that good correspondence towards my dear ally, weaken by division and disunion of the heads; and your good friend, now abroad, as no incon- the other, by recovering and winning the people venience may grow that way. Thus have I play- by justice, which of all other causes is the best. ed the ignorant statesman, which I do to nobody Now for the Athenian question, you discourse

your lordship, except I do it to the queen well, “Quid igitur agendum est ?" I will shoot sometimes, when she trains me on. But your my fool's bolt, since you will have it so. The lordship will accept my duty and good meaning, Earl of Ormond to be encouraged and comforted and secure me touching the privateness of that I above all things, the garrisons to be instantly prowrite.

vided for; for opportunity makes a thief: and if Your lordship’s to be commanded, he should mean never so well now, yet such an

FR. Bacox. advantage as the breaking of her majesty's garri

sons, might tempt a trve man. And because he may as well waver upon his own inconstancy, as

upon occasion, and want of variableness is never SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE EARL OF ESSEX, restrained but with fear, I hold it necessary to be

menaced with a strong war; not by words, but by Those advertisements which your lordship im- musters and preparations of forces here, in case parted to me, and the like, I hold to be no more the accord proceed not; but none to be sent over, certain to make judginent upon than a patient's lest it disturb the treaty, and make him look to be water to a physician: therefore for me upon one overrun as soon as he hath laid down arms. And, water to make a judgment, were indeed like a but that your lordship is too easy to pass, in such foolish bold mountebank, or Dr. Birket, yet, for cases, from dissimulation to verity, 1 think, if willing duty's sake, I will set down to your lord- your lordship lent your reputation in this case, it ship what opinion sprung in my mind upon that I is to pretend, that is not a defensive war, as in read. The letter from the council there, leaning times past, but a full reconquest of those parts of to distrust, I do not much rely upon, for three the country be resolved on, you would accept the causes. First, because it is always both the grace charge, I think it would help to settle him, and and the safety from blame of such a council to err win you a great deal of honour gratis. And that in caution : whereunto add, that it may be they, which most properly concerneth this action, is it or some of them, are not without envy towards prove a peace, I think her majesty shali do well the person who is used in treating the accord. to cure the root of the disease, and to profess by a Next, because the time of this treaty hath no show commission of peaceable men chiefly of respect of dissimulation, for that Tyrone is now in no and countenance, the reformation of abuses, extorstreights, but like a gamester that will give over tions and injustices there, and to plant a stronger because he is a winner, not because he hath no and surer government than heretofore, for the ease more money in his purse.

and protection of the subject; for the removing of Lastly, I do not see but those articles whereon the sword, or government in arms, from the Earl they ground their suspicion, may as well proceed of Ormond, or the sending of a deputy, which out of fear as out of falsehood, for the retaining of will eclipse it, if peace follow, I think unseasonathe dependence of the protracting the admission ble. Lastly, I hold still my opinion, both for of a sheriff, the refusing to give his son for hostage, your better information, and your fuller declarathe holding from present repair to Dublin, the re- tion of your care, and evermore meriting service, fusing to go presently to accord, without includ- that your lordship have a set conference with the ing O'Donnell, and others his associates, may persons I named in my former writing. I rest, very well come of a guilty reservation, in case he

At your lordship’s service, should receive hard measure, and not out of

FR. Bacon. treachery; so as if the great person be faithful, and that you have not here some present intelligence of present succours from Spain, for the expectation whereof Tyrone would win time, I see no deep cause of distrusting the cause if it be good. And for the question, her inajesty seemeth My SINGULAR Good LORD, to me a winner three ways: first, her purse shall Your note of my silence in your occasions haih have rest: next, it will divert the foreign designs made me set down these few wandering lines, as unon that place: thirdly, though her majesty is one that would say somewhat, and can say nothing iske for a time to govern precario in the north, and touching your lordship’s intended charge for Irebe not in true command in better state there than land; which my endeavour I know your lordship before, yet, besides the two respects of ease of will accept graciously and well, whether your charge, and advantage of opinion abroad, before lordship take it by the handle of the cccasion mentioned, she shali have a time to use her ministered from yourself, or of the affection from princely policy in two points: in the one, to which it proceedeth. Your lordship is designed



