John Steen, private, became Quartermaster Sergeant in 1864, and his whole term of service to the end was marked with ability and efficiency. Since the war he has held several positions of responsibility and trust, and is now living at Fremont, Neb.

The regiment was ordered to Davenport for final pay and discharge Jan. 25, 1866.

THREE MORE COMPANIES. In 1863 Winneshiek County again came to the front and contributed, for the suppression of the rebellion, three companies in addition to the brave men she had before sent. The companies were, respectively, D, K, and E, and formed a part of the ThirtyEighth Regiment. Henry A. Cleghorn was Captain of Company E.

Company K was officered as follows:
Captain-Samuel B. Califf.
First Lieutenant-Levi Freeman.
The officers of Company D were:
Captain-George R. Humphreys.
First Lieutenant-Newton Richards.
Second Lieutenant-E. J. Barker.
These companies

were mustered into service at Camp Randall, Dubuque, Iowa. From here they were transferred to Benton Barracks, St. Louis, Mo., where they spent Christmas and New Years, 1863-4. They were next transferred to Fort Thompson, which they retained charge of nearly six months.

The Thirty-Eighth Regiment was next transferred to the main forces then besieging Vicksburg. In this siege the ThirtyEighth, including the three companies from Winneshiek County, formed the extreme left of the Union line. Their position was in the very heart of a malarious swamp, and here was contracted the germ

of a disease which afterwards carried off these brave men by the hundreds. Within ten days after the surrender of Vicksburg the Thirty-Eighth was ordered to Yazoo City, on the Yazoo River. At Yazoo City the regiment remained about a week. While there the disease bred in the swamp opposite Vicksburg began to break out, and many men died. The regiment returned to Vicksburg. They were next ordered to Port Hudson to aid in the subjugation of that place, but did not reach the scene of action until the stronghold had fallen. The ThirtyEighth remained at Port Hudson about a month, and while here the disease contracted in the swamps broke out in all its virulence. So universal was the prostration of the soldiers, that during the month, there were on an average from three to fifteen only in the whole regiment that reported able for duty. Almost hourly the death of a companion in arms was announced to his sick and dying comrades. It was while lying here that the regiment met with its severest losses. Here it was they lost their beloved Colonel.

D. H. Hughes was commissioned Colonel of the ThirtyEighth Regiment by Gov. Samuel Kirkwood. He was born in Jefferson County, New York, September, 1831, and died Aug. 7, 1863. He died from the disease which carried almost universal death to his entire regiment. Col. Hughes graduated at the Albany Normal Institute in 1853. In 1854 he was employed on the Prairie Farmer, Chicago. He married Adaliza Matteson, in Watertown, Jefferson County, N. Y., in March, 1855, and immediately thereafter came to Decorah, engaging in the practice of law. Col. Hughes was a man of commanding stature, fine presence, the soul of honor, and became a lawyer of considerable repute. He was a Democrat in politics, but was elected County Judge of Winneshiek County in the fall of 1859, notwithstanding the county then, as now, was of strong Republican complexion. He was the candidate of his party for State Senator in the fall of 1861, and only failed of an election of nine votes. The Colonel was a War Democrat from the outset, and pending the consideration of a petition of prominent Republicans and Democrats to become an independent candidate for Judge of the District Court of the Tenth Judicial District, hearing the cry of his country for more troops, Judge Hughes promptly cast aside his political opportunity to enter upon a patriotic duty; and, warmly espousing her cause, made a stirring canvass of the county in that behalf, and thus drifted into the army.

Col. Hughes, while stationed at New Madrid, was called to St. Louis as Judge Advocate in some trials then pending, and from his bearing on that occasion, and the ability he displayed, upon the conclusion of the trials the Court (and it was a Court of strangers to him, too) unanimously recommended his promotion to Brigadier-General, which document, however, he would not allow to go forward, alleging as a reason his brief experience as a military commander, and that there were already lives enough under his charge. Such was his modesty and noble character. Col. Hughes died respected and beloved by all his soldiers, and not more universal was the mourning in camp over the death of their commander than that of his host of friends at home.

The Thirty-Eighth took their departure from Port Hudson for New Orleans, where they remained about three months. It was next transferred to Point Isabel, on the Rio Grande River. After leaving Port Hudson Company E was without a commissioned officer for nearly a year. The regiment was next sent to Brownsville, Texas. While here Quartermaster T. R. Crandall was made Captain of Company E, and Walter Green was made its First Lieutenant.

August, 1864, again found the regiment in New Orleans. From here it was sent to Morganzie Bend. While at Morganzie Bend the Thirty-Fourth and Thirty-Eighth were consolidated, and afterwards known as the Thirty-Fourth. The new regiment

numbered 1056 men. Company E, of Winneshiek, and Company F, of Fayette, were likewise consolidated, and afterward known as Company K. Capt. Rogers, of Company F, and Lieutenant Green, were relieved" of duty, and T. R. Crandall made Captain. H. T. Shumaker, of the original Company F, was made First Lieutenant, and 0. J. Clark made Second Lieutenant. Companies D and K were likewise consolidated. The ThirtyFourth participated in the siege of Fort Gains and Fort Morgan, on Mobile Bay, and here it remained until these forts capitulated. The Thirty-Fourth was also present at the charge on Fort Fisher. The regiment was engaged in the last battle of the war, which was the taking of Fort Blakesly, the day before Lee's surrender. In this engagement, in just eighteen minutes, over 1,500 Union soldiers were slain and wounded. The regiment was mustered out of the service at Houston, Texas, but did not disband until it reached Davenport.

