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(October, 1809) carrying on war against Ibrahim Pacha, whom he had driven to Berat, a strong fortress which he was then besieging : on our arrival at Jeannina we were invited to Tepaleni, his highness's birthplace, and favourite Serai, only one day's distance from Berat ; at this juncture the Vizier
had made it his head-quarters, After some stay in the capital, we accordingly followed; but though furnished with every accommodation, and escorted by one of the Vizier's secretaries, we were nine days (on account of the rains) in accomplishing a journey which, on our return, barely occupied four.
On our route we passed two cities, Argyrocastro and Libochabo, apparently little inferior to Yanina in size ; and no pencil or pon can ever do justice to the sconary in the vicinity of Zitza and Delvinachi, the frontier village of Epirus and Albumin Proper.
On Albania and its inhabitants I am unwilling to descant, because this will be done so much better by my fellow-traveller, in a work which may probably precede this in publication, that I as little wish to follow as I would to anticipate him. But some few observations are necessary to the text.
The Arnaouts, or Albanese, struck me forcibly by their resemblance to the Highlanders of Scotland, in dress, figure, and manner of living. Their very mountains seemed Caledonian, with a kinder climate. The kilt, though white; the spare, active form; their dialect, Celtic in its sound, and their hardy habits, all carried mo back to Morven. No nation are so detested and dreaded by their neighbours as the Albanese; the Greeks hardly regard them as Christians, or the Turks as Moslems; and in fact they are a mixture of both, and sometimes neither. Their habits are predatory - all are armed; and the red-shawled Arnaouts, the Montenegrins, Chimariots, and Gegdes, are treacherous ; the others differ somewhat in garb, and cssontially in character. As far as my own experience goes, I can speak fuvourably. I was attended by two, an Infidel and a Mussulman, !o Constantinople and cvery other part of Turkey which came within my observation; and more faithful in peril, or indefatigable in servico are rarely to be found. The Infidel was named Basilius, the Moslem, Dervish 'Tahiri ; the former a man of middle age, and the latter about my own.' Basili was strictly charged by Ali Pacha in person to attend us; and Dervish was ono of hfty who accompanied us through the forests of Acarnania to the banks of Acholous, and onward to Messalonghi in Ætolia. There I took him into my own service, and never had occasion to repent it till the moment of my departure.
When in 1810, after the departure of my friend Mr. H. for England, I was scized with a sovere fever in the Morea, theso men saved my life by frightening away, my physician, whose throat they threatened to cut if I was not cured within a given timo. To this consolatory assurance of posthumous retribution, and a resolute refusal of Dr. Romanelli's prescriptions, I aitributed my recovery:.' I had left my last remaining English servant at Athens ; my dragoman was as ill as myself, and my poor Arnaouts nursed me with an attention which would have done honour to civilia zation. They had a variety of adventures ; for the Moslem, Dervish, being a remarkably handsome man, was always squabbling with the husbands of Athens ; insomuch that four of the principal Túrks paid me a visit of remonstrance at the Con. vent. on the subject of his having taken a woman from the bath whom he had lawfully bought however - a thing quite contrary to etiquette.
Basili also was extremely gallant among his own persuasion, and had tho greatest veneration for the church, mixod with the highest contempt of churchmen, whom he cuffed upon occasion in a most heterodox manner. Yet he never passed a church without crossing himself; and I remember the risk he ran in entering St. Sophia, in Stambol, because it had once been a place of his worship. On remonstrating with hiin on his inconsistent proceedings, he invariably answered, : Our church is holy, our priests are thieves ;” and then he crossed himself as usual, and boxed the ears of the first "papas " who refused to assist in any required operation, as was always found to be necessary where a priest had any infuence with the Cogia Basli of his village. Indeed, a more abandoned race of miscreants cannot exist than the lower orders of the Greek clergy.