to a service of great merit and great peril; and defaults of so many former governors, and the as the greatness of the peril must needs include clearing the glory of so many happy years' reign, no small consequence of peril, if it be not tem- only in this part excepted. Nay, farther, how far perately governed; so all immoderate success forth the peril of that state is interlaced with the extinguishe merit, and stirreth up distaste and peril of England; and, therefore, how great the envy, the assured forerunner of whole changes of honour is to keep and defend the approaches of peril. But I am at the last point first, some good this kingdom, I hear many discourse; and indeed spirit leading my pen to presage your lordship’s there is a great difference, whether the tortoise success; wherein it is true, I am not without my gather herself into her shell hurt or unhurt; and cracle and divinations, none of them superstitious, if any man be of opinion, that the nature of an and yet n t all natural: for, first, looking into the enemy doth extenuate the honour of a service, course of God's providence in things now depend- being but a rebel and a savage, I differ from him ; ing, and calling into consideration how great for I see the justest triumphs that the Romans in things God hath done by her majesły, and for her their greatest greatness did obtain, and that collect he hath disposed of this great dissection whereof the emperors in their styles took addi. in Ireland, whereby to give an urgent occasion to tions and denominations, were of such an enemy; the reduction of that whole kingdom, as upon the that is, people barbarous, and not reduced to rebellion of Desmond there ensued the reduction civility, magnifying a kind of lawless liberty, of that province. Next, your lordship goeth prodigal of life, hardened in body, furtified in against three of the unluckiest vices of all other, woods and bogs, placing both justice and fecility disloyalty, ingratitude, and insolence; which in the sharpness of their swords. Such were the three offences in all examples have seldom their Germans and ancient Britons, and divers others. doom adjourned to the world to come. Lastly, he Upon which kind of people, whether the victory that shall have had the honour to know your lord- be a conquest, or a reconguest upon a rebellion or ship inwardly, as I have had, shall find “ bona revolt, it made no difference that ever I could find, exta," whereby he may better ground a divination in honour. And, therefore, it is not the enriching of good, than upon the dissection of a sacrifice. the predatory war that hath the pre-eminence in But that part I leave, for it is fit for others to be honour; else should it be more honour to bring in ronfident upon you, and you to be confident upon a carrack of rich burden, than one of the twelve the cause, the goodness and justice whereof is Spanish apostles. But then this nature of people such as can hardly be matched in any example, doth yield a higher point of honour (considering it being no ambitious war of foreigners, but a in truth and substance) than any war can yield recovery of subjects, and that after lenity of con- which should be achieved against a civil enemy, ditions often tried; and a recovery of them not if the end may be— pacique imponere morein," only to obedience, but to humanity and policy, to replant and refound the policy of that pation, from more than Indian barbarism. There is yet to which nothing is wanting but a just and civil another kind of divination familiar in matters of government. Which design, as it doth descend

to relieth upon in his time, where he saith, that in that action, though he paid tribute to nature, which for the time past is worst of all, is for the and not to fortune,) so I hope your lordship shall time to come the best, which is, that things go ill be as fatal a captain to this war, as Africanus was not by accident but by error; wherein though to the war of Carthage, after that both his uncle your lordship hath been a waking censor, yet, you and his father had lost their lives in Spain in the must look for no other now, but “ medice, cura teipsum;" and although your lordship shall not Now, although it be true, that these things be the blessed physician that cometh to the de- which I have writ (being but representations clination of the disease, yet, you embrace that con- unto your lordship of the honour and appearance dition which many noble spirits have accepted for of success and enterprise) be not much to the advantage, which is, that you go upon the greater ' purpose of my direction, yet, it is that which is peril of your fortune, and the less of your reputa- best to me, being no man of war, and ignorant in tion; and so the honour countervaileth the adven- the particulars of state: for a man may by the ture; of which honour your lordship is in no eye set up the white right in the midst of the butt, small possession, when that her inajesty, known though he be no archer. Therefore I will only to be one of the most judicious princes in discern- add this wish, according to the English phrase, ing of spirits that ever governed, hath made choice which termeth a well-wishing advice a wish, of you merely out of her royal judgment, (her that your lordship in this whole action, looking affection inclining rather to continue your attend-forward, set down this position; that merit is ance,) into whose hands and trust to put the com- worthier than fame; and looking back hither, mandment and conduct of so great forces, the would remember this text, that “ obedience is gathering in the fruit of so great charge, the exe- better than sacrifice.” For designing to fame cution of so many councils, the redeeming of the and glory may make your lordship, in the adven

same war.

