absoluto master throughout the whole of his Cisalpine dominions, the bloody struggles of four and twenty years were happily brought to a close in the city of Venice. The articles of a treaty had been proviously agreed upon between Pope Alexander III. and Barbarossa; and the former having received a safo-conduct, had already arrived

Leltura di Andrea

* Su i quattro cavalli della Basilica di S Marco in Venezia. · Musloxidi Corcu esu. Pudua, per Bulluui u compag. ... 1816.

at Venice from Ferrara, in company with the ambassadors of the king of Sicily and the consuls of the Lombard leaguo. Thero still remained, however, many points !! adjust, and for several days the peace was believed to be impracticable. Al duis juncture it was suddenly reported that the Emperor had arrived at Chioza, a town hlien miles from the capital. The Venetians rose tumultuously, and insisted upon inmediately conducting him to the city. The Lombards took the alarm, and des parted towards Treviso. The Pope himself was apprehensive of soine disaster if Fredaric should suddenly advance upon him, but was reassured by the prudencu and address of Sebastian Ziani, the Doge. Several einbassies passed between Chioza and the capital, until, at last, the Emperor, rulaxing somewhat of his pretensions, “ laid aside his leonino ferocity, and put on the mildness of the lamb."*

On Saturday the 23d of July, in the year 1177, six Venetian Galleys transferred Frederic, in great pornp, from Chioza to the island of Lido, a mile froin Venice. Early the next morning the Pope, accompanied by the Sicilian ambassadors, and by the envoys of Lombardy, whom ho had recalled from the main land, together with a great concourse of people, ropaired from the patriarchal palace to St. Mark's church, and solemnly absolved the Emperor and his partisans from the excommunication pronounced against him. The Chancellor of ihe Empire, on the part of his muster, renounced the anti-popes and their schismatic adherents. Immediately, the Doge, with a great suite both of the clergy and laity, got on board the galleys, and waiting on Frederic, rowed him in mighty state fron the Lidu to the capital.' The Emperor descended from the galloy at the quay of the Piazzetta.. The Doge, the patriarch, his bishops and clergy, and the people of Venice with their crosses and their standards, marched in solemn procession before him to the church of Saint Mark. Aluxander was seated before the vestibule of the basilica, attended by his bishops and cardinals, by the patriarch of Aquileja, by the archbishops and bishops of Lombardy, all of them in stato, and clothed in their church robes. Frederic approached " moved by the Holy Spirit, venerating the Almighty in the person of Alexander, laying asidu his imperial dignity, and throwing off his mantle, he prostrated himself at full length at the feet of the Pope.. Alexander, with tears in his eyos, raised him benignantly from the ground, kissed him, blessed him; and immediately the Germans of the train sang, with a loud voice, We praise thee, O Lord.' The Emperor then taking the Pope by the right hand, led him to the church, and having received his benediction, returned to the ducal palace."| The ceremony of humiliation was repeated the next day. The Pope himself, at the request of Frederic, said mass at St. Mark's. The Emperor again laid aside his imperial mantle, and, taking a wand in his hand, officiated as verger, driving the laity from the choir, and preceding the pontiff to the altar. Aluxander, after reciting thọ gospel, preached to the people. The Emperor put binself close to the pulpit in the attitude of listening; and the pontiff, touched by this mark of his attention, (for he knew that Frederic did not understand a word he said) commanded the patriarch of Aquileja to translate the Latin discourse into the German

tongue. The creed was then chanted. Frederic made his oblation, and kissed the 'Pope's foot, and, mass being over, led him by the hand to his white horse. He held the stiirup, and would have led the horse's rein to the water side, had not the Pope accepted of the inclination for the performance, and affectionately disrnissed him with his benediction. Such is the substance of the account left by the archbishop of Salerno, who was present at the ceremony, and whose story is confirmed by every sub sequent narration. It would not be worth so minuto a record, wero it not the triunph of liberty as well as of superstition. The states of Lombardy owed to it the contir. mation of their privileges ; and Alexander had reason to thank the Almighty, who had enabled an infirm, unarmed old man, to subdue a terrible and poient sovereign. I

*" Quibus auditis, imperator, operante eo, qui corda principum sicut vult et quando vuit humiliter inclinat, leonina feritate deposita, ovinam mansuetudinem induit." Ras mualdi Salernitani Chronicon. apud Script. Rer. Ital. Tom. VII. P.

229, | Ibid. p. 231.

See the above-cited Romualdof Salorno. In a second sermon which Alexander proachod, on the first day of August, before the Emperor, be compared Frederic to ihe prodigal son, and himself to the forgiving father..,

V.

HENRY DANDOLO.
" Oh, for one hour of blind old Dandolo !
Th' oclogenarian chief, Byzantium's conquering foe.”

Stanza xii. lines 8 and 9. The roader will recolloct the exclamation of the highlander, Oh for one hour of Dundee! Henry Dandolo, when elected Dogo, in 1192, was eighty-fivo years of age. When ho commanded the Venetians at the taking of Constantinoplo, he was consequently ninety-seven years old. At this age ho annexed the fourth and a half of the whole empire of Romania,* for so the Roman empire was thon called, to the lillo and to the territorios of the Venetian Doge. The three eighths of this empira wero preserved in the diplomas until the dukedom of Giovanni Dolfino, who made use of ihe above designation in the year 1357.7.

