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included ex-Gov. John A. Winston, Wm. L. Yancey, Reuben Chapman, ex-M. C., and other prominent citizens, thereupon withdrew from the Convention.
Mr. Barry, of Mississippi, next announced the withdrawal of the entire Mississippi delegation. Mr. Glenn, of Mississippi, stated the grounds of such withdrawal, as follows:
"Sir, at Cincinnati we adopted a Platform on which we all agreed. Now answer me, ye men of the North, of the East, of the South, and of the West, what was the construction placed upon that Platform in different sections of the Union? You at the West said it meant one thing; we of the South said it meant another. Either we were right or you were right; we were
wrong or you were wrong. We came here
to ask you which was right and which was wrong. You have maintained your position. You say that you cannot give us an acknowledgment of that right, which I tell you here in coming time will be your only safety in your contests with the Black Republicans of Ohio and of the North. (Cheers.)
"Why, sir, turn back to the history of your own leading men. There sits a distinguished gentleman, Hon. Charles E. Stuart, of Michigan, once a representative of one of the sovereign States of the Union in the Senate, who then voted that Congress had the constitutional power to pass the Wilmot Proviso, and to exclude Slavery from the Territories; and now, when the Supreme Court has said that it has not that power, he comes forward and tells Mississippians that that same Congress is impotent to protect that same species of property! There sits my distinguished friend, the Senator from Ohio (Mr. Pugh), who, but a few nights since, told us from that stand that, if a Territorial Government totally misused their powers or abused them, Congress could wipe out that Territorial Government altogether. And yet, when we come here and ask him to give us protection in case that Territorial Government
robs us of our property and strikes the star which answers to the name of Mississippi from the flag of the Union, so far as the Constitution gives her protection, he tells us, with his hand upon his heart-as Gov. Payne, of Ohio, had before done-that they will part with their lives before they will acknowledge the principle which we contend for.
"Gentlemen, in such a situation of things in the Convention of our great party, it is
right that we should part. Go your way, not like Hagar, driven into the wilderness, and we will go ours. The South leaves you friendless and alone-but I tell Southern men here, and, for them, I tell the North, that, in less than sixty days, you will find a united South standing side by side with us. (Prolonged and enthusiastic cheering.)"
Mr. Mouton, of Louisiana, briefly announced that all the delegates from his State but two would withdraw from the Convention, and protested against the right of the two to act or cast any vote in behalf of the State.
Hon. James Simons, of South Carolina, announced the withdrawal of the delegation from that State, in a communication signed by all the thirteen members thereof, in the words following:
"We, the undersigned delegates appointed by the Democratic State Convention of South Carolina, beg leave respectfully to state that, according to the principles enunciated in their Platform at Columbia, the power, either of the Federal Government or of its agent, the Territorial Government, to abolish or legislate against property in slaves, by either direct or indirect legislation, is especially denied; and, as the Platform adopted by the Convention palpably and intentionally prevents any expression affirming the incapacity of the Territorial Government so to legislate, that they would not be acting in good faith to their principles, or in accordance with the wishes of their constituents, to longer remain in this Convention, and they hereby respectfully announce their withdrawal therefrom."
SOUTHERN PROTESTS AND WITHDRAWALS.
Mr. Guy M. Bryan, of Texas, next announced the withdrawal of the entire delegation from that State. In their protest against the platform adopted by the Convention, they de
"That it is the right of every citizen to take his property, of any kind, including slaves, into the common territory belonging equally to all the States of the Confederacy, and to have it protected there under the Federal Constitution. Neither Congress nor a Territorial Legislature, nor any human power, has any authority, either directly or indirectly, to impair these sacred rights; and, they having been affirmed by the decision of the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott case, we declare that it is the duty of the Federal Government, the common agent of all the States, to establish such government, and enact such laws for the Territories, and so change the same, from time to time, as may be necessary to insure the protection and preservation of these rights, and prevent every infringement of the same. The affirmation of this principle of the duty of Congress to simply protect the rights of property, is nowise in conflict with the heretofore established and well-recognized principle of the Democratic party, that Congress does not possess the power to legislate Slavery into the Territories, or to exclude it therefrom.
"It is sufficient to say that, if the principles of the Northern Democracy are properly represented by the opinion and action of the majority of the delegates from that section on this floor, we do not hesitate to
declare that their principles are not only not ours, but, if adhered to and enforced by them, will destroy this Union."
