the canvassing world is gone, and the deserving wishes of your company here, that so you might world is come. And, withal, I find myself as use the same liberty concerning my actions, one awaked out of sleep; which I have not been which now you exercise concerning my writings. this long time, nor could, I think, have been now For that of Queen Elizabeth, your judgment of without such a great noise as this, which yet is the temper, and truth of that part, which concerns in uurà leni. I have written this to you in haste, some of her foreign proceedings, concurs fully my end being no more than to write, and thereby with the judgment of others, to whom I have to make you know that I will ever continue the communicated part of it; and as things go, I same, and still be sure to wish you as heartily suppose they are more likely to be more and more well as to myself.

justified, and allowed.

And, whereas you say, for some other part, that it moves and opens a fair occasion and broad way into some field of

contradiction ; on the other side, it is written to TO MR. MATHEW.

me from the Leiger at Paris, and some others

also, that it carries a manifest impression of truth Sir,—Two letters of mine are now already with it, and it even convinces as it goes. These walking towards you; but so that we might meet, are their very words; which I write not for mine it were no matter though our letters should lose own glory, but to show what variety of opinion their way. I make a shift in the mean time to rises from the disposition of several readers. be glad of your approaches, and would be more And, I must confess my desire to be, that my glad to be an agent for your presence, who have writings should not court the present time, or been a patient for your absence. If your body by some few places in such sorts as might make indisposition make you acknowledge the health- them either less general to persons, or less perful air of your native country, much more do I manent in future ages. As to the Instauration, assure myself that you continue to have your your so full approbation thereof, I read with much mind no way estranged. And, as my trust with comfort, by how much more my heart is upon it; the state is above suspicion, so my knowledge, and by how much less I expected consent and both of your loyalty and honest nature, will ever concurrence in matter so obscure. Of this I can make me show myself your faithful friend, with- assure you, that though many things of great out scruple: you have reason to commend that hope decay with youth, (and multitude of civil gentleman to me by whom you sent your last, businesses is wont to diminish the price, though although his having travelled so long amongst the not the delight, of contemplations,) yet the prosadder nations of the world make him much the ceeding in that work doth gain with me upon my less easy upon small acquaintance to be under- affection and desire, both by years and businesses. stood. I have sent you some copies of my book And, therefore, I hope, even by this, that it is of the Advancement, which you desired, and a well pleasing to God, from whom and to whom little work of my recreation, which you desired all good moves. To him I most heartily comnot. My Instauration I reserve for our confer- | mend you. ence; it sleeps not. These works of the alphabet are in my opinion of less use to you where you are now, than at Paris; and therefore I conceived that

TO SIR HENRY SAVILLE. you had sent me a kind of tacit countermand of your former request. But, in regard that some SIR,~Coming back from your invitation at friends of yours have still insisted here, I send Eton, where I had refreshed myself with comthem to you; and, for my part, I value your own pany, which I loved; I fell into a consideration reading more than your publishing them to others. of that part of policy whereof philosophy speaketh Tlius, in extreme haste, I have scribbled to you I too much, and laws too little; and that is, of eduknow not what, which, therefore, is the less cation of youth. Whereupon fixing my mind affected, and for that very reason will not be awhile, I found straightways, and noted, even in esteemed the less by you.

the discourses of philosophers, which are so large in this argument, a strange silence concerning one principal part of that subject. For, as touching the framing and seasoning of youth

to moral virtues, (as tolerance of labours, contiSir, I thank you for your last, and pray you nency from pleasures, ohedience, honour, and the to believe, that your liberty in giving opinion of like,) they handle it; but touching the impro e. those writings which I sent you, is that which I ment and helping of the intellectual powers, as sought, which I expected, and which I take in of conceit, memory, and judgment, they say no. exceeding good part; so good, as that it makes thing; whether it were, that they thought it in me recontinue, or rather continue my hearty I be a matter wherein nature only prevailed, or that



they intended it, as referred, to the several and Papişts, of all the world to speak well of you; and proper arts, which teach the use of reason and besides, I am persuaded (which is above all speech. But, for the former of these two reasons, earthly glory) you shall do God good service in it. howsoever it pleaseth them to distinguish of I pray deal with his majesty in it. I rest habits and powers; the experience is manifest Your devoted and bounden servant, enough, that the motions and faculties of the wit

