the spiral fibres are always more or less uncoiled, and are often nearly straight, detaching themselves very often from the corpuscle. The observations of M. Schimper, in his excellent and most elaborate Recherches Anatomiques et Morphologiques sur les Mousses, appear to have been made from immature ex. amples; hence the movements and even the structure of the spermatozoids have not been fully understood, and the illustrative figures given at Tab. 6. are inaccurate representions of the fully developed contents of the anther. The reader will find in Lindley's Vegetable Kingdom, some instructive remarks as to the origin of the spiral coil, which appear to us to be well founded, the coil not being included within a sac, as represented in some of M. Schimper's figures, but formed at the expense of the sac itself, the apex of which includes the corpuscle, whose length is about f of the diameter of the sac, and which is placed in such a position as to form part of the spiral coil. Most of the species have the antheridia in a fit state for examination at the beginning of March.

Sect. I. Leaves obtuse, roundish, or elliptical. OBTUSIFOLIA.

a. Utricles of the branches lined with spiral fibres. 1. Sphagnum cymbifolium Dill. Ebrh. (blunt-leaved Bog Moss) ; stem robust, elongated; branches short, crowded, tumid, obtuse ; leaves roundish-ovate, very concave, obtuse, muriculate at the dorsal apex ; utricles lined with spiral filaments. (TAB. IV.)

Sphagnum cymbifolium Ehrhart. Röhling. Schultz.

Hedwig, Fund. Musc. with figures. Swartz. P.
Beauv. Nees and Hornsch. Bryol. Germ. t. 1. f. 1.

Sphagnum latifolium

latifolium Hedw. Sp. Musc. Schwaeyr. Wahlenb. Turner. Smith, Eng. Bot. t. 1405. Moug.

and Nestl. n. 113. Funk, Deutsch. Moose, t. 2. n. 1. Sphagnum obtusifolium Hook and Taylor, partly. Ehrh.

Hab. Bogs, turbaries, &c., abundant.

Fr. June, July Stems 3 inches to a foot long, or more, robust, firm, with short, tumid, usually crowded branches, in fascicles of 3, 4, or 5 together, 2 or 3 of them pendulous and applied to the stems. Stem-leaves subspathulate, obtuse, deflexed; branch-leaves (fig. b.l.) very concave, imbricated, roundish-ovate, cucullate at the apex, which is dorsally sprinkled with prominent sharp papillæ (fig. a.l.), by which mark the species is easily recognised, in addition to the character residing in the utricles of the branches, which are always marked with numerous spiral lines, winding between the circular lateral pores. Capsules rather large, globose, on an elongated pedicel, its walls studded with cuticular stomata. Spores red lish brown. Inflorescence dioicons.

This is one of the largest of the genus, and has more tumid branches than any other. The foliage is usually pale or whitish, but frequently

assumes a red or purplish tint. To observe the spiral striæ of the utricles it is necessary to strip off a few of the leaves from a young branch before placing it in a drop of water under the microscope. This is a constant and unfailing character, not found in any other species. Several varieties are indicated by Bridel in Bryologia Uni.


b. Utricles of the branches without spiral fibres. 2. Sphagnum compactum Bridel (compact Bog-Moss); stems erect, dichotomous, densely cespitose, fastigiate ; branches much crowded, short, erecto-patent; leaves ovato-subulate, obtuse, concave at the apex ; utricles without spiral striæ. (Tab. LXI.)

Sphagnum compactum Bridel, Mant. Musc. and Bryol.

Univ. ii. p. 16. Schwaegr. Suppl. t. 3. Nees and Hornsch.
Bryol. Germ. t. 2. f. 5. Funk, Deutsch. Moose, t. 2.

n. 3. Mough and Nestl. n. 805.
S. latifolium B. minus Hook and Taylor. Turner, Musc.

Hib. (curious aquatic form with lax foliage and slender

elongated flaccid stems). Hab. Wet moors; seldom if ever in turbaries. Very fine, with

fructification, near Arlary, Scotland, Dr. W. Arnott. Ahundant near Oakmere, Delamere Forest, Cheshire, W. Wilson.

Fr., July, August. Stems from 2 to 4 inches long, or more, dichotomously subdivided, very densely and compactly cespitose ; the branches 2–3 together, very short and much crowded, so as to conceal the stem. Branchleaves yellowish, slightly spreading, ovate-subulate, obtuse, when tlattened roundish-ovate, toothed or præmorse at the apex, which is concave, but much less evidently so than in S. cymbifolium, and quite smooth at the back. Pores at the back of the leaf numerous, small, not confined to the margin of the reticulations. Stem-leaves small, elliptical, deflexed. Fruit resembling that of the preceding species. Inflorescence apparently dioicous. Antheridia not observed, though often sought for.