Mr. B. Burrow, of Arkansas, announced the withdrawal of three delegates from that State, for these rea
"1st. Because the numerical majority have usurped the prerogatives of the States in setting aside the Platform made by the States, and have thus unsettled the basis of this Convention, and thereby permanently disorganized its constitution. Its decrees, therefore, become null and void.
"2d. Because we were positively instructed by the Democracy of Arkansas to insist on the recognition of the equal rights of the South in the common Territories, and protection to those rights by the Federal Government, prior to any nomination of a can
didate; and, as this Convention has refused to recognize the principles required by the State of Arkansas, in her popular Convention first, and twice subsequently reasserted by Arkansas, together with all her Southern sisters, in the report of a Platform in this
Convention; and, as we cannot serve two masters, we are determined first to serve the Lord our God. We cannot ballot for any candidate whatsoever."
Mr. J. P. Johnson, on behalf of that portion of the Arkansas delegation who had concluded not to leave the Convention until after time had been afforded for consultation, said he hesitated, "because he conceived that the stability of the Union itself was involved in the action taken here by the Southern representatives."
The Georgia delegation here asked leave to retire for consultation, which was granted. Messrs. Bayard and Whiteley-Senator and Representative in Congress from Delawarenow retired from the Convention and joined the seceders. Mr. Saulsbury, the other Senator, gave his reasons for not retiring at this time, and the Convention adjourned for the night.
Next morning, May 1st, Mr. Henry L. Benning presented a notification from twenty-six of the thirtyfour delegates from Georgia, that they had decided to withdraw from the Convention-four of them in obedience to a vote of the majority, which they had opposed.
Mr. Johnson, of Arkansas, now announced the withdrawal, after due consideration and consultation, of the remainder of the delegation from his State; but Mr. F. B. Flournoy gave notice that he did not concur in this action.
The formal protest and withdrawal of ten delegates from Louisiana was now presented. It states that these delegates act in obedience to a reso
lution passed by the Democracy of Louisiana in State Convention at Baton Rouge, March 5, 1860, in the following words:
"Resolved, That the Territories of the United States belong to the several States as their common property, and not to individual citizens thereof; that the Federal Constitution recognizes property in slaves; and, as such, the owner thereof is entitled to carry his slaves into any Territory in the United States; to hold them there as property; and, in case the people of the Territories, by inaction, unfriendly legislation or otherwise, should endanger the tenure of such property, or discriminate against it by withholding that protection given to other species of property in the Territories, it is the duty of the General Government to interpose, by the active exertion of its constitutional power, to secure the rights of the slaveholder."
The two remaining delegates from Louisiana gave notice that, though they did not personally desire to withdraw from the Convention, they should be governed by the action of the majority of their delegation.
Mr. W. B. Gaulden, of Georgia, made a speech against the course taken by his colleagues, on the following grounds:
"I am not in favor of breaking up this Government upon an impracticable issue, upon a mere theory. I believe that this doctrine of protection to Slavery in the Territories is a mere theory, a mere abstraction. (Applause.) Practically, it can be of no consequence to the South, for the reason that the infant has been strangled before it was born. (Laughter.) You have cut off the supply of slaves; you have crippled the institution of Slavery in the States by your unjust laws; and it is mere folly and madness now to ask for protection for a nonentity for a thing which is not there. We have no slaves to carry to these Territories. We can never make another Slave State with our present supply of slaves. But, if we could, it would not be wise; for the reason that, if you make another Slave State from your new Territories with the present supply of slaves, you will be obliged to give up another State-either Maryland, Delaware, or Virginia-to Free Soil upon the North. Now, I would deal with this question, fellowDemocrats, as a practical one. When I can
see no possible practical good to result to the country from demanding legislation upon this theory, I am not prepared to disintegrate and dismember the great Democratic party
of this Union. * * * *
"I would ask my friends of the South to come up in a proper spirit, ask our Northern friends to give us all our rights, and take off the ruthless restrictions which cut off the supply of slaves from foreign lands. As a matter of right and justice to the South, I would ask the Democracy of the North to grant us this thing; and I believe they have the patriotism and honesty to do it, because it is right in itself. I tell you, fellow-Democrats, that the African Slave-trader is the true Union man. (Cheers and laughter.) I tell you that the slave-trading of Virginia is more immoral, more unchristian in every possible point of view, than that African Slave-trade which goes to Africa and brings a heathen and worthless man here, makes him a useful man, Christianizes him, and sends him and his posterity down the stream of time to enjoy the blessings of civilization. (Cheers and laughter.) Now, fellow-Democrats, so far as any public expression of the State of Virginia -the great Slave-trading State of Virginia-has been given, they are all opposed to the African Slave-trade.