When preparations were made for my return, my Albanians were summoned to receive their pay. Basili took his with an awkward show of regret at my intended departure, and marched away to his quarters with his bag of piastres. 'I sent for Dervish, but for some time he was not to be found ; at last he entered, just as Sign nor Logotheti, father to the ci-devant Anglo-consul of Athens, and some other of my Greek ncquaintancos, paid mo a visit. Dervish took tho money, but on a sude den dashod it io tho ground; and clasping his hands, which ho raisod to his forchcad,
rushod out of the room, wooping bitterly. From that moment to the hour of my ombarkation, ho continued his lamentations, and all our ellorts to consolo him only produced this answer, “Má perver," "He leaves me." Signor Logotheti, who never wept before for any thing less than the loss of a para (about the fourth of a, farthing), melted; the padre of the convent, my attendants, my visitors — and I verily believe that even Sterne's “foolish fat scullion” would have left her " fishkettle," to sympathize with the unaffected and unexpected sorrow of this barbarian.
For my own part, when I remembered that, a short time before my departuro from England, a noble and most intimate associate had excused himself from taking leave of me because he had to attend a relation “to a milliner's," I felt no less sure prised than humiliated by the present occurrence and the past recollection.
That Dervish would loave mo with some regret was to be expected: when master and man have been scrambling over the mountains of a dozen provinces together, they are unwilling to separate; but his present feelings, contrasted with his native ferocity, improved my opinion of the human heart. I believe
this almost feudal fide. lity is frequent among them. One day, on our journey over Parnassus, an Englishman in my service gave him a push in some dispute about the baggage, which he unluckily rnistook for a blow; he spoke not, but sat down leaning his head upon his hands. 'Foresecing the consequences, we endeavoured to explain away the affront, which produced the following answer :-“I have been a robber; I am a soldier; no captain ever struck me ; you are my master, I have eaten your bread, but by that bread! (an usual oath, had it been otherwise, I would have stabbed the dog your servant, and gone to the mountains.” So the affair ended, but from that day forward he never thoroughly forgave the thoughtless fellow who insulted him.
Dervish excelled in the dance of his country, conjectured to be a remnant of the ancient Pyrrhic: be that as it may, it is manly, and requires wonderful agility. It is very distinct from the stupid Romaika, tho dull round-about of the Greeks, or which our Athenian party had so many specimens.
The Albanians in general (I do not mean the cultivators of the earth in the pro vinces, who have also that appellation, but the mountaineers) have a fine cast d countenanco: and the most beautiful women I ever beheld, in stature and in fea tures, we saw levelling the road broken down by the torrents between Delvinachi and Libochabo. Their manner of walking is truly theatrical; but this strut is prohably the effect of the capote, or cloak, depending from one shoulder. Their long hair reminds you of the Spartans, and their courage in desultory warfare is unquestionable. Though they have some cavalry amongst the Gegdes, I never saw a good Arnaout horseman; my own preferred the English saddles, which, however, thoy could never keep. But on foot they are not to be subdued by fatigue.
Note [C]. See p. 60.
" While thus in concert," &c.
Stanza lxxii. line last,
As a specimen of the Albanian or Arnaout dialect of the Illyric, I here insert tao of their most popular choral songs, which are generally chanted in dancing by mon or women indiscriminately. The first words are merely a kind of chorus without meaning, like some in our own and all other languages. 1.
1. Bo, Bo, Bo, Bo, Bo, Bo.
Lo, Lo, I come,
I come ;
be thou Naciarura, popuso.
2. Naciarura na civin
come, I run; open the door that I Ha pen derini ti hin.
inay enter. 3.
Open the door hy halves, that I may
take my turban.
Caliriote me surmo
6. An Arnaout girl, in costly garb, walks with graceful pride.
7. Caliriot maid of the dark eyos, givo me a kiss.
8. If I have kissed thee, what hast
thou gained ? My soul is consumed with fire.
9. Dance lightly, more gently, and gently still.
10. Make not so much dust to destroy
your embroidered hose,
The last stanza would puzzle a commentalor: the men havo certainly buskins of the most beautiful toxture, but the ladies (to whom the above is supposed to be ade dressed) have nothing under their little yellow boots and slippers but a well-turned and sometiines very while ankle. The Arnaout giris are much handsomer than the Greeks, and their dress is far more picturesque. They preserve their shape much longer also, from being always in the open air. It is to be observed, thal the Are naout is not a written language; the words of this song, therefore, as well as the onu which follows, are spelt according to their pronunciation. They are copied by ono who speaks and understands the dialect perfectly, and who is a native of Athens. 1.