FRA. Bacon. and memory may be not only governed and June 13, 1616. guided, but also confirmed and enlarged, by cusioms and exercise daily applied: as, if a man exercise shooting, he shall not only shoot nearer the mark, but also draw a stronger bow. And, as for the latter, of comprehending these precepts, IT MAY PLEASE your most excellent MAJESTY, within the arts, of logic and rhetoric; if it be First, from the bottom of my heart I thank the rightly considered, their office is distinct altoge- God of all mercy and salvation, that he hath prether from this point; for it is no part of the doc- served you from receiving any hurt by your fall; trine, of the use or handling of an instrument, to and I pray his Divine Majesty ever to preserve teach how to whet or grind the instrument, to give you, on horseback and on foot, from hurt and fear it a sharp edge; or, how to quench it, or other-of hurt. wise, whereby to give it a stronger temper. Now, touching the clothing business; for that Wherefore, finding this part of knowledge not I perceive the cloth goeth not off as it should, and broken, I have, but “ tanquam aliud agens," that Wiltshire is now come in with complaint, as entered into it, and salute you with it; dedicating well as Gloucestershire and Worcestershire, so it, after the ancient manner, first as to a dear that this gangrene creepeth on; I humbly pray friend, and then as to an apt person; forasmuch your majesty to take into your majesty's princely as you have both place to practise it, and judg- consideration a remedy for the present stand, ment and leisure to look deeper into it than I have which certainly will do the deed; and for any done. Herein you must call to mind, "Apiscy uàv thing that I know, will be honourable and conit is. Though the argument be not of great venient, though joined with some loss in your height and dignity, nevertheless, it is of great and majesty's customs, which I know, in a business universal use. And yet I do not see why, to of this quality, and being but for an interim, till consider it rightly, that should not be a learning you may negotiate, your majesty doth not esteem. of height which teacheth to raise the highest And it is this : and worthiest part of the mind. But, howsoever That your majesty by your proclamation do that be, if the world take any light and use by forbid (after fourteen days, giving that time for this writing, I will, the gratulation be to the good suiting men's selves) the wearing of any stuff friendship and acquaintance between us two. made wholly of silk, without mixture of wool, for And so recommend you to God's divine protec- the space of six months. So your majesty shall tion.

supply outward vent with inward use, specially for the finer cloths, which are those wherein the stand principally is, and which silk wearers are likest to buy; and you shall show a most princely

care over thousands of the poor people; and, beSin,—There is a particular wherein I think you sides, your majesty shall blow a horn, to let the may do yourself honour, which, as I am informed, Flemings know your majesty will not give over hath been laboured by my Lady of Bedford, and the chase. Again, the winter season coming on, put in good way by the Bishop of Bath and Wells, is fittest for wearing of cloth, and there is scope concerning the restoring to preach of a famous enough left for bravery and vanity by lacing and preacher, one Doctor Burgesse, who, though he embroidery, so it be upon cloth or stuffs of wool. hath been silenced a great time, yet he hath now I thought it my duty to offer and submit this nrude such a submission touching his conformity, remedy, amongst others, to your majesty's great as giveth satisfaction. It is much desired also by wisdom, because it pleased you to lay the care of Gray's Inn, (if he shall be free from the state,) to this business upon me; and indeed my care did fly choose him for their preacher: and certainly it is to it before, as it shall always do to any knots and safer to place him there, than in another auditory, difficulties in your business, wherein hitherto I because he will be well watched, if he should any have been not unfortunate. God ever have you in ways Aly forth in his sermons beyond duty. This his most precious custody. may seem a trifle; but I do assure you, in open

Your majesty's most faithful ing this man's mouth to preach, you shall open

and most bounden servant, very many mouths to speak honour of you; and I

FRA. BACON confess I would have a full cry of Puritans, of

Sept. 13, 1616.



