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and his person to the faith of the barbarians. The church of the holy martyr Euphemia, situate on a lofty eminence near Chalcedon,1 was chosen for the place of the interview. Gainas bowed, with reverence at the feet of the emperor, whilst he required the sacrifice of Aurelian and Saturninus, two ministers of consular rank; and their naked necks were exposed, by the haughty rebel, to the edge of the sword, till he condescended to grant them a precarious and disgraceful respite. The Goths, according to the terms of the agreement, were immediately transported from Asia into Europe; and their victorious chief, who accepted the title of master-general of the Roman armies, soon filled Constantinople with his troops, and distributed among his dependants, the honours and rewards of the empire. In his early youth, Gainas had passed the Danube as a suppliant, and a fugitive: his elevation had been the work of valour and fortune; and his indiscreet, or perfidious, conduct, was the cause of his rapid downfal. Notwithstanding the vigorous opposition of the archbishop, he importunately claimed, for his Arian sectaries, the possession of a peculiar church; and the pride of the Catholics was offended by the public toleration of heresy."1 Every quarter of Constantinople was filled with tumult and disorder; and the barbarians gazed with such ardour on the rich shops of the jewellers, and the tables of the bankers, which were covered with gold and silver, that it was judged prudent to remove those dangerous temptations from their sight. They resented the injurious precaution; and some alarming attempts were made, during the night, to attack and destroy with fire the imperial pa'y""' lace." In this state of mutual atnd suspicious hostility, the guards and the people of Constantinople, shut the gates, and rose in arms to prevent, or to punish, the conspiracy of the Goths. During the absence of Gainas, his troops were surprised and oppressed; seven thousand barbarians perished in this bloody massacre. In the fury of the pursuit, the Catholics uncovered the roof, and continued to throw down flaming logs of wood, till they overwhelmed their adversaries, who had retreated to the church or conventicle of the Arians. Gainas was either innocent of the design, or too confident of his success: he was astonished by the intelligence, that the flower of his army had been ingloriously destroyed; that he himself was declared a public enemy; and that his countryman, Fravitta, a brave and royal confederate, had assumed the management of the war by sea and land. The enterprises of the rebel, against the cities of Thrace, were encountered by a flrm and well-ordered defence: his hungry soldiers were soon reduced to the grass that grew on the 'margin of the fortifications; and Gainas , who vainly regretted the wealth and luxury of Asia, embraced the desperate resolution of forcing the passage of the Hellespont. He was destitute of vessels; but the woods of the Chersonesus afforded materials for rafts, and his intrepid barbafians did not refuse to trust themselves to the waves.- But Fravitta attentively watched the progress of their undertaking. As soon as they had gained the middle of the stream, the Roman galleys,0
1 OcrM', ... ftajropiOT, is the expression of Zosimus himself, (lib. 5. p. 314.) who inadvertently uses the fashionable language of the Christians. Evagiros describes (lib. 2. c. 3.) the situation, architecture, relics, and miracles, of that celebrated church, in which the general council of Chalcedon was aftevward held.
m The pious remonstrances of Chrysostom, which do not appear in his own writings, arc strongly urged by Theodoret; but his insinuation, that they were successful, ia disproved by facts. Tillemont (Hist. des Empereurs, tom. 5. 383.) has discovered, that the emperor, to satisfy the rapacious demands of Gainas, wW obliged to melt the plate of the church of the apostles.
"The ecclesiastical historians, who sometimes guide, and sometimes follow* the public opinion, most confidently assert that the palace of Constantinople was guarded by legions of angels.
0 Zoaimns (lib. 5. p. 319.) mentions these galleys by the name of Lib-trnians, and observes, that they were as swift (without explaining the difference between them) as the vessels with fifty oars; but that they were far inferior in speed to the trirnwt; which had been long disused. Yet be reasonably concludes, from the testimony of Polybius, that galleys of a still larger size had been constructed in the Punic wars. Since the establishment of the Roman empire over the Mediterranean, the useless art of building large ships of war had probably been neglected, and at length forgotten.
impelled by the full force of oars, of the current, and of a favourable wind, rushed forward in compact order, and with irresistible weight; and the Hellespont was covered with the fragments of the Gothic shipwreck. After the destruction of his hopes, and the loss of many thousands of his bravest soldiers, Gainas, who could no longer aspire to govern, or to subdue, the Romans, determined to resume the independence of a savage life. A light and active body of barbarian horse, disengaged from their infantry and baggage, might perform, in eight or ten days, a march of three hundred miles from the Hellespont to the Danube ;p the garrisons of that important frontier had been gradually annihilated; the river in the month of December, would be deeply frozen: and the unbounded prospect of Scythia was opened to the ambition of Gainas. This design was secretly communicated to the national troops, who devoted themselves to the fortunes of their leader; and before the signal of departure was given, a great number of provincial auxiliaries, whom he suspected of an attachment to their native country, were perfidiously massacred. The Goths advanced, by rapid marches, through the plains of Thrace; and they were soon delivered from the fear of a pursuit, by the vanity of Fravitta, who, instead of extinguishing the war, hastened to enjoy the popular applause, and to assume the peaceful honours of a consulship. But a formidable ally appeared in arms to vindicate the majesty of the empire, and to guard the peace and liberty of Scythia.q The superior forces of Uldin, king of the Huns, opposed the progress of
P Chishull (Travels, p. 61—63. 72—76.) proceeded from Gallipoli. through Hadrianople, to the Danube, in about fifteen days. He was in the train of an English ambassador, whose baggage consisted of seventy-one waggons. That leamed traveller has the merit of tracing a curious and unfrequented route.