A smaller species than the preceding, and easily recognised by the leaves alone, to say nothing of the absence of spiral striæ in the utricles, which are of a different form. The habit of the species is peculiar, and when growing it might be mistaken for a Jungermannia resembling J. Taylori.

To this species belong the following varieties :

S. immersum Bryol. Germ. t. 2. f. 4.
S. compactum B. rigidum Bryol. Germ. t. 2. f. 5* (which

appears to be S. ambiguum of Iluebener) with longer
and more erect branches, and more spreading, rigid

leaves. Of Sphagnum oblongum Pal. Beauv., Bridel, we know no

thing; it seems to be a variety either of this or of the preceding species.

References to Figures of S. compactum. b. Pairs of branches; lower branch of each pair small and pendent. b.l. Branch-leaves magnified. s.l. Stem-leaves equally magnified. al. Apex of branch-leaf more magnified.

3. Sphagnum molluscum Bruch (pale dwarf Bog-Moss); stem dwarfish, slender, weak, with short soft slender branches ; leaves loosely imbricated, spreading, roundish-ovate, very concave; utricles prominently recurved at the apex ; capsule small, of thin texture, on a long pedicel. (Tab. LX.)

Sphagnum molluscum Bruch in Bridel, Bryol. Univ. 1,

753. Moug. and Nestl. n. 808. Hab. On peat mosses, in the wet hollows where water lodges

in winter, and in bogs, frequently intermixed with other species.

Fr. May, June. The smallest and most delicate of all the species, remarkable for the pale yellowish hue of the foliage. Stems seldom more than 2 inches long, slender, soft, and fragile. Branches short, about 3 together, not crowded, spreading or slightly deflexed, not obviously attenuated. Stem-leaves (fig: s.l.) roundish-ovate, widely-spreading. Branchleaves (fig. b.l.) loosely imbricated and rather widely spreading, very concave, roundish-ovate, not tapering, pale yellowish-white, of soft texture. Areolæ rather large, the interposed tissue of parenchymatous cellules thicker and wider than usual. Perichætial leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute, convolute, rather large. Capsule small, bright, its walls thin; pedicel elongated. Inflorescence dioicous.

S. molluscum is distinguished from all other species by the curiously recurved apex of the utricles on the branches between the leaves (shown much magnified at fig. u.), visible without dissection. The delicate habit of the specics is also peculiar. Sphagnum tenellum of Persoon, supposed by him to be the same as S. molluscum, is unknown to us, except by the figure and description in the Bryologia Ger. manica, and seems to be very different from this. The cellules of the leaves of S. molluscum want the dorsal pores so usual in this genus, the pores being on the upper side of the leaf.

A singular variety of S. molluscum, with densely tufted stems and solitary not fascicled branches, is found near Todmorden by Mr. John Nowell.

4. Sphagnum rubellum Wilson (red dwarf Bog-Moss); dioicous ; stem slender, with short deflexed attenuated branches ; leaves elliptical, obtuse, subsccund; capsule subexserted. (Tab. LX.) Sphagnum rubellum Wilson, MS.

ott? Sphagnum medium P. Beauv. MS. in Herb. Arn Hab. In peat mosses. Plentiful on Risley Moss, near Warring

ton, in places exposed to a moderate degree of moisture, often intermixed with S. molluscum. The fruit rare. Scotland, Dr. Arnott, and Dr. Greville. Ireland, Mr. Templeton, Miss Hutchins (in Ilerb. Turner).

Fr. June, July. This species is not much larger than S. molluscum. Stems from 2—4 inches long, slender ; branches not much crowded, 3 together, slender, deflexed, often curved. Stem-leaves (fig. s.l.) roundishoval, erecto-patent. Branch-leaves (fig. b.l.) elliptic-oblong and obtuse when flattened, appearing ovate by the inflexion of the margin in their natural state, imbricated, concave, subsecund; areola rather large and pellucid, with large pores, colour mostly a pale vinous red. Perichætial leaves widely ovate, acute, convolute. Capsule on a short pedicel, scarcely exserted, at first sessile and included in the perichætium. (fig. c.)

This is readily known from the ordinary state of S. acutifolium by its smaller size and neat delicate habit, and is essentially distinguished by the dioicous inflorescence and elliptical obtuse leaves. The fruit is rare; but the perigonia are found in abundance, and are always conspicuous from their deep vinous red colour in the lower branches. The foliage is almost always more or less tinged with red, beautifully contrasting with the pale yellowish hue of S. molluscum, which very frequently grows intermixed, bearing fruit freely, while S. rubellum produces capsules very sparingly. Some small barren varieties of S. acutifolium are at times difficult to be distinguished from S. rubellum, but in them the leaves are always tapering in the upper half, not truly elliptical as in this moss.

