the advantages of a salutary peace; and a numerous army of Huns and Alani, whom he had attached to his person, was employed in the defence of Gaul. Two colonies of these barbarians were judiciously fixed in the territories of Valens and Orleans:" and their active cavalry secured the important passages of the Rhone and of the Loire. These savage allies were not indeed less formidable to the subjects than to the enemies of Rome. Their original settlement was enforced with the licentious violence of conquest; and the province

through which they marched, was exposed to all the calamities of a hostile invasion." Strangers to the emperor or the republic, the Alani of Gaul were devoted to the ambition of Ætius; and though he might suspect, that, in a contest with Attila himself, they would revolt to the standard of their national king, the patrician laboured to restrain, rather than to excite, their zeal and resentment against the Goths, the Burgundians, and the Franks.

The visi. The kingdom established by the Visigoths, in 5:... the southern provinces of Gaul, had gradually

Theodoric. - **** - o; acquired strength and maturity; and the con

–451, duct of those ambitious barbarians, either in

ce or war, engaged the perpetual vigilance of Ætius. After the death of Walla, the Gothic sceptre devolved to Theodoric, the son of the great Alaric;" and his prosperous reign, of more than thirty years, over a turbulent people, may be allowed to prove, that his prudence was supported by uncommon vigour, both of mind and body. Impatient of his narrow limits, Theodoric aspired to the possession of Arles, the wealthy seat of government and commerce; but the city was saved by the timely approach of Ætius; and the Gothic king, who had raised the siege with some loss and disgrace, was persuaded, for an adequate subsidy, to divert the martial valour of his subjects in a Spanish war. Yet TheoAux.ass doric still watched, and eagerly seized, the fa-* vourable moment of renewing his hostile attempts. The Goths besieged Narbonne, while the Belgic provinces were invaded by the Burgundians; and the public safety was threatened on every side by the apparent union of the enemies of Rome. On every side, the activity of Ætius, and his Scythian cavalry, opposed a firm and successful resistance. Twenty thousand Burgundians were slain in battle; and the remains of the nation humbly accepted a dependant seat in the mountains of Savoy.' The walls of Narbonne had been shaken by the battering engines, and the inhabitants had endured the last extremities of famine, when count Litorius, approaching in silence, and directing each horseman to carry behind him two sacks of flour, cut his way through the intrenchments of the besiegers. The siege was immediately raised; and the more decisive victory, which is ascribed to the personal conduct of AEtius himself, was marked with the blood of eight thousand Goths. But in the absence of the patrician,

h Deserta Valentinae urbis rura Alanis partienda traduntur. Prosper, Tyronis Chron. in Historiens de France, tom. 1. p. 639. A few lines afterward Prosper observes, that lands in the ulterior Gaul were assigned to the Alani. Without admitting the correction of Dubos, (tom. 1. p. 300.) the reasonable supposition of two colonies or garrisons of Alani, will confirm his arguments, and remove his obiections. Jes See Prosper. Tyro, p. 639. Sidonius (Panegyr. Avit. 246.) complains, in the name of Auvergne, his native country, Litorius Scythicos equites tunc forte subacto Celsus Aremorico, Geticum rapiebat in agimen Per terras, Arverne, tuas, qui proxima quaeque Discursu, flammis, ferro, feritate, rapinis, Delebant; pacis fallentes nomen inane. Another poet, Paulinus of Perigord, confirms the complaint: Nam socium vix ferre queas, qui durior hoste. See Dubos, tom. 1. p. 330. k Theodoric II, the son of Theoderic I. declares to Avitus his resolution of repairing, or expiating, the faults which his grandfather had committed:

Quae noster pecavitavus, quem fuscat idunum, - Quod te, Roma, capit.

Sidon. Panegyric. Avit. 505.

This character, applicable only to the great Alaric, establishes the genealogy of the Gothic kings, which has hitherto been unnoticed.

"The name of Sapaudia, the origin of Savoy, is first mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus; and two military posts are ascertained, by the Notitia, within the limits of that province; a cohort was stationed at Grenoble in Dauphiné; and Ebredunum, or Iverdun, sheltered a fleet of small vessels, which commanded the lake of Neufchâtel. See Walesius, Notit. Galliarum, p. 503. D'Anville, Notice de l'Ancienne Gaule, p. 284.579.

who was hastily summoned to Italy by some public or
private interest, count Litorius succeeded to the com-
mand; and his presumption soon discovered, that far
different talents are required to lead a wing of cavalry,
or to direct the operations of an important war. At
the head of an army of Huns, he rashly advances to the
gates of Thoulouse, full of careless contempt for an
enemy, whom his misfortunes had rendered prudent,
and his situation made desperate. The predictions of
the augurs had inspired Litorius with the profane con-
fidence, that he should enter the Gothic capital in tri-
umph; and the trust which he reposed in his Pagan
allies, encouraged him to reject the fair conditions of
peace, which were repeatedly proposed by the bishops
in the name of Theodoric. The king of the Goths ex-
hibited in his distress the edifying contrast of Christian
piety and moderation; nor did he lay aside his sack-
cloth and ashes till he was prepared to arm for the
combat. His soldiers, animated with martial and re-
ligious enthusiasm, assaulted the camp of Litorius.
The conflict was obstinate, the slaughter was mutual.
The Roman general, after a total defeat, which could
be imputed only to his unskilful rashness, was actually
led through the streets of Thoulouse, not in his own,
but a hostile triumph; and the misery which he ex-
perienced, in a long and ignominious captivity, excited
the compassion of the barbarians themselves. Such
a loss, in a country whose spirit and finances were long
since exhausted, could not easily be repaired; and the
Goths, assuming, in their turn, the sentiments of ambi-
tion and revenge, would have planted their victorious
standards on the banks of the Rhone, if the presence of
Ætius had not restored strength and discipline to the
Romans." The two armies expected the signal of a de-
. m Salvian bas attempted to explain the moral government of the Deity; a task
which may be readily performed by supposing, that the calamities of the wicked
are, judgments, and those of the righteous, trials.