4 The narrative of Zosimus, who actually leads Gainas beyond the Danube, must be corrected by the testimony of Socrates and Sozomen, that he was killed in Thrace; and by the precise and authentic dates of the Alexandrian, or Paschal Chronicle, p. 307. The naval victory of the Hellespont is fixed to the month Apellaeus, the tenth of the calends of January (December 23); the head of Gainas wai brought to Constantinople the third of the nones of January (January 3), in the month Audynaeus.
Gainas; a hostile and ruined country prohibited his retreat; he disdained to capitulate; and after repeatedly attempting to cut his way through the ranks of the enemy, he was slain, with his desperate followers, in the A.D.401. ^e^ of battle. Eleven days after the naval Januarys, victory of the Hellespont, the head of Gainas, the inestimable gift of the conqueror, was received at Constantinople, with the most liberal expressions of gratitude; and the public deliverance was celebrated by festivals and illuminations. The triumphs of Arcadius became the subject of epic poems ;r and the monarch, no longer oppressed by any hostile terrors, resigned himself to the mild and absolute dominion of his wife, the fair and artful Eudoxia, who has sullied her fame by the persecution of St. John Chrysostom.
After the death of the indolent Nectarius, the
successor of Gregory Nazianzen, the church of ... Constantinople was distracted by the ambition A.D.398. of rival candidates, who were not ashamed to
solicit, with gold or flattery, the suffrage of the people, or of the favourite. On this occasion, Eutropius seems to have deviated from his ordinary maxims; and his uncorrupted judgment was determined only by the superior merit of a stranger. In a late journey into the east, he had admired the sermons of John, a native and presbyter, of Antioch, whose name had been distinguished by the epithet of Chrysostom, or the Golden Mouth." A private order was dispatched to the governor of Syria; and as the people might be unwilling to resign their favourite preacher, he was transported with speed and secrecy, in a post-chariot, from Antioch to Constantinople. The unanimous and unsolicited consent of the court, the clergy, and the people, ratified the choice of the minister; and, both as a saint and as an orator, the new archbishop surpassed the sanguine expectations of the public. Born of a noble and opulent family, in the capital of Syria, Chrysostom had been educated, by the care of a tender mother, under the tuition of the most skilful masters. He studied the art of rhetoric in the school of Libanius; and that celebrated sophist, who soon discovered the talents of his disciple, ingenuously confessed, that John would have deserved to succeed him, had he not been stolen away by the Christians. His piety soon disposed him to receive the sacrament of baptism; to renounce tiie lucrative and honourable profession of the law, and to bury himself in the adjacent desert, where he subdued the lusts of the flesh by an austere penance of six years. His infirmities compelled him to return to the society of mankind; and the authority of Meletius devoted his talents to the service of the church: but in the midst of his family, and afterward on the archiepiscopal throne, Chrysostom still persevered in the practice of the monastic virtues. The ample revenues, which his predecessors had consumed iu pomp and luxury, he diligently applied to the establishment of hospitals; and the multitudes, who were supported by his charity, preferred the eloquent and edifying discourses of their archbishop, to the amusements of the theatre, or the circus. The monuments of that eloquence, which was admired near twenty years at Antioch and Constantinople, 'have been carefully preserved; and the possession of near ione
'Eusebius Scholasticus acquired much fame by his poem on the Gothic war, in which he had served. Near forty years afterward, Ammonias recited nnothcr poem on the same subject, in the presence of the emperor Theodosius. See Soc rates, lib. 6' c. 6.
• The sirth book of Socrates, the eighth of Sozomen, and the fifth of Theodoret, afford curious and authentic materials for the life of John Chrysostom. Besides those general historians, I have taken for my guides the four prmcipal biographers of the saint. 1. The author of a partial and passionate Vindication of the Archbishop of Constantinople, composed in the form of a dialogue, and under the name of his zealous partisan, Palladius, bishop of Helenopolis. (Tillemont, Mem. Eccles. tom. 11. p- 50O—533.) It is inserted among the works of Chryiostom, tom. 13. p.l_9O. edit. Montfaucon. a. The moderate Erasmus (tom 3. epist. 1150. p. 1331
1347. edit. Lugd. Bat.) His vivacity and good sense were his own; his
errors, in the uncultivated state of ecclesiastical antiquity, were almost inevitable. 3. The leamed Tillemont, (Mem. Ecclesiastiques, tom. 11. p. 1—40i.
VOL. IV. O
54?—626, Sec. Sec.) w.ho compiles the livei of the saiutn with incredible patience, and religious accuracy- He has minutely searched the voluminous works of Chrysostom himself. 4. Father Mnntfauoon, who has perused these works with the curious diligence of an editor, discovered several new homilies, and again reviewed and composed the life of Chrysostom. (Opera Ohryaostom. tom. 13. p. 91—J77.)