1. Ndi selda tindo uiavossa
I am wounded by thy love, and havo Vettimi upri vi lossa.
loved but to scorch myself. 2.
2. Ah vaisisso mi privi lofse
Thou hast consumed me! Ah, Si mi rini mi la vosse.
maid! thou hast struck me to the
3. Uti tasa roba stua
I havo said I wish no dowry, but Sitti eve tulati dua.
thine eyes and eye-lashes. 4.
The accurscd dowry I want not,
but thee only.
Give me thy charms, and let the
portion feed the flames.
6. Utara pisa vaisisso me
I have loved thee, maid, with a sinsimi rin ti hapti
cere soul, but thou hast left ino Et mi bire a piste si gui
like a withered tree. dendroi tiltati.
* The Albanoso, particularly, the women, are frequently termed “ Caliriotos ;" for what reason I inquired in vain.
If I have placed my hand on thy
bosom, what have I gained ? my Udorini talti hollna u edo
hand is withdrawn, but retains caimoni mora.
the flame. I believe the two last stanzas, as they are in a different measure, ought to belong 19 another ballad. An idea something similar to the thought in the last lines was expressed by Socratos, whose arm having come in contact with one of his “ útorola
," Critobulus or Cleobulus, the philosopher complained of a shooting pain as fur as his shoulder for some days after, and therefore very properly resolved to lcach his disciples in future without touching them.
Note (D). See p. 62.
Stanza lxxiii. lines 1. and 2.
I. Before I say any thing about a city of which every body, traveller or not, has thought it necessary to say soinething, I will request Miss Owenson, when she next burrows an Athenian heroine for her four volumes, to have the goodness to marry her to somebody more of a gentleman than a Disdar Aga," (who by the by is not an Aga,) the most impolite of petty officers, the greatest
patron of larceny Athens ever saw, (except Lord E.) and the unworthy occupant of the Acropolis, on a handsome annual stipend of 150 piastres, (eight pounds sterling,).out of which he has only to pay his garrison, the most ill-regulaied corps in the ill-regulated Ouoman Empire. I speak it tenderly, seeing I was once the cause of the husband of “ Ida of Athens " nearly suffering the bastinado; and because the said “ Disdar" is a Turbulent husband, and beats his wifu; so that I cxhort and beseech Miss Owenson 10 sue for a separate maintenance in behalf of " Ida.” Ilaving premised thus much, on a matter of such import to the readers of romances, I may nuw leavé Ida, lo Inention her birthplace.
Setting aside the magic of the name, and all those associations which it would bu pedaņtic and superfluous to recapituluto, the very siluation of Athens would sendes it the favourite of all who have eyes for arı or nature. The climate, to me at least appeared a perpetual spring; during eight months I never passed a day without bo. ing, as many hours on horseback : rain is extremely rare, snow never lies in the plains, and a cloudy day is an agreeable rarity. In Spain, Portugal, and every part of the East which, I visited, excepe Ionia and Anrica, 1 perceived no such superiority of clinute to our own; and at Constantinople, where I'passed May, June, and part of July, (1810,) you might "damu thu climate, and coinplain of splcon,” fivo duys vut of seven.
T'he air of the Morea is heavy and unwholesome, but the moment you pass the isthmus in the direction of Megara the change is strikingly perceptible. But I fear Hesiod will still be found correct in his description of a Baotian winter.
We found at Livadia an “ esprit fort” in a Greek bishop, of all fiee-thinkers ! This worthy hypocrite rallied his own religion with great intrepidity, (but not before his flock,) and talked of a mass as 'a "coglioneria.” It was impossible to think better of him for this ; but, for a Bæotian, he was brisk with all his absurdity. This phenomenon (with the exception indeed of Thebes, the remains of Chæronea, the plain of Platea, Orchomenus, Livadia, and its nominal cave of Trophonius) was the only remarkable thing we saw before we passed Mount Cithæron."