Dandolo led the attack on Constantinople in person : two ships, the Paradise and the Pilgrim, were tied together, and a drawbridge or ladder let down from their higher yards to the walls. Tho Doge was one of the first to rush into the city. Then was completed, said the Venetians, the prophecy of the Erythræan sibyl: A gathering together of the powerful shall be made amidst the waves of the Adriatic, under a blind leader; they shall beset the goat - they shall profane Byzantium - they shall blacken her buildings — her spoils shall be dispersed; a new goal shall bleat until they have measured out and run over fifty-four feet, nine inches, and a half.”I

Dandolo died on the first day of June, 1205, having reigned thirteen years, sir months, and five days, and was buried in the church of St. Sophia, at Constantinople. Strangely enough it must sound, that the name of the rebel apothecary who, received the Doge's sword, and annihilated tho ancient government, in 1796–1, was Dandolo.

VI.

THE WAR OF CHIOZA.
But is not Doria's menace come to pass ?
Are they not bridled ? "

Stanza tiii. linos 3 and 4.
After the loss of the battlo of Pola, and the taking of Chioza on the 16th of August,
1379, by the united armament of the Genoeso and Francesco da Carrara, Signor of
Prelua, the Venetians were reduced to the utmost despair. An embassy was sent

* Mr. Gibbon has omitted the important ®, and has written Romani instead of Romaniæ. Decline and Fall, cap. Ixi. note 9. But the title acquired by Dandolo runs thus in the chronicle of his namesake, the Doge Andrew Dandolo. “ Ducali titulo addidit, ' Quartæ partis et dimidiæ totius imperii Romaniæ."" And. Dand. Chronicon. cap. iii. pars xxxvii. ap. Script. Rer. Ital. tom. xii. page 331. And the Ro maniæ is observed in the subsequent acts of the Doges. Indeed, the continental possessions of the Greek empire in Europe were then generally kmown hy the name of Romania, and that appellation is still seen in the maps of Turkey as applied to Thrace.

† See the continuation of Dandolo's Chronicle, ibid. page 498. Mr. Gibbon appears not to include Dolfino, following Sanudo, who says, " il qual lololo si usd in al Doge Giovanni Dolfino." See Vite de' Duchi di Venezia, ap. Script. Ror. Ital. tom. xxii, 630, 641.

| Fiet potentium in aquis Adriaticis congregatio, cæco præduce, Hircum ambie

to tho conquerors with a blank sheet of paper, praying them to prescribe what torms they pleased, and leave to Venice only her independence. The Prince of Padua was inclined to listen to theso proposals, but the Genoese, who, after the victory at Pola, had shouted, " To Venice, to Venice, and long live St. George!" determinod to annihilate their rival; and Putor Doria, their commander-in-chiut, roturned this answor to the suppliants : "On God's faith, gentlomun of Venice, yo shall havo no peace from the Signor of Padua, nor from our commune of Genoa, until we have first put a rein upon those unbridled horses of yours, that are upon the porch of your evangelist St. Mark. When we have bridled them, we shall keep you quiet. And this is the pleasure of us and of our commune. As for these my brothers of Genoa, that you have brought with you to give up to us, I will not have thom ; tako then back; for, in a few days hence, I shall come and let them out of prison myself, both these and all the others."* In fact, tho Genoese did advanco as far as Malamocco, within five miles of the capital; but their own danger and the pride of their enemies gave courage to the Venetians, who made prodigious efforts, and many individual sacrifices, all of them carefully recorded by their historians. Vettor Pisana was put at the head of thirty-four galleys. The Genoese broke up from Malamocco, and retired to Chioza in October ; but they again threatened Venice, which was reduced to extremities. At this time, the 1st of January, 1380, arrived Carlo Zeno, who had been cruising on the Genoese coast with fourteen galleys. The Venetians were now strong enough to besiege the Genoese. Doria was killed on the 22d of January by a stone bullet 195 pounds weight, discharged from a bombard called the Trevisan. Chioza was then closely invested: 5000 auxiliaries, among whom were some English condottieri, commanded by one Captain Ceccho, joined the Venetians. The Genoese, in their turn, prayed for conditions, but none were granted, until, at last, they surrendered at discretion; and, on the 24th of June, 1380, the Doge Contarini made his triumphal entry into Chioza. Four thousand prisoners, nineteen galleys, many smaller vessels and barks, with all the ammunition and arms, and outfit of the expedition, fell into the hands of the conquerors, who, had it not been for the inexorable answer of Doria, would have gladly reduced their dominion to the city of Venice. An account of these transactions is found in a work called the War of Chioza, written by Daniel Chinazzo, who was in Venice at the time.t

VII.

VENICE UNDER THE GOVERNMENT OF AUSTRIA.

" Thin streets, and foreign aspects, such as must
Too oft remind her who and what enthrals."

Stanza xv. lines 7 and 8. The population of Venice at the end of the seventeenth century amounted to nearly two hundred thousand souls. At the last census, taken two years ago,

it was no more than about one hundred and three thousand; and it diminishes daily. The con. merce and the official employments, which were to be the unexhausted source of

gent, Byzantium prophanabunt, ædificia denigrabunt ; spolia dispergentur, Hircus novus balabit usque dum liv pedes et ix pollices, et semis præinansurati discur-. rant." - Chronicon, ibid. pars xxxiv.

*“ Alla fe di Dio, Signori Veneziani, non haverete mai pace dal Signore di Padoua, nè dal nostro commune di Genova, se primieramente non mettemo le briglie a quelli vostri cavalli sfrenati, che sono su la reza del vostro Evangelista $. Marco. Imbrenati che gli havremo, vi faremo stare in buona pace. E nostra, o del nostro commune. Questi miei fratelli Genovesi che havete menati con

questa e la intenzione voi per donarci, non li voglio; rimanetegli in dietro perche io intendo da qui a pochi giorni venirgli a riscuoter, dalle vostre prigioni, e loro e gli altri."

" Chronica della Guerra di Chioza,” &c. Script. Rer. Italic, tom. xv. pp. 699 to 804.

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