draw my

ture of your person, to be valiant as a private SIR FRANCIS BACON IN RECOMMENDATION of soldier, rather than as a general; it may make


LAND, A FEW DAYS BEFORE QUEEN ELIZA. you in your commandments rather to be gracious

BETH'S DEATH. than disciplinary; it may make you press action, in the respect of the great expectation conceived, MAY IT PLEASE YOUR GOOD LORDSHIP. rather hastily than seasonably and safely; it may

As the time of sowing of seed is known, but make you seek rather to achieve the war by force, the time of coming up and disclosing is casual, than by mixture of practice; it may make you or according to the season; so I am a witness to (if God shall send you prosperous beginnings) myself, that there hath been covered in my mind rather seek the fruition of the honour, than the a long time a seed of affection and zeal towards perfection of the work in hand. And for your your lordship, sown by the estimation of your proceeding like a good Protestant, (upon warrant, virtues, and your particular honours and favours, and not upon good intention,) your lordship to my brother deceased, and to myself; which knoweth, in your wisdom, that as it is most fit seed still springing, now bursteth forth into this for you to desire convenient liberty of instruction, profession. And, to be plain with your lordship, so it is no less fit for you to observe the due it is very true, and no winds or noises of civil limits of them, remembering that the exceeding matters can blow this out of my head or heart, of them may not only procure (in case of adverse that your great capacity and love towards studies accident) a dangerous disavow, but also (in case

and contemplations, of a higher and worthier: of prosperous success) be subject to interpreta- nature than popular

, a nature rare in the world, tion, as if all was not referred to the right end.

and in a person of your lordship's quality almost Thus I have presumed to write these few lines singular, is to me a great and chief motive to to your lordship, “ in methodo ignorantiæ,” which

affection and admiration towards you: is, when a man speaketh of any subject not and, therefore, good my lord, if I may be of any according to the parts of the matter, but accord- use to your lordship by my head, tongue, pen, ing to the model of his own knowledge: and means, or friends, I humbly pray you to hold me most humbly desire your lordship, that the weak- your own: and herewithal, not to do so much dis-. ness thereof may be supplied in your lordship, by advantage to my good mind, nor partly, to your a benign acceptation, as it is in me by my best own worth, as to conceive, that this commendawishiny.

tion of my humble service produceth out of any
Fr. Bacon.

straits of my occasions, but merely out of an
election, and indeed, the fulness of my heart.
And so, wishing your lordship all prosperity, I



SIR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. ROBERT KEMPE, No man can expound my doings better than your lordship, which makes me need to say the

Mr. Kempe, this alteration is so great, as you less; only I humbly pray you to believe that I might justly conceive some coldness of my affecaspire to the conscience and commendation of tion towards you, if you should hear nothing from " bonus civis” and “ bonus vir;” and that though me, I living in this place. It is in vain to tell I love some things better, I confess, that I love your you, with what a wonderful still and calm this lordship; yet, I love few persons better, both for wheel is turned round, which, whether it be a gratitude's sake, and for virtues, which cannot remnant of her felicity that is gone, or a fruit of hurt, but by accident. Of which my good affec-his reputation that is coming, I will not detertion it may please your lordship to assure your- mine; for, I cannot but divide myself, between self, of all the true effects and offices that I can her memory and his name. Yet, we account it yield: for as I was ever sorry your lordship but as a fair morn before sunrising, before lus should fly with waxen wings, doubting Icarus's majesty's presence; though, for my part, I see . fortune; so, for the growing up of your own not whence any weather should arise. The feathers, be they ostriches or other kind, no man Papists are contained with fear enough, and hope shall be more glad; and this is the axle-tree, too much. The French is thought to turn his whereupon I have turned, and shall turn. Which practice upon procuring some disturbance in having already signified unto you by some near Scotland, where crowns may do wonders. But means, having so fit a messenger for mine own this day is so welcome to the nation, and the time letter, I thought good to redouble also by writing. so short, as I do not fear the effect. My Lord of And so I commend you to God's protection. Southampton expecteih release by the next deI'rom Gray's Ion, etc.

spatch, and is already much visited, and much
FR. Bacon.

well wished. There is continual posting, by
men of good quality towards the king, the rather,


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July 19. 600.