TO THE LORD VISCOUNT VILLIERS. the direction touching the conveniency. And, My VERY GOOD LORD,

therefore, I send your lordship a form of warrant It was my opinion from the beginning, that this for the king's signature, whereby the framing of company will never overcome the business of the the business, and that which belongeth to it, cloth; and that the impediments are as much or may be referred to myself, with Serjeant Monmuere in the persons which are instrumenta animata tague and Serjeant Finch; and though Montague than in the dead business itself.

should change his place, that alteration hurteth I have therefore sent unto the king here enclosed not the business, but rather helpeth it. And nly reasons, which I pray your lordship to show because the inquiry and survey touching inns, his majesty.

will require much attendance and charge, and the The new company and the old company are making of the licenses, I shall think fit (when but the sons of Adam to me, and I take myself to that question cometh to me) to be to the justice have some credit with both, but it is upon fear of assize, and not to those that follow this busirather with the old, and upon love rather with the ness: therefore, his majesty may be pleased to Dfx, and yet with both upon persuasion that I consider what proportion or dividend shall be Liderstand the business.

allotted to Mr. Mompesson, and those that shall Nevertheless I walk in via regia, which is not follow it at their own charge, which useth in absolutely acceptable to either. For the new like cases to be a fifth. So I ever rest company would have all their demands granted, Your lordship's true and most devoted servant, and the old company would have the king's work

Fr. Bacon. given over and deserted.

Nov. 13, 1616. My opinion is, that the old company be drawn to succeed into the contract, (else the king's honour suffereth ;) and that we all draw in one way to effect that. If time, which is the wisest MY VERY GOOD LORD, of things, prove the work impossible or incon I think his majesty was not only well advised, venient, which I do not yet believe, I know his but well inspired, to give order for this same majesty and the state will not suffer them to wicked child of Cain, Bertram, to be examined perish.

before he was further proceeded with. And I, I wish what shall be done were done with for my part, before I had received his majesty's resolution and speed, and that your lordship (be- pleasure by my lord chamberlain, went thus cause it is a gracious business) had thanks of it far; that I had appointed him to be further exnext the king; and that there were some commis- amined, and also had taken order with Mr. Solision under his majesty's sign manual, to deal citor that he should be provided to make some with some selected persons of the old company, declaration at his trial, in some solemn fashion, and to take their answers and consent under their and not to let such a strange murder pass as if it hands, and that the procuring the commission, had been but a horsestealing. and the procuring of their offers to be accepted, But upon his majesty's pleasure signified, I were your lordship's work.

forth with caused the trial to be stayed, and exIn this treaty my lord chancellor must by no amined the party according to his majesty's quesmeans be left out, for he will moderate well, and tions; and also sent for the principal counsel in aimeth at his majesty's ends.

the cause, whereupon Sir John Tyndal's report Mr. Solicitor is not yet returned, but I look for was grounded, to discern the justice or iniquity him presently. I rest

of the said report, as his majesty likewise comYour lordship's true and

manded. most devoted servant, I send therefore, the case of Bertram, truly

Fr. Bacon. stated and collected, and the examination taken Monday, 14th of October, at 10 of the clock,

before myself and Mr. Solicitor; whereby it will appear to his majesty that Sir John Tyndal (as to this cause) is a kind of a martyr; for if ever ha

made a just report in his life, this was it. TO TIIE LORD VISCOUNT VILLIERS.

But the event since all this is, that this Ber. My very gooD LORD,

tram being, as it seemeth, indurate or in despaii, Now, that the king has received my opinion, hath hanged himself in prison; of which acciwith the judge's opinion into whom it was dent, as I am sorry, because he is taken from referred, touching the proposition for inns in example and public justice, so yet I would not point of law; it resteth that it be moulded and for any thing it had been before his examination. carried in that sort, as it may pass with best con- so that there may be otherwise some occasion tentment and conveniency. Wherein I, that ever taken, either by some declaration in the King's love good company, as I was joined with others Bench upon the return of the coroner's inquest, in the legal points, so I desire not to be alone in or by some printed book of the fact, or by some Vol. III.-10



may be.