"Dr. Reed, of Indiana—I am from Indiana, and I am in favor of it.
"Mr. Gaulden-Now, gentlemen, we are told, upon high authority, that there is a certain class of men who strain at a gnat and swallow a camel. Now, Virginia, which authorizes the buying of Christian men, separating them from their wives and children, from all the relations and associations amid whom they have lived for years, rolls up her eyes in holy horror when I would go to Africa, buy a savage, and introduce him to the blessings of civilization and Christianity. (Cheers and laughter.)
"Capt. Rynders, of N. Y.-You can get one or two recruits from New York to join with you.
"The President.-The time of the gentleman has expired. (Cries of "Go on! Go on!")
"The President stated that, if it was the unanimous wish of the Convention, the gentleman could proceed.
"Mr. Gaulden.-Now, fellow-Democrats, the slave-trade in Virginia forms a mighty and powerful reason for its opposition to the African slave-trade, and in this remark I do not intend any disrespect to my friends from Virginia. Virginia, the Mother of States and of statesmen, the Mother of Presidents, I apprehend may err as well as other mortals. I am afraid that her error in this regard lies in the promptings of the almighty dollar. It has been my fortune to go into
FAILURE TO NOMINATE AT CHARLESTON.
that noble old State to buy a few darkies; and I have had to pay from $1,000 to $2,000 a head, when I could go to Africa and buy better negroes for $50 apiece. (Great laughter.) Now, unquestionably, is to the interest of Virginia to break down the African slave-trade, when she can sell her negroes at $2,000. She knows that the African slave-trade would break up her monopoly, and hence her objection to it. If any of you Northern Democrats-for I have more faith in you than I have in the carpetknight Democracy of the South-will go home with me to my plantation in Georgia, but a little way from here, I will show you some darkies that I bought in Maryland, some that I bought in Virginia, some in
Delaware, some in Florida, some in North Carolina; and I will also show you the pure African, the noblest Roman of them all. (Great laughter.) Now, fellow-Democrats, my feeble health and failing voice admonish me to bring the few remarks I have to make to a close. (Cries of "Go on, go on.") am only sorry that I am not in a better condition than I am to vindicate before you today the words of truth, of honesty, and of right, and to show you the gross inconsistencies of the South in this regard. I come from the First Congressional District of the State of Georgia. I represent the African slave-trade interest of that section. (Applause.) I am proud of the position I occupy in that respect. I believe that the African slave-trader is a true missionary, and a true Christian (applause); and I have pleaded with my delegation from Georgia to put this issue squarely to the Northern Democracy, and say to them, Are you prepared to go back to first principles, and take off your unconstitutional restrictions, and leave this question to be settled by each State? Now, do this, fellow-citizens, and
you will have peace in the country. But, so long as your Federal Legislature takes jurisdiction of this question, so long will there be war, so long will there be ill-blood, so long will there be strife, until this glorious Union of ours shall be disrupted and go out in blood and night forever. I advocate the repeal of the laws prohibiting the African Slave-trade, because I believe it to be the true Union movement. I do not believe that sections
whose interests are so different as the South
ern and Northern States can ever stand the shocks of fanaticism, unless they be equally balanced. I believe that, by reopening this trade, and giving us negroes to populate the Territories, the equilibrium of the two sec
tions will be maintained."