The fountain of Dirce turns a mill : at least my companion (who, resolving to be at once cleanly and classical, bathed in it) pronounced it to be the fountain of Dirce, and any body who thinks it worth while may contradict him. At Castrı we drank of half a dozen streamlets, some not of the purest, before we decided to our satisfaction which was the true Castalian, and even that had a villanous 'twang, proba.
ply from the snow, though it did not throw us into an epic fever, like poor Dr. Chandler.
From Fort Phyle, of which large remains still exist, the Plain of Athens, Pentelicus, Hymettus, ide Egean, and tho Acropolis, burst upon the eye at once; in my opmion, a more glorious prospect than even Cintra or Istambol. Not the view from the Troad, with Ida, the Hellespont, and the more distant Mount Athos, can equal it, though so superior in extent.
'I heard much of the beauty of Arcadia, but excepting the view from the monastery of Megaspelion, (which is inferior to Zitza in a command of country,) and the descent from the mountains on the way from Tripolitza to Argos, Arcadia has little to recommend it beyond the name.
“ Sternitur, et dulces moriens reminiscitur Argos." Virgil couid have put this into the mouth of none bul an Argive, and (with reverence be it spoken) it does not deserve the epithet. And if the Polynices of Statius, “ In mediis audit duo litora campis," did actually hear both shores in crossing thó isthmus of Corinth, he had better ears than have ever been worn in such a journey since.
" Athens,” says a celebrated topographer," is still the most polished city of Greece.” Perhaps it may of Greece, but not of the Greeks; for Joannina in Epirus is universally allowed, amongst themselves, to be superior in the wealth, refinement, learning, and dialect of its inhabitants. The Athenians are remarkable for their cunning; and the lower orders are not improperly characterized in that proverb, which classes them with “ the Jews of Salonica, and the Turks of the Negropont.
Among the various foreigners resident in Athens, French, Italians, Germans, Ragusans, &c. there was never a difference of opinion in their estimate of the Greek character, though on all other topics they disputed with great acrimony:
M. Farvel, the French consul, wlio has passed thirty years principally at Athens, and to whose talents as an artist and manners as a gentleman, none who have known him can refuse their testimony, has frequently declared in my hearing, that the Greeks do not deserve to be emancipated ; reasoning on the grounds of their “national and individual depravity!" while he forgot that such depravity is to be attributed to causes which can only be removed by the measure he reprobates.
M. Roquo, a French merchant of respectability long settled in Athens, asserted with the most amusing gravity, “Sir, they are the same canaille that existed in the days of Themistocles !” an alarming remark to the " Laudator teinporis acti.” The ancients banished Themistocles; tho prodorns choat Monsieur Roquo: thus great men have ever been treated !
In short, all the Franks who arc fixtures, and most of the Englishmen, Germans, Danes, &c. of passaço, came over hy degrees to their opinion, on much the same grounds that a Tuik in England would condemn the nation by wholesale, because he was wronged by his lacquey, and overcharged by his washerwoman.
Certainly it was not a little staggering when the Sieurs Fauvel and Lusieri, the two greatest demagogues of the day, who divide between them the power of Pericles and the popularity of Cleon, and puzzle the poor Waywode with perpetual differences, agreed in the utter condemnation, "nulla viriute redempluin," of the Greeks in general, and of the Athenians in particular.
For my own humble opinion, I am loth io hazard it, knowing as I do, that there be now in MS, no less than five tours of the first magnitude and of the most threatening aspect, all in typographical array, by persons of wit, and honour, and regular common-place books but, if I may say this without offence, it seems to me rather hard to declare so positively and pertinaciously, as almost every body has declared, that the Greeks, because they are very bad, will never be better.
Eton and Sonnini have led us astray by their panegyrics and projects ; but, on the other hand, De Pauw and Thornton havo debased the Greeks beyond their demerits.
The Greeks will never be independent; they will never be sovereigns as heretofore, and God forbid they over should ! but they may be subjects without being slaves. Our colonies are not independent, but they are free and industrious, and such may Groeco bo herenster.
At present, like the Catholics of Ireland and the Jows throughout the world, and such other cudgelled and heterodox people, they suffer all the moral and physical ills that can afflict humanity. Their life is a struggle against truth ; they are viious in their own desence.' They are so unused to kindness, that when they occa