cther means (whereof I purpose to advise with | kept as a secret in the deck, (and was not only of rny lord chancellor) to have both his majesty's Hartington, but also of most of the other particuroyal care, and the truth of the fact, with the lars in your book,) I caused to be thoroughly circunıstances manifested and published. looked into and provided for; without which

For the taking a tie of my lord chief justice your assurance had been nothing worth; and yet before he was placed, it was done before your í handled it so, and made the matter so well etter came, and on Tuesday Heath and Shute understood, as you were not put to be a suitor 10 shall be admitted and all perfected.

the prince, for his good will in it, as others My lord chancellor purposeth to be at the hall ignorantly thought you must have done. 10-morrow, to give my lord chief justice his oath ; Fifthly, The annexation,* (which nobody I pray God it hurt him not this cold weather. dreamt of, and which some idle, bold lawyer God ever prosper you.

would perhaps have said had been needless, and Your true and most devoted servant, yet is of that weight, that there was never set

FR. Bacon. any man that would purchase any such land Sunday night, the 17th of Noveniber, 1616.

from the king, except he had a declaration to discharge it;) I was provident to have it discharged by declaration.

Sixthly, Lest it should be said, that your lord

ship was the first, (except the queen and the My very good LORD,

prince) that brake the annexation, upon a mere I am glad to find your lordship mindful of your gift; for that others had it discharged only upon own business, and if any man put you in mind sale, which was for the king's profit and necesof it, I do not dislike that neither; but your lord-sity; I found a remedy for that also; because I ship may assure yourself in whatsoever you com- have carved it in the declaration, as that this mit to me, your lordship’s further care shall be was not gift to your lordship, but rather a purneedless. For I desire to take nothing froin my chase and exchange (as indeed it was) for Shermaster and my friend, but care, and therein I am bourn. so covetous, as I will leave thein as little as

Seventhly and lastly, I have taken order (as

much as in me was) that your lordship in these Now, therefore, things are grown to a conclu- things which you have passed be not abused, if sion, touching your land and office, I will give you part with them; for I have taken notes in a your lordship an account of that which is passed; book of their values and former offers. and acquaint your judgment (which I know to be Now for your office. great and capable of any thing) with your own First, Whereas my Lord Teynham at the first business; that you niay discern the difference would have had your lordship have had but one between doing things substantially, and between life in it, and he another; my lord treasurer, and shuming and talking: and first for your patent. the solicitor and Deccombe were about to give

First, It was my counsel and care that your way to it; I turned utterly that course, telling book should be fec-farm and not fee-simple; them that you were to have two lives in it, as whereby the rent of the crown in succession is well as Somerset had. not diminished, and yet the quantity of the land Secondly, I have accordingly, in the assurance 'which you have upon your value is enlarged; from your deputies, made them acknowledge the whereby you have both honour and profit. trust and give security not only for your lordship's

Secondly, By the help of Sir Lyonel Cranfield time, but after: so as you may dispose (if you I advanced the value of Sherbourn from 26,0001. should die, which I would be sorry to live to) the (which was thought and admitted by my lord profits of the office by your will or otherwise to treasurer and Sir John Deccomb as a value of any of your friends, for their comfort and advancegreat favour to your lordship, because it was a nient. thousand pounds more than it was valued at to Thirdly, I dealt so with Whitlocke as well as Somerset) to thirty-two thousand pounds, where- Heath as there was no difficulty made of the sure by there was six thousand pounds gotten and yet render. justly.

Lastly, I did cast with myself, that if your Thirdly, I advised the course of rating Harting- lordship's deputies had come in by Sir Edward lon at a hundred years' purchase, and the rest at Coke, who was tied to Somerset, it would have thirty-five years' purchase fee-farm, to be set been subject to some clamour from Somerset, down and expressed in the warrant; that it may and some question what was forfeited by Somerappear, and remain of record, that your lordshir set's attainder (being but of felony) to the king : had no other rates made to you in favour than but now they coming in from a new chief justice, such as purchasers upon sale are seldom drawn all is without question or scruple. into; whereby you have honour.

