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XXVI. The Union versus the Confederacy. .407 Organization of the Confederacy-Jefferson Davis chosen President, and Alex. H. Stephens Vice-President-Davis's Inaugural-Stephens's 'corner-stone' speech-Mr. Lincoln's journey to Washington-Speeches-Inaugural.
XXVII. The Pause before the Shock......428 The two Cabinets-Attempts to Negotiate by Forsyth and Crawford-Repelled by Gov. Seward-Judge Campbell's Statement-Northern proposals to join the Confederacy-Society for the promotion of National Unity.
XXVIII. Siege and Reduction of Ft. Sumter 440
Hesitation-Futile Negotiations-Attempt to
XXIX. The Nation called to arms-and
Virginia sends Envoys to Washington-The
XXX. Secession resumes its march......473
XXXI. The Opposing Forces in conflict...497
XXXII. West Virginia clings to the Union 516
Convention called-State organization effected
XXXIII. The War in Old Virginia........528
XXXIV. First session of the 37th Congress 553
XXXV. Rebellion and War in Missouri. 572
XXXVI. War on the Seaboard and Ocean.597
XXXVII. Kentucky adheres to the Union.608 Politicians Elections-Overwhelming Union majorities-Magoffin's neutrality-The President's response-Rebel Invasion-Legislature protests-Gen. Grant occupies Paducah--Zollicoffer at Wild Cat-Nelson at PiketonSchoepf's Retreat-Rebel Government organized at Russellville-Geo. W. Johnson made Governor-Kentucky gravely admitted into the Southern Confederacy-Full delegation sent to the Congress at Richmond-Richard Hawes finally declared Governor.
XXXVIII. The Potomac-Ball's Bluff......618 Scott a failure-Gen. McClellan called to Washington-Brings Order out of ChaosGreat increase of our Army-No advanceBall's Bluff-Dranesville-All Quiet'-The Hutchinsons expelled-Whittier's Lyric.
I. The Synod of Kentucky and Slavery. II. New School Presbyterians condemn the institution. III. The Albany Evening Journal on Gov. Seward and Judge Campbell. IV. Jere. Clemens on Alabama secession-the Rebels feared delay. V. The confidence of the Rebels -Russell on the capture of Washington. VI. The North Carolina Convention-an error corrected.
59. Rear-Adm'l ANDREW H. FOOTE 608 65. Commodore CHARLES WILKES. 608
TEXAS AS SHE WAS, AND AS SHE CLAIMED TO BE
VIEW OF HARPER'S FERRY.
VIEW IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY.
BATTLE-FIELD OF WILSON'S CREEK, NEAR SPRINGFIELD, Mo.
SINKING OF THE PETREL BY THE ST. LAWRENCE
THE AMERICAN CONFLICT.
THE United States of America, | ed two or three hundred miles westwhose independence, won on the battle-fields of the Revolution, was tardily and reluctantly conceded by Great Britain on the 30th of November, 1782, contained at that time a population of a little less than Three Millions, of whom half a million were slaves. This population was mainly settled upon and around the bays, harbors, and inlets, which irregularly indent the western shore of the Atlantic Ocean, for a distance of about a thousand miles, from the mouth of the Penobscot to that of the Altamaha. The extent of the settlements inland from the coast may have averaged a hundred miles, although there were many points at which the primitive forest still looked off upon the broad expanse of the ocean. Nominally, and as distinguished from those of other civilized nations, the territories of the Confederation stretched westward to the Mississippi, and northward, as now, to the Great Lakes, giving a total area of a little more than eight hundred thousand square miles. At several inviting localities, the "clearings" were push
ward, to the bases and more fertile valleys of the eastern slope of the Alleghanies; and there were three or four settlements quite beyond that formidable but not impassable barrier, mainly in that portion of Virginia which is now the State of Kentucky. But, in the absence of steam, of canals, and even of tolerable highways, and with the mouth of the Mississippi held and sealed by a jealous and not very friendly foreign power, the fertile valleys of the Illinois, the Wabash, and even of the Ohio itself, were scarcely habitable for civilized communities. No staple that their pioneer population would be likely, for many years, to produce, could be sold on the sea-board for the cost of its transportation, even from the site whereon Cincinnati has since. been founded and built, much less from that of Indianapolis or Chicago. The delicate, costly fabrics of Europe, and even of Asia, could be transferred to the newest and most inland settlement for a small fraction of the price at which they would there be eagerly bought; but when the few
coins which the settlers had taken | ed, desolating Revolutionary strug
with them in their journey of emigration had been exhausted, there was nothing left wherewith to pay for these costly luxuries; and debt, embarrassment, bankruptcy, were the inevitable results. A people clothed in skins, living on the products of the chase and the spontaneous abundance of nature, might maintain existence and a rude social organization amid the forests and on the prairies of the Great Valley; any other must have experienced striking alternations of factitious prosperity and universal distress; seeing its villages and commercial depots rise, flourish, and decay, after the manner of Jonah's gourd, and its rural population constantly hunted by debt and disaster to new and still newer locations. The Great West of to-day owes its unequaled growth and progress, its population, productiveness, and wealth, primarily, to the framers of the Federal Constitution, by which its development was rendered possible; but more immediately and palpably to the sagacity and statesmanship of Jefferson, the purchaser of Louisiana; to the genius of Fitch and Fulton, the projector and achiever, respectively, of steam-navigation; to De Witt Clinton, the early, unswerving, and successful champion of artificial inland navigation; and to Henry Clay, the eminent, eloquent, and effective champion of the diversification of our National Industry through the Protection of Home Manufactures.
The difficulties which surrounded the infancy and impeded the growth of the thirteen original or Atlantic States, were less formidable, but kindred, and not less real. Our fathers emerged from their arduous, protract
gle, rich, indeed, in hope, but poor in worldly goods. Their country had, for seven years, been traversed and wasted by contending armies, almost from end to end. Cities and villages had been laid in ashes. Habitations had been deserted and left to decay. Farms, stripped of their fences, and deserted by their owners, had for years produced only weeds. Camp fevers, with the hardships and privations of war, had destroyed many more than the sword; and all alike had been subtracted from the most effective and valuable part of a population, always, as yet, quite inadequate. Cripples and invalids, melancholy mementoes of the yet recent struggle, abounded in every village and township. Habits of industry had been unsettled and destroyed by the anxieties and uncertainties of war. The gold and silver of anterevolutionary days had crossed the ocean in exchange for arms and munitions. The Continental paper, which for a time more than supplied (in volume) its place, had become utterly worthless. In the absence of a tariff, which the Confederate Congress lacked power to impose, our ports, immediately after peace, were glutted with foreign luxuries—gewgaws which our people were eager enough to buy, but for which they soon found themselves utterly unable to pay. They were almost exclusively an agricultural people, and their products, save only Tobacco and Indigo, were not wanted by the Old World, and found but a very restricted and inconsiderable market even in the West Indies, whose trade was closely monopolized by the nations to which they respectively belonged.