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UNION NAVAL OFFICERS.
59. Rear-Adm'l ANDREW H. FOOTE 608 | 65. Commodore CHARLES WILKES. 608
CHARLES H. DAVIS 66
HENRY W. MORRIS 66
DAVID G. FARRAGUT
TEXAS AS SHE WAS, AND AS SHE CLAIMED TO BE
VIEW IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY.
FORT SUMTER .
THE APPROACHES TO CHARLESTON
55. Maj.-Gen. JNO. C. BRECKINRIDGE"
SIMON B. BUCKNER
ALBERT SYD. JOHNSTON
68. Captain JAMES WARD
NORFOLK, PORTSMOUTH, AND THE NAVY YARD
TEN MILES AROUND FORTRESS MONROE
WASHINGTON CITY AND VICINITY
BULL RUN BATTLE-FIELD AND CENTERVILLE
BATTLE-FIELD OF WILSON'S CREEK, NEAR SPRINGFIELD, Mo.
HATTERAS INLET-FORTS HATTERAS AND CLARK
JOHN L. WORDEN
THE AMERICAN CONFLICT.
THE United States of America, whose independence, won on the battle-fields of the Revolution, was tardily and reluctantly conceded by Great Britain on the 30th of November, 1782, contained at that time a population of a little less than Three Millions, of whom half a million were slaves. This population was mainly settled upon and around the bays, harbors, and inlets, which irregularly indent the western shore of the Atlantic Ocean, for a distance of about a thousand miles, from the mouth of the Penobscot to that of the Altamaha. The extent of the settlements inland from the coast may have averaged a hundred miles, although there were many points at which the primitive forest still looked off upon the broad expanse of the ocean. Nominally, and as distinguished from those of other civilized nations, the territories of the Confederation stretched westward to the Mississippi, and northward, as now, to the Great Lakes, giving a total area of a little more than eight hundred thousand square miles. At several inviting localities, the "clearings" were push
ed two or three hundred miles westward, to the bases and more fertile valleys of the eastern slope of the Alleghanies; and there were three or four settlements quite beyond that formidable but not impassable barrier, mainly in that portion of Virginia which is now the State of Kentucky. But, in the absence of steam, of canals, and even of tolerable highways, and with the mouth of the Mississippi held and sealed by a jealous and not very friendly foreign power, the fertile valleys of the Illinois, the Wabash, and even of the Ohio itself, were scarcely habitable for civilized communities. No staple that their pioneer population would be likely, for many years, to produce, could be sold on the sea-board for the cost of its transportation, even from the site whereon Cincinnati has since been founded and built, much less from that of Indianapolis or Chicago. The delicate, costly fabrics of Europe, and even of Asia, could be transferred to the newest and most inland settlement for a small fraction of the price at which they would there be eagerly bought; but when the few
coins which the settlers had taken | ed, desolating Revolutionary strugwith them in their journey of emi-gle, rich, indeed, in hope, but poor in gration had been exhausted, there worldly goods. Their country had, was nothing left wherewith to pay for seven years, been traversed and for these costly luxuries; and debt, wasted by contending armies, almost embarrassment, bankruptcy, were the from end to end. Cities and villages inevitable results. A people clothed had been laid in ashes. Habitations in skins, living on the products of the had been deserted and left to decay. chase and the spontaneous abund- Farms, stripped of their fences, and ance of nature, might maintain ex- deserted by their owners, had for istence and a rude social organization years produced only weeds. Camp amid the forests and on the prairies fevers, with the hardships and priof the Great Valley; any other must vations of war, had destroyed many have experienced striking alterna- more than the sword; and all alike tions of factitious prosperity and uni- had been subtracted from the most versal distress; seeing its villages and effective and valuable part of a popcommercial depots rise, flourish, and ulation, always, as yet, quite inadedecay, after the manner of Jonah's quate. Cripples and invalids, melangourd, and its rural population con- choly mementoes of the yet recent stantly hunted by debt and disaster struggle, abounded in every village. to new and still newer locations. and township. Habits of industry The Great West of to-day owes its had been unsettled and destroyed by unequaled growth and progress, the anxieties and uncertainties of its population, productiveness, and war. The gold and silver of antewealth, primarily, to the framers of revolutionary days had crossed the the Federal Constitution, by which ocean in exchange for arms and its development was rendered possi- munitions. The Continental paper, ble; but more immediately and pal- which for a time more than supplied pably to the sagacity and statesman- (in volume) its place, had become ship of Jefferson, the purchaser of utterly worthless. In the absence of Louisiana; to the genius of Fitch and a tariff, which the Confederate ConFulton, the projector and achiever, gress lacked power to impose, our respectively, of steam-navigation; to ports, immediately after peace, were De Witt Clinton, the early, unswerv- glutted with foreign luxuries—gewing, and successful champion of artifi- gaws which our people were eager cial inland navigation; and to Henry enough to buy, but for which they Clay, the eminent, eloquent, and effec- soon found themselves utterly unable tive champion of the diversification to pay. They were almost exclusively of our National Industry through the an agricultural people, and their Protection of Home Manufactures. products, save only Tobacco and Indigo, were not wanted by the Old World, and found but a very restricted and inconsiderable market even in the West Indies, whose trade was closely monopolized by the nations to which they respectively belonged.
The difficulties which surrounded the infancy and impeded the growth of the thirteen original or Atlantic States, were less formidable, but kindred, and not less real. Our fathers emerged from their arduous, protract