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I think, because this springtime it is but a kind portunity can possibly minister or offer. And of sport. It is hoped, that as the state here hath that is, the causes of Ireland, if they be taken by performed the part of good attorneys, to deliver the right handle: for if the wound be not ripped the king quiet possession of his kingdom; so the up again, and come to a festered sense, by new king will redeliver them quiet possession of their foreign succours, I think that no physician will go places, rather filling places void, than removing on much with letting blood - in declinatione men placed.

morbi,” but will intend to purge and corroborate. So, etc. To which purpose I send you mine opinion, with

out labour of words in the enclosed, and sure I

am, that if you shall enter into the matter accordBIR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. DAVID FOULES IN ing to the vivacity of your own spirit, nothing SCOTLAND, UPON THE ENTRANCE OF HIS MA can make unto you a more gainful return; for

you shall make the queen's felicity complete, Sir, the occasion awaketh in me the remem- which now (as it is) is incomparable; and for brance of the constant and mutual good offices yourself, you shall make yourself as good a pawhich passed between my good brother and triot as you are thought a politic, and to have no yourself; whereunto, as you know, I was not

less generous ends than dexterous delivery of altogether a stranger, though the time and design yourself towards your ends; and as well to have (as between brethren) made me more reserved. true arts and grounds of government, as the faBut well do I bear in mind the great opinion cility and felicity of practice and negotiation ; which my brother (whose judgment I much and to be as well seen in the periods and tides of reverence) would often express to me of the extra- estates, as in your own circle and way; than the ordinary sufficiency, dexterity, and temper, which which I suppose nothing can be a better addition he had found in you, in the business and service and accumulation of honour unto you. of the king our sovereign lord. This latter bred

This, I hope, I may in privateness write, either in me an election, as the former gave an induce- as a kinsinan, that may be bold, or as a scholar, ment, for me to address myself to you, and to that hath liberty of discourse, without committing make this signification of my desire, towards a

of any absurdity. If not, I pray your honour to mutual entertainment of good affection and cor

believe, I ever loved her majesty and the state, respondence between us, hoping that some good

and now love yourself; and there is never any effect

may result of it, towards the king's service, vehement love without some absurdity, as the and that for our particulars, though occasion give Spaniard well saith, “ desuario con la calentura.” you the precedence, of furthering my being known So, desiring your honour's pardon, I ever conby good note unto the king; so, no long time will

tinue, etc. intercede, before I, on my part, shall have some

Fr. Bacon. means given to requite your favours, and verify your commendation. And so, with my loving cominendations, (good Mr. Foules,) I leave you sir FRANCIS BACON TO THE LORD TREASURER, to God's goodness. From Gray's Inn, this 23th of March.


I was sorry to find by your lordship's speech yesterday, that my last speech in Parliament,

delivered in discharge of my conscience, my duty SIR FRANCIS BACON TO SIR ROBERT CECII, AFTER DEFEAT OF THE SPANIARDS IN IRELAND, sive: if it were misreported, I would be glad to

to God, her majesty, and my country, was offenFOR REDUCING THAT KINGDOM TO CIVILITY,

attend your lordship, to disavow any thing I said

not; if it were misconstrued, I would be glad to IT MAY PLEASE YOUR Honour,

expound my words, to exclude any sense I meant As one that wisheth you all increase of honour, not; if my heart be misjudged hy imputation of and as one that cannot leave to love the state, popularity, or opposition, I have great wrong, what interest soever I have, or may come to have and the greater, because the manner of my speech in it, and as one that now this dead vacation time did most evidently show that I spake must simhave some leisure “ad aliud agendum," I will ply, and only to satisfy my conscience, and not presume to propound unto you that which, though with any advantage or policy to sway the case, you cannot but see, yet I know not whether you and my terms carried all signification of duty and apprehend and esteem it in so high a degree that real towards her majesty and he service. It is very is, for the best action of importation to yourself, true, that from the beginning, whatsoever was a of sound honour and merit' to her majesty, and double subsidy I did wish might for precedent's this crown, without ventosity or popularity, that sake appear to be extraordinary,and for discontent's the riches of any occasion, or the tide of any op- sake might not have been levied upon the poorer

