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DIVISION III. Peristome double.
* Capsule plano-convex. 41. BUXBAUMIA. Capsule large ; outer peristome irregular,
cellular; inner peristome a conical plicated membrane; calyptra small, subconical.
** Capsule cylindrical. 29. ENCALYPTA (partly). Outer peristome of 16 narrow erect
teeth ; inner of 16 cilia ; calyptra large, completely covering the capsule, subulato-cylindrical.
*** Capsule oblong. 37. ORTHOTRICHUM (chiefly). Outer peristome of 16 short
teetb, in pairs; inner of 8 or 16 cilia ; calyptra mitriform, plicato-striate.
**** Capsule obovate, unequal, mouth oblique. 58. FUNARIA. Outer teeth 16, oblique; inner teeth 16, oppo
site to the outer teeth; calyptra inflated below. 57. AMBLYODON. Outer teeth 16, short, obtuse, erect; inner
peristome a membrane divided halfway into 16 narrow carinate processes without intermediate cilia ; calyptra
inflexed at the base ; leaves loosely reticulated. 56. MEESIA. Peristome and calyptra as in AMBLYODON ; leaves
of close firm texture, strongly nerved.
***** Capsule striated. 38. ZYGODON. Capsule clavato-pyriform; calyptra small, dimi
diate; outer teeth 16, in pairs, reflexed when dry; inner
peristome of 8 cilia. 48. AULACOMNION. Capsule oval-oblong, unequal, suberect;
outer teeth 16, equidistant, lanceolate; inner peristome
as in BRYUN. 62. BARTRAMIA. Capsule globose, inclined; peristome as in
Bryum; leaves papillose, reticulated.
****** Capsule smooth, mostly pyriform. 55. PALUDELLA. Capsule oval-oblong, unequal, inclined ; outer
peristome of 16 teeth ; inner peristome a membrane divided lialfway into 16 segments without intermediate cilia ; leaves squarrose.
47. TIMMA. Capsule obovate, cernuous; outer peristome of
16 teeth ; inner a membrane divided halfway into 64 filiform processes variously united at the summits ; leaves sheathing, rigid, lanceolate; barren flowers axillary,
gemmiform. 49. ORTHODONTIUM. Capsule clavato-pyriform, inclined; outer
teeth 16, inflexed when dry; inner peristome deeply divided into 16 narrow carinate processes; leaves very narrow, tender, not sheathing; barren flowers axillary,
gemmiform, aggregate. 50. LEPTOBRYUM. Capsule and peristome as in BRYUM ; stems
of annual growth, without innovations ; leaves almost
setaceous. 51. BRYUM. Capsule pyriform, cernuous or inclined; outer
teeth 16; inner peristome a membrane divided halfway into 16 carinate segments, with or without intermediate cilia ; stems perennial, producing innovations below the
terminal flower; barren flower gemmiform or naked. 52. MNIUM. Capsule oblong, pendulous; peristome as in
BRYUM; stems with innovations from the lower part;
leaves large; barren flower discoid. 53. CINCLIDIUM. Capsule, leaves, and stem, as in MNIUM;
outer teeth 16, short; inner peristome cupuliform.
Sect. I. b. CLADOCARPI. Fructification terminal on very
short lateral branches; but not truly pleurocarpous.
Division I. Peristome none. 2. SPHAGNUM. Capsule globose, sessile on a stalked vaginula.
Division II. Peristome single. 54. MIELICHHOFERIA. Teeth 16, simple; capsule pyriform,
inclined. 72. FISSIDENS (partly). Teeth 16, bifid ; leaves vertically dis
tichous. 28. CINCLIDOTUS (occasionally). Teeth 32, contorted, anasto
mosing at the base ; capsule immersed, or shortly pedicellate.
Sect. II. PLEUROCARPI. Fructification truly lateral.
Division I. Calyptra dimidiate.
SUBDIVISION I. Peristome none. 73. ANECTANGIUM. Capsule oval, erect; lid obliquely rostrate;
stems erect, cæspitose.
SUBDIVISION II. Peristome almost single.
Inner peristome very short and indistinct. 74. LEUCODON. Capsule oval, erect, on a short pedicel; ca
lyptra large; outer teeth 16, bifid or perforated, not hygroscopic; surculi erect, simple ; leaves plicato-striate,
nerveless. 78. PTEROGONIUM. Capsule oblong, erect, on a long fruitstalk;
calyptra small ; outer teeth 16, simple, hygroscopic ; surculi dendroid, with fasciculate curved branches ; leaves
not striated. 76. LEPTODON. Capsule oval, on a very short fruitstalk ; ca.
lyptra and vaginula hairy; surculi pinnate ; branches curled when dry; leaves very obtuse.
