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** Capsule pedicellate; vaginula sessile. a. Capsule cylindrical ; lid with a straight beak; calyptra mitriform. 29. ENCALYPTA (partly). Calyptra very large, entirely cover

ing the capsule, subulato-cylindrical.

b. Capsule oval ; lid obliquely rostrate; calyptra dimidiate. 5. GYMNOSTOMUM. Perennial ; leaves of close firm texture. 21. POTTIA. Annual, or biennial ; leaves rather succulent, with

lax areolæ.

c. Capsule roundish-pyriform ; lid obliquely rostrate. 12. STYLOSTEGIUM. Capsule subexserted; columella adhering

to the lid; perennial ; leaves channelled, secund. 11. ANODUS. Capsule pedicellate ; columella free; annual, or

biennial ; leaves setaceous, erect.

d. Capsule obovate, or clavato; lid plane, or conical ; leaves loosely reticu

lated.

† Calyptra mitriform. 71. SCHISTOSTEGA. Leaves vertically distichous, nerveless;

calyptra very small. 69. PHYSCOMITRIUM. Leaves spreading every way, nerved,

acute; calyptra large, inflated below; barren flower discoid.

tt Calyptra dimidiate. 70. OEDIPODIUM. Leaves succulent, broad, obtuse; capsule with

a long tapering apophysis resembling a fruitstalk.

e. Capsule globose; lid almost plane.

† Calyptra conico-mitriform, small; leaves nerveless. 30. HEDWIGIA. Barren flower axillary; capsule subsessile, im

mersed. 31. HEDWIGIDIUM. Barren flower terminal ; stem stoloniferous;

leaves plicato-striate; capsule shortly pedicellate, subexerted.

ff Calyptra dimidiate ; leaves nerved. 61. BARTRAMIDULA. Capsule on a long pedicel, drooping;

flowers synoicous.

Division II. Peristome single.

SUBDIVISION I. Calyptra mitriform.

Calyptra plicato-striate.

a. Teeth 4. 39. TETRAPHIS. Perennial, caulescent, cæspitose. 40. TETRODONTIUM. Annual, stem none, gregarious ; leaves few,

very minute.

b. Teeth 16, equidistant. 36. PTYCHOMITRIUM. Teeth bifid ; calyptra subulato-mitriform,

shorter than the capsule.

c. Teeth 16, in pairs. 35. GLYPHOMITRIUM. Calyptra ventricose, entirely covering

the roundish capsule, contracted at the base. 37. ORTHOTRICHUM (partly). Calyptra campanulate, not con

tracted at the base, nearly covering the oblong or obovate capsule.

tt Calyptra smooth, not plicate.

a. Teeth 16, equidistant.

Perennial, caulescent, cæspitose. 29. ENCALYPTA (partly). Calyptra large, subulato-cylindrical,

entirely covering the capsule. 32. SCHISTIDIUM. Calyptra small, conico-mitriform; capsule

immersed, subsessile ; columella adhering to the deciduous

lid. 33. GRIMMIA. Calyptra as in the last (in a few instances sub

dimidiate); capsule pedicellate; columella free; lid rostel

late. 34. RACOMITRIUM. Calyptra larger, subulato-mitriform, the

subulate part solid and subpapillose; capsule oblong; lid subulate, straight; leaves with sinuous areolæ.

11 Annual or biennial, gregarious; leaves setaceous. 8 CAMPYLOSTELIUM. Calyptra conico-subulate, small; capsule

oblong, smooth; fruitstalk geniculate. 9. BRACHYODUS. Calyptra conico-submitriform; capsule stri

ated, on a straight fruitstalk; teeth very short, truncate.

B. Teeth 16, in pairs, plane, reflexed when dry. 66. SPLACHNUM. Calyptra conico-mitriform, small; capsule

apophysate.

7. Peristome a conical plicated membrane. 42. DIPHYSCIUM. Calyptra small, conical ; capsule very large,

sessile.

SUBDIVISION II. Calyptra dimidiate. a. Calyptra inflered at the base, at first conico-mitriform; capsule clavato

pyriform; teeth 16, plane, more or less paired, marked with a medial line ;

leaves loosely reticulated as in SPLACHNUM. 69. DISSODON. Barren flower gemmiform ; leaves obtuse, en

tire; teeth incurved when dry (equidistant in D. splach

noides). 68. TayloRIA. Barren flower capituliform ; leaves acuminate,

serrated; teeth reflexed when dry,

b. Calyptra not inflered at the base, dimidiate.

* Teeth in 8 pairs, reflexed when dry. 67. TETRAPLODON. Capsule oval, with a distinct apophysis ;

leaves loosely reticulated, acuminate. 38. ZYGODON (partly). Capsule clavato-pyriform, furrowed ;

leaves minutely dotted.