SECT. II. Leaves acuminate, ovate, or ovate-lanceolate. ACUTIFOLIA.

| Leaves erecto-patent. 5. Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh. (slender Bog-Moss); stem more or less elongated, with crowded, slender, attenuated branches; stem-leaves ovate, erect; branch-leaves ovate-lanceolate, tapering, subacute, imbricated, erecto-patent; capsule on a longer pedicel. (Tab. IV.)

Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrhart, Crypt. Exsicc. n. 72.

Schrader, Spicil. Fl. Germ. p. 58. Schwaegr. Suppl. t. 5. Nees and Hornsch. Bryol. Germ. t. 3. f. 8. Hook.

and Taylor (partly). Funk, Deutsch. Moose, t. 3. n. 8. S. acutifolium var. B. capillifolium, var. y. robustum, var.

d. subulatum Bryol. Germ. t. 3. f. 8. Sphagnum capillifolium Hedw. Sp. Musc. Swartz. Smith,

Eng. Bot. t. 1.106. Turner. Moug. and Nestl. n. 11.

(partly). Wahlenberg. Bridel. S. intermedium Hoffm. Germ. 2. p. 22. S. palustre Linn. Sp. Pl. 1569. Dill. Musc. t. 32. f. 2. A.

Hedw. Fund. Musc. (with a figure). Hab. In bogs and marshes.

Fr. June, July. Stems shorter and less slender than in the next species, with more crowded branches, 3 or 5 together ; branches more spreading, straight. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, tapering to a præmorse narrow point, less acute than in S. fimbriatum, and not so much recurved at the apex; the areolæ larger and diaphanous, frequently red or lilac, at other times almost white. Capsule on a longer pedicel than the precedins. Perichætial leaves smaller, acute. Inflorescence monoicous.

This is known from S. fimbriatum by the ovate rather acute stemleaves, more obtuse branch-leaves, and inconspicuous perichætium. The texture of the foliage is more lax and spongy, and the colour is usually very different. Funk's specimen named S. capillifolium belongs to S. cuspidatum, and his S. acutifolium is an unusually slender state of the species, agreeing, however, with the figure in Bryol. Germ. The ordinary state of the species as found in Britain is that named var. y. robustum, by Nees and Hornschuch after Blandow.

6. Sphagnum fimbriatum Wilson (fringe-leaved Bog-Moss); stem slender, elongated, with very slender deflexed attenuated branches ; stem-leaves obovate, very broad and obtuse, fimbriated; branch-leaves orate lanceolate, acuminate; perichætial leaves obovate, obtuse, cucullate; capsule on a short pedicel. (TAB. LX.)

Sphagnum fimbriatum Wilson, MS. Hook. fil. and Wils.

in Musci Antarctici, p. 92. Sphagnum acutifolium (partly), of Hooker and Taylor.

Drummond's Musc. Americ. No. 4. (perhaps var. ε. tenue

Nees and Hornsch. Bryol. Germ. t. 3. f. 8 ****). Hab. In bogs and marshes, not unfrequent, and abundant in fruit.

Fr. June, July Stems very slender, often a foot long and more, loosely cæspitose, with slender deflexed branches, about 5 together. Stem-leaves (fig. s.l.) roundish, widened upwards, very obtuse, fringed at the top and reticulated on the surface. Branch-leaves (fig.b.l.) more acute than in the proceeding species, and of closer texture, slightly recurved at the apex, erecto-patent, imbricated, pale glaucous green, or whitish, never tinged with red. Perichætial leaves (fig.p.l.) very large and conspicuous, obtuse, cucullate, closely imbricated over the ripening capsule, and torn after its elevation on the short pedicel. Inflorescence monoicous.

The more slender habit of this moss, together with the peculiar cauline leaves and large conspicuous perichætium, distinguish this from S. acutifolium, with which it appears to have been frequently confounded. The pallid glaucous hue of the foliage is also another mark of distinction. It is much more common in Lancashire than S. acuti. folium, and bears capsules in profusion in seasons when other species are almost barren; yet the archegonium is always solitary in this species.

7. Sphagnum cuspidatum Dill. Ehrh. (wavy-leaved BogMoss); stem elongated, rather flaccid ; branches distantly fascicled, deflexed, attenuated; younger branches cuspidate; stemleaves ovate, acute, spreading ; branch-leaves lanceolate, tapering, undulated in the margin

when dry. (Tab. LXI.) Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrhart, Crypt. n. 25. (according

to Smith). Smith, Eng. Bot. t. 2092. Turner. Nees and Hornsch. Bryol. Germ. t. 4. f. 9. Mougeot and Nestl. n. 405. Funk, Deutsch. M. t. 3. n. 7. Web, and

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