* The anneration by which lands, &c. were united or anFourthly, That iease to the feoffees, which was noxed to the Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster

Thus your lordship may see my love and care mistaking, and then a lie, and then a challenge, towards you, which I think infinitely too little in and then life: saying that I did not marvel seeing respect of the fulness of my mind; but I thought. Xerxes shed tears to think none of his great good to write this, to make you understand better army should be alive once within a hundred the state of your own business; doing by you as years, his majesty were touched with compassion I do by the king; which is, to do his business io think that not one of his attendants but might safely and with foresight, not only of to-morrow be dead within twenty-four hours by the duel. or next day, but afar off, and not to come fiddling This I write because his majesty may be wary with a report to him, what is done every day, what he sayeth to me, (in things of this nature,) I but to give him up a good sum in the end. being so apt to play the blab. In this also, I

I purpose to send your lordship a calendar fair forgot not to prepare the judges, and wish them written of those evidences which concern your to profess, and as it were to denounce, that in all estate, for so much as I have passed my hands; cases of duel capital before them, they will use which in truth are not fit to remain with solicitors, equal severity towards the insolent murder by the no, nor with friends, but in some great cabinet, duel, and the insidious murder; and that they to be made for that purpose.

will extirpate that difference out of the opinions All this while I must say plainly to your lord- of men, which they did excellent well. ship, that you fall short for your present charge, I must also say that it was the first time that I except you play the good husband : for the oflice heard my Lord of Arundel speak in that place; of Teynham is in reversion, Darcye's land is in and I do assure your lordship, he doth excellently reversion; all the land in your books is but in become the court; he speaketh wisely and weightreversion, and yields you no present profit, be- ily, and yet easily and clearly, as a great noblecause you pay the fee-farm. So as you are a man should do. strange heteroclite in grammar, for you want the There hath been a proceeding in the King's present tense; many verbs want the preterperfect Bench, against Bertram's keeper, for misdemeantense and some the future tense, but none want or, and I have put a little pamphlet (prettily the present tense. I will hereafter write to your penned by one Mr. Trotte, that I set on work lordship what I think of for that supply; to the touching the whole business) to the press by my end, that you may, as you have begun to your lord chancellor's advice. great honour, despise money, where it crosseth I pray God direct his majesty in the cloth busireason of state or virtue. But I will trouble you ness, that that thorn may be once out of our sides. no further at this time. God ever preserve and His majesty knoweth my opinion ab antiquo. prosper your lordship.

Thanks he to God of your health, and long may Your true and most devoted servant. you live to do us all good. I rest

Fr. Bacon.

Your true and inost devoted servant. November 29, 1616.

FR. Bacon.




I delivered the proclamation for cloth to Secre- TIIS LETTER WAS WRITTEN TO THE EARL OF tary Winwood on Saturday, but he keepeth it to


BACON WAS MADE LORD KEEPER OF THE GREAT carry it down himself, and goeth down, as I take it, to-day: his majesty may perceive by the docket of the proclamation, that I do not only study, but MY DEAREST Lord, act that point touching the judges, which his ma It is both in cares and kindness, that small ones jesty commandeth in your last.

float up to the tongue, and great ones sink down Yesterday was a day of great good for his ma-into the heart in silence. Therefore, I could jesty's service, and the peace of this kingdom speak little to your lordship to day, neither had I concerning duels, by occasion of Darcye's case. fit time. But I must profess thus much, that in I spake big, and publishing his majesty's straight this day's work you are the truest and perfectest charge to me, said it had struck me blind, as in mirror and example of firm and generous friendship point of duels and cartels, &c., I should not know that ever was in court.

And I shall count every a coronet from a hatband. I was bold also to day lost, wherein I shall not either study your declare how excellently his majesty had express- welldoing in thought, or do your name honour in ed to me a contemplation of his, touching duels; speech, or perform you service in deed. Good that is, that when he came forth and saw himself my lord, account and accept me princely attended with goodly noblesse and gen Your most bounden and devoted tlemen, he entered into the thought, that none of friend and servant of all men living, their lives were in certainty, not for twenty-four

Fr. Bacon, C.S hours, from the duel; for it was but a heat or a March 7, 1616.

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