Capto terrarum damna patebant
Litorio, in Rhodanum proprios producere fines,

cisive action; but the generals, who were conscious of each other's force, and doubtful of their own superiority, prudently sheathed their swords in the field of battle; and their reconciliation was permanent and sincere. Theodoric, king of the Visigoths, appears to have deserved the love of his subjects, the confidence of his allies, and the esteem of mankind. His throne was surrounded by six valiant sons, who were educated with equal care in the exercises of the barbarian camp, and in those of the Gallic schools: from the study of the Roman jurisprudence, they acquired the theory, at least, of law and justice; and the harmonious sense of Virgil contributed to soften the asperity of their native manners.” The two daughters of the Gothic king were given in marriage to the eldest sons of the kings of the Suevi and of the Vandals, who reigned in Spain and Africa; but these illustrious alliances were pregnant with guilt and discord. The queen of the Suevi bewailed the death of a husband, inhumanly massacred by her brother. The princess of the Vandals was the victim of a jealous tyrant, whom she called her father. The cruel Genseric suspected that his son's wife had conspired to poison him; the supposed crime was punished by the amputation of her nose and ears; and the unhappy daughter of Theodoric was ignominiously returned to the court of Thoulouse in that deformed and mutilated condition. This horrid act, which must seem incredible to a civilized age, drew tears from every spectator; but Theodoric was urged, by the feelTheudoridae sixum; necerat pugnare necesse, Sed migrare Getis; rabidam trux asperatiram Victor; quod sensit Scythicum sub moenibus hostem Imputat, et nihil est gravius, si forsitan unquam Vincere contingat, trepido. Panegyr. Avit. 300, &c. Sidonius then proceeds, according to the duty of a panegyrist, to transfer the whole merit from Ætius, to his minister Avitus.

• Theodoric II. revered, in the person of Avitus, the character of his preceptor.
—Mihi Romula dudum
Per tejura placent: parvumque ediscere jussit
Ad tua verba pater, docili quo prisca Maronis

Carmine molliret Scythicos mihi pagina mores.
Sidon. Panegyr. Avit. 495, &c.

ings of a parent and a king, to revenge such irreparable injuries. The imperial ministers, who always cherished the discord of the barbarians, would have supplied the Goths with arms, and ships, and treasures, for the African war; and the cruelty of Genseric might have been fatal to himself, if the artful Vandal had not armed, in his cause, the formidable power of the Huns. His rich gifts and pressing solicitations inflamed the ambition of Attila; and the designs of Ætius and Theodoric were prevented by the invasion of Gaul.”

The Franks The Franks, whose monarchy was still con... fined to the neighbourhood of the Lower Rhine,

der th so: had wisely established the right of hereditary A..." succession in the noble family of the Merovin

T“ gians." These princes were elevated on a buckler, the symbol of military command; and the royal fashion of long hair was the ensign of their birth and dignity. Their flaxen locks, which they combed and dressed with singular care, hung down in flowing ringlets on their back and shoulders; while the rest of their nation were obliged, either by law or custom, to shave the hinder part of their head, to comb their hair over the forehead, and to content themselves with the ornament of two small whiskers." The lofty stature of the

p Our authorities for the reign of Theodoric I. are, Jornandes de Rebus Geticis, c. 34.36. and the Chronicles of Idatius, and the two Prospers, inserted in the Historians of France, tom. 1. p. 612–640. To these we may add Salvian de Gubernatione Dei, lib. 7, p. 243—245. and the Panegyric of Avitus, by Sidonius. * Reges Crinitos se creavisse de primâ, et utita dicam nobiliori suorum familia. (Greg. Turon. lib. 2. c. 9. p. 166, of the second volume of the Historians of France.) Gregory himself does not mention the Merovingian name, which may be traced, however, to the beginning of the seventh century, as the distinctive appellation of the royal family, and even of the French monarchy. An ingenious critic has deduced the Merovingians from the great Maroboduus; and he has clearly proved, that the prince, who gave his name to the first race, was more ancient than the father of Childeric. See the Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions, tom. 20. .52—90.; tom. 30. p. 557–587. * This German custom, which may be traced from Tacitus to Gregory of Tours, was at length adopted by the emperors of Constantinople. From a MS. of the tenth century, Montfaucon has delineated the representations of a similar ceremony, which the ignorance of the age had applied to king David. See Monuments de la Monarchie Françoise, tom. 1. Discourse. Preliminaire. * Caesaries prolixa . . . . crinium flagellis per terga dimissis, &c. See the preface to the third volume of the Historians of France, and the Abbé Le Boeuf (Dissertat. tom. 3. p. 47–79.) This peculiar fashion of the Merovingians has been remarked by natives and strangers; by Priscus, (tom. 1. p. 608.) by Agathias,


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