Vol. III.-2


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sort, though otherwise I wished it as rising as I enclosed, because I greatly desire so far forth to think this will prove, or more. This was my preserve my credit with you, as thus: that whereas mind, I confess it: and therefore I most humbly lately (perhaps out of too much desire, which inpray your lordship, first, to continue me in your duceth too much belief) I was bold to say, that I own good opinion, and then, to perform the part thought it as easy for your majesty to come out of of an honourable good friend, towards your poor want, as to go forth of your gallery, your majesty servant and ally, in drawing her majesty to accept would not take me for a dreamer, or a projector. of the sincerity and simplicity of my zeal, and to I send your majesty therefore some grounds of hold me in her majesty's favour, which is to me my hopes. And for that paper which I have dearer than my life, and so, etc.

gathered of increasements “sperate:" I beseech Your lordship’s most humble in all duty. you to give me leave to think, that if any of the

FR. Bacon. particulars do fail, it will be rather for want of

workmanship in those that shall deal in them, than want of materials in the things themselves.

The other paper hath many discarding cards; and A LETTER TO MR. MATTHEW, UPON SENDING HIS I send it chiefly, that your majesty may be the

less surprised by projectors, who pretend some

times great discoveries and inventions, in things Mr. Matthew,

that have been propounded and perhaps after a 1 do very heartily thank you for your letter of better fashion, long since. God Almighty prethe 21th of August, from Salamanca; and in re

serve your majesty. compense thereof, I send you a little work of

Your majesty's most humble and mine, that hath begun to pass the world. They

devoted servant and subject. tell me my Latin is turned into silver, and become April 25, 1610. current. Had you been here you had been my inquisitor, before it came forth. But I think the greatest inquisitor in Spain will allow it. But

A LETTER TO TIE KING, TOUCHING THE LORD one thing you must pardon me, if I make no haste

CHANCELLOR'S PLACE. to believe, that the world should be grown to such an ecstasy, as to reject truth in philosophy, IT MAY PLEASE Your most excellent MAJESTY. because the author dissenteth in religion; no

Your worthy chancellor, I fear, goeth his last more than they do by Aristotle, or Averrois. My day. God hath hitherto used to weed out such great work goeth forward, and after my manner, I servants as grew not fit for your majesty, but now alter even when I add: so that nothing is finished he hath gathered to himself a true sage or salvia till all be finished. This I have written in the out of your garden; but your majesty's service midst of a term and parliament, thinking no time must not be mortal. so precious, but that I should talk of these mat Upon this heavy accident, I pray your majesty, ters with so good and dear a friend. And so, in all humbleness and sincerity, to give me leave with my wonted wishes, I leave you to God's to use a few words. I must never forget, when I goodness.

moved your majesty for the attorney's place, it From Gray's Inn, Febr. 17, 1610.

was your own sole act; more than that, Somerset, when he knew your majesty had resolved it, thrust himself into the business for a fee. And there.

fore I have no reason to pray to saints. A LETTER TO THE KING, TOUCHING MATTER OF

I shall now again make obligation to your maREVENUE AND PROFIT.

jesty, first, of my heart, then, of my service,

thirdly, of my place of attorney, which I think is IT MAY PLEASE your Majesty,

honestly worth L6000 per annum, and, fourthly, I may remember what Tacitus saith, by occa- of my place of the Star Chamber, which is worth sion that Tiberius was often and long absent from £1600 per annum; and with the favour and coun. Rome, w in Urbe, et parva et magna negotia im- tenance of a chancellor, much more. peratorem simul premunt.” But saith he, “in I hope I may be acquitted of presumption, if I Recesso, dimissis rebus minoris momenti, sum- think of it, both because my father had the place, inæ rerum magnarum magis agitantur.” This which is some civil inducements to my desire; inaketh me think, it shall be no incivility to trouble and I pray God your majesty may have twenty no your majesty with business, during your abode worse years in your greatness, than Queen Elizafrom London, knowing your majesty's meditations beth had in her model, (after my father's placing,) are the principal wheel of your estate, and being and chiefly, because, if the chancellor's place warranted by a former commandment, which I went to the law, it was ever conferred upon some received from you.

of the learned counsel, and never upon a judge. I do now only send your majesty these papers. For Audley was raised from king's sergeant, my

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