** Teeth 16, equidistant, simple, or nearly so.

I Capsule pyriform, or oval, erect or inclined. 59. EntOSTHODON. Capsule pyriform-obovate, erect; calyptra

inflated below, large; leaves loosely reticulated. 54. MIELICHHOFERIA. Capsule pyriform, inclined; calyptra

small, not inflated ; leaves as in Bryum. (Cladocarpous.) 13. BLINDIA. Capsule turbinate, erect; calyptra angular at the

base; fruitstalk short; leaves as in DICRANUM ; perennial,

cæspitose. 10. SELIGERIA. Capsule roundish-pyriform, smooth ; calyptra

small ; leaves setaceous; stems annual or biennial, gre

garious. 9. BRACHYODUS. Capsule oval, erect, striated ; teeth very short,

truncate; (calyptra submitriform ;) leaves setaceous; stems annual or biennial, gregarious.

7. RAABDOWEISSIA. Capsule oval, striated, wide-mouthed ;

teeth lanceolate ; leaves channelled, lax ; stems perennial,

cæspitose. 6. WEISSIA. Capsule oval or oblong, smooth; teeth lanceo

late; leaves of close texture; stems perennial, cæspitose. 22. ANACALYPTA. Capsule as in the last; leaves rather succu

lent, with lax areolæ, as in POTTIA ; stem annual or biennial.

+1 Capsule globosc, nearly horizontal. 65. DISCELIUM. Stem scarcely any, annual, gregarious ; leaves

minute, few, reticulated. 64. CATOSCOPICM. Stems perennial, cæspitose ; leaves nume

rous, of firm texture, nerved. 63. ConosTOMUM. Stems as in the last; teeth united at the

summit into a cone; habit as in BARTRAMIA.

*** Teeth 16, deeply bifid, equidistant.

# Capsule erect, symmetrical. 23. DESMATODON. Capsule oval, or oblong; lid rostellate ;

leaves of soft texture, broad, papillose at the back; stem perennial.

11 Capsule suberect, rather unequal. 15. CYNODONTIUM. Capsule smooth, pyriform-obovate, un

equal; lid rostrate; teeth connivent, irregular, fragile;

leaves of firm texture; stem perennial. 14. ARCTOA. Capsule striated, when dry contracted below

the wide mouth; fruitstalk short; teeth plane, not evi. dently barred; leaves as in DICRANUM.

111 Capsule cernuous or inclined, unequal. 16. DICRANUM. Capsule mostly cernuous, smooth or striated;

lid rostrate; fruitstalk long; teeth distinctly barred;

leaves of close texture, nerved, more or less secund. 17. LEUCOBRYUM. Capsule, lid, and peristome, as in DICRANUM ;

leares spongy, composed of a double layer of loose cellu

lar tissue : nerve indistinct. 72. Fissidens. Teeth with divergent geniculate segments;

leaves vertically distichous. (Some of the species are cladocarpous.)

18. CERATODON. Capsule subcylindrical, unequal; lid short,

conical; teeth cloven almost to the base, the segments connected by trabeculæ, composed of two differently coloured laminæ.

#711 Capsule on an arcuate fruitstalk. 20. CAMPYLOPUS. Capsule striated, unequal; fruitstalk arcu

ate; calyptra fringed at the base; nerve of the leaf broad. 19. DICRANODONTIUM. Capsule smooth, symmetrical; fruit

stalk arcuate; calyptra not fringed at the base.

**** Teeth 32, in pairs, narrow or filiform. 25. DIDYMODON. Capsule oblong, symmetrical, erect; teeth

very fragile and irregular. Habit of TRICHOSTOMUM. 26. TRICHOSTOMUM. Capsule as in the last; teeth persistent,

filiform, erect or inclined, composed of a single layer of

cellules. 24. DISTICHIUM. Capsule as in the preceding; teeth filiform ;

leaves distichous, setaceous from the sheathing base. 27. TORTULA. Capsule oblong, erect; teeth contorted, com

posed of a double layer of differently coloured cellules. 28. CINCLIDOTUS. Capsule immersed or shortly pedicellate;

teeth contorted, anastomosing at the base.

***** Teeth 32 or 64, equidistant, short, obtuse, connected at their apices by

a tympanum formed of the dilated apex of the columella ; nerve of the leaf covered with vertical lamella.

† Capsule not angular ; teeth 32. 43. ATRICHUM. Calyptra almost naked; columella round;

leaves much crisped when dry, not sheathing at the base ;

lamelle few; nerve narrow. 44. OLIGOTRICHUM. Calyptra slightly setose at the apex; co

lumella winged; leaves firmer, sheathing at the base;

nerve wider; lamellæ more numerous. 45. POGONATUM. Calyptra very hairy; capsule without angles,

scarcely strumose ; leaves rigid, densely lamellated; nerve thick and broad.

1 Capsule angular ; teeth 64, rarely 32. 46. POLYTRICHUM. Calyptra very hairy; capsule angular, with

a distinct struma at the base ; leaves as in the last.

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