SUBDIVISION III. Peristome double.
| Inner peristome composed of 16 cilia. 75. ANTITRICHIA. Capsule on a short curved fruststalk; ca
lyptra rather large, smooth ; inner peristome of 16 fili
form processes ; surculi procumbent, pinnate. 77. ANOMODON. Capsule oval-oblong, erect, on a long fruit
stalk; lid obliquely rostrate ; calyptra small; peristome as in the last ; stems erect, with erect branches, cæspi
tose; leaves of close texture, acuminate, nerved. 81. CYLINDROTHECIUM. Capsule oblong, erect ; outer teeth
16, inserted below the mouth of the capsule ; inner peristome as in NECKERA ; lid shortly rostellate ; stem procumbent, pinnate ; leaves ovate, concave, faintly 2-nerved
at the base; areole very narrow. 85. NECKERA. Capsule oval-oblong, immersed or pedicellate ;
lid obliquely rostrate; outer teeth 16 ; inner peristome of 16 narrow carinate processes ; stem pinnate; leaves complanate, undulated.
it Inner peristome, a membrane divided halfway into 16 carinate segments,
with or without intermediate cilia.
* Capsule symmetrical, crect, or suberect. 84. OMALIA. Leaves complanate, smooth ; nearly allied to
NECKERA. 82. LESKIA. Leaves spreading every way; inner peristome
usually without intermediate cilia ; allied to HYPNUM.
persistent columella ; segments of the inner peristome sca-
adhering to the columella ; stem dendroid, drooping;
** Capsule unequal, cernuous.
itt Inner peristome a reticulated cone. 90. DICHELYMA. Peristome as in FONTINALIS ; capsule scarcely
exserted; calyptra dimidiate, long, twisted ; leaves nerved.
Division II. Calyptra mitriform. 86. HOOKERIA. Capsule cernuous; peristome as in LESKIA ;
calyptra not fringed at the base ; leaves complanate,
ristome divided almost to the base into 16 narrow cari-
spreading every way; areolæ small.
cal, small, not fringed at the base ; peristome as in
outer teeth 16, united in pairs at the apex, twisting when
ORDER I. ANDREÆACEÆ. Schistocarpi Bridel.
1. ANDREÆA Ehrhart, Acrocarpous mosses, with the habit of Jungermannia, fourvalved capsules, and purplish-brown lurid leaves.
Stems erect, somewhat rigid, or occasionally flaccid, cæspitose, sparingly branched, rooting only at the base, brittle when dry; branches fastigiate; innovations from below the floral apex.
Leaves imbricated in eight rows, spreading, concave, oval, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or subulate, entire, nerveless, or nerved, occasionally secund, areolæ dot-like, texture firm, colour purplish-brown.
Inflorescence monoicous or dioicous; flowers terminal, gemmiform ; antheridia oval-oblong, or oval, few, with or without paraphyses; archegonia few, without paraphyses ; perichætium usually large and convolute.
Capsule oval, erect; sessile on the elongated receptacle, as in Sphagnum, laterally 4-cleft or 4-valved, the segments or valves united at the summit by means of the persistent lid, gaping when dry. Calyptra mitræform, thin and fugacious, closely covering the capsule, at first continuous with the vaginula at the summit of the stalked receptacle. Sporangium and columella as in Phascum. Spores rather smalī, at first clustered four together.
Perennial, growing on alpine or subalpine rocks.
This genus, named in honour of André, an Hanoverian naturalist, connects the tribe of mosses with the Jungermanniæ. In the elongated and exserted receptacle of the fruit it is allied to Sphagnum. The calyptra, as in that genus, is severed from the vaginula by the distension of the ripening capsule, and not by an elongation of the fruitstalk as in all other mosses, except Archidium.
Acroschisma of Hook. fil. & Wils. (in Musc. Antarct.) has the capsule cloven only in the upper hall.
a. Leaves nerveless. 1. Andreæa alpina Dill. Linn. (alpine Andræa); stem with elongated fastigiate branches ; leaves imbricated, spreading, obovato-acuminate, concave, contracted below the middle, appressed when dry; perichætial leaves large, elliptic, acute, convolute. (TAB. VIII.)
Andreaca alpina Iledw. Sp. Musc. t. 7. f. p. (the magnified
acute leaf only) Turner. . Smith. Eng. Bot. t. 1278.