The Convention now proceeded to ballot for President, having first
adopted, by a vote of 141 to 112, the rule requiring two-thirds of a full Convention to nominate. Candidates were put in nomination, and, on the first ballot, STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS, of Illinois, received 145 votes; Robert M. T. Hunter, of Virginia, 42 votes; James Guthrie, of Kentucky, 35 votes; Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, 12; Daniel S. Dickinson, of New York, 7; Joseph Lane, of Oregon, 6; Isaac Toucey, of Connecticut, 2; Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, 14; Franklin Pierce, of New Hampshire, 1. On the next ballot, Mr. Douglas had 147; and he continued to gain slowly to the thirty-second, when he received 152 votes. He fell off on the thirty-sixth to 151, which vote he continued to receive up to the fifty-seventh ballot, on which Guthrie received 651, Hunter 16, Lane 14, Dickinson 4, and Jefferson Davis 1. The Convention (May 3d), on motion of Mr. Russell, of Virginia, by a vote of 195 to 55, adjourned, to reassemble at Baltimore on Monday, the 18th of June; recommending to the Democratic party of the several States whose delegations had withdrawn, to fill their places prior to that day.
The seceding delegates assembled at St. Andrew's Hall-Senator Bayard, of Delaware, in the chair-and adopted the platform reported to the Convention by Mr. Avery, as aforesaid; and, after four days' deliberations, adjourned to meet at Richmond, Va., on the second Monday in June. The Wood delegates from New York attended this meeting, but were not admitted as members.
The regular Convention reässembled at the Front-street Theater in
Baltimore, pursuant to adjournment. Some days were spent in considering the credentials of contesting delegates from certain Southern States. The decisions of the Convention were such as to increase the strength of Senator Douglas. When it was concluded, Mr. Russell, of Virginia, Mr. Lander, of North Carolina, Mr. Ewing, of Tennessee, Mr. Johnson, of Maryland, Mr. Smith, of California, Mr. Saulsbury, of Delaware, Mr. Caldwell, of Kentucky, and Mr. Clark of Missouri, announced the withdrawal of the whole, or of a part, of the delegations from their respective States. Gen. Cushing resigned the chair of the Convention, which was immediately taken by Gov. David Tod, of Ohio (a Vice-President at Charleston), amid enthusiastic cheers. Gen. B. F. Butler, of Massachusetts, announced the determination of a majority of the delegates from his State not to participate further in its deliberations. He said:
"We have not discussed the question, Mr. President, whether the action of the Convention, in excluding certain delegates, could be any reason for withdrawal. We now put our withdrawal before you, upon the simple ground, among others, that there has been a withdrawal in part of a majority of the States, and further (and that, perhaps, more personal to myself), upon the ground that I will not sit in a Convention where the Afri
can slave-trade-which is piracy by the laws of my country-is approvingly advocated. (Great sensation.)"
The Convention now proceeded to vote for President; and, on the first ballot, Mr. Douglas had 1734; Guthrie 10, Breckinridge 5, and there were 3 scattering. On the next ballot, Mr. | Douglas had 1814, Breckinridge 7, Guthrie 5; whereupon, on motion of Mr. Sanford E. Church, of New York, the following resolution was adopted:
"Resolved unanimously, That Stephen A. received two-thirds of all the votes given in Douglas, of the State of Illinois, having now this Convention, is hereby declared, in accordance with the rules governing this body, and rules of former Democratic National Conventions, the regular nominee of the Democratic party of the United States, for the office of President of the United States."
and in accordance with the uniform customs
Hon. BENJAMIN FITZPATRICK, of Alabama, was now nominated for Vice-President, receiving 1984 votes to 1 scattering. [He declined, two Committee substituted Hon. HERdays thereafter, and the National SCHEL V. JOHNSON, of Georgia.]
offered the following resolve, as an Gov. Wickliffe, of Louisiana, now addition to the platform adopted at
"Resolved, That it is in accordance with the true interpretation of the Cincinnati Platform, that, during the existence of the Territorial Governments, the measure of restriction, whatever it may be, imposed by the Federal Constitution on the power of the Territorial Legislatures over the subject of
the domestic relations, as the same has been, or shall hereafter be, finally determined by the Supreme Court of the United States, should be respected by all good citizens, and enforced with promptness and fidelity by every branch of the General Government."
Mr. Payne, of Ohio, moved the previous question, and this was also adopted, with but two dissenting
The Seceders' Convention, which met, first at Richmond on the 11th of June, adjourned thence to Baltimore, and finally met at the Maryland Institute on the 28th of June. Twenty-one States were fully or partially represented. Hon. Caleb Cushing was chosen its President. Mr. Avery, of North Carolina, submitted his Charleston platform, which was unanimously adopted. It was resolved that the next Democratic National Convention should be held at Philadelphia.