COMPANY D, 6TH IOWA CAVALRY. Company D, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, was the last company donated to the Union cause by Winneshiek County. Although the men composing this company enlisted with the intention and expectation of fighting rebels, they were transferred to other fields of duty—which was even more undesirable—that of fighting Indians. The company was mustered into the United States service in February, 1863, with the following officers:

Captain-T. W. Burdick.
First Lieutenant-Sherman Page.
Second Lieutenant-Timothy Finn.
Orderly Sergeant-W. H. Fannon.

The United States forces, in which was Company K, had several engagements with the Indians, each time coming out victorious, with great loss to the Indians and small loss to themselves.


Record of Events from the First Settlement of Winneshiek County

to the Present Time Chronologically Arranged.

This chapter will be devoted largely to a brief review or chronology of prominent events in the history of the county, bringing them down to the present; omitting, however, the records of elections and the officers elected in the county each year, as they are given for each successive year in Chapter V. We also omit some other things of which a regularly yearly record lis made in other

chapters, but give a general chronolog cal record of events of special prominence, going into details in matters not already described in other chapters.

The Winnebago Indians, who occupied the territory now embracing Winneshiek County, when the white settlers first came in, and the Sacs and Foxes who precede the Winnebagoes, are sufficienty referred to in previous chapters of this volume. This chapter will take up the record from the time of the incoming of the whites.

In 1840, Fort Atkinson was erected to provide headquarters for the supervision of the Winnebago Indians and to protect them from predatory bands from other tribes. The fort was commenced June 2, 1840. Details of its erection and history are given in the sketch of Fort Atkinson in another chapter.

In June, 1842, Old Mission, about four miles southeast of Fort Atkinson, was established for the education of the Indians.

In 1840 a government teamster froze to death between Joel Post's and Fort Atkinson.

In 1841 Joel Post built the first log house at Postville, just outside of our county limits. This cannot be properly received as the settlement of the county, but is given because of its close contiguity to us.

The first events here briefly recorded, are generally given in more detail elsewhere in preceding or following

chapters. June 6, 1841, the first white child, Mary Jane Tupper, was born at Fort Atkinson.

In 1813, first grist mill, erected by Col, Thomas, of Old Mission.

In 1846, Capt. E. V. Summer, afterwards General Summer, who commanded at the fort from the first, left to join the United States Army in the Mexican War, and Capt. James Morgan, of Burlington, succeeded to the command of the infantry, and Capt. John Parker, of Dubuque, to the command of the cavalry.

In 1847, Capt Morgan's company was mustered out, and Capt. Parker given charge of the fort till the Indians were removed in 1848,

In 1847, Gotlob and Gotleib Kruman and others are said to have come and settled near Fort Atkinson. Details are given elsewhere. There seems to be a little doubt about the exact date of their coming

In 1818 the Winnebago Indians were ordered removed, although some of them strayed back here, and the permanent settlement of the county commenced; for details of which, see earlier chapters and the township histories in succeeding chapters.

Fort Atkinson was abandoned as a military post in 1848, but it remained in charge of the Government until 1853, when it was sold at auction.

in 1849, first settlement of Decorah by Wm. Day and familya notable event in county history.

Wm. Painter came here in 1849 and commenced running a small grist mill at the present site of the Spring Mill, or Dunning's mill, Decorah.

First settlers at Moneek in July, 1819.

The same year quite a number of other families settled in the county, as will be seen by records in first chapter.

1850). Settlements were made in what are now Decorah, Bloomfield, Springfield, Glenwood, Canoe, Pleasant, Madison, Frankville and Military townships.

Burr Oak was probably settled at about the same time; for in the fall of 1851, Judge N. V. Burdick visited the place and found where the village of Burr Oak is now located, a hotel, a store and a blacksmith shop.

Judge Burdick also found, in 1850, at the present site of Spillville, Mr. Spillman to be the only settler; while at what is now Twin Springs or Festna, then, there was a saloon.

The same year, 1850, the federal census was taken, showing a population of 570. First immigration of Norwegians took place this year.

1851. An act of the Legislature, organizing Winneshiek County, was approved Jan. 15, 1851. It appointed John L. Carson, Organize ing Sheriff, to assume duties March 1st.

April 7, Decorah was elected to be the County Seat. [Interesting details of the fight with Moneek are given elsewhere.]

In 1851, the first Post Office in the county, excepting those at Fort Atkinson and Old Mission, was established at Jamestown, in what is now Frankville township, James B. Cutler postmaster. His commission was dated Sept. 15, 1851.

On Oct. 5, 1851, occurred the first marriage in the countyJohannes Evenson to Catharine Helen Anderson.

Aug. 4, 1851, David Reed, who had come to this county in 1848, was chosen County Judge, and held the position till 1855.

Geo. Bachel, first County Sheriff, and other county officers elected, as recorded elsewhere.

Hesper and Highland townships were settled this year.

In Sept., 1851, the first County Court was opened at the log house of Wm. Day, Decorah. There being no business, it adjourned to the first Monday in October, when the first marriage license was granted.

The Heivly water power was improved by Mr. Painter and "Uncle Phillip" Morse, who arrived here in 1851, and built the saw mill, some of the ruins and the race which are to be seen between the present Arlington House and the old stone grist mill.

In July the first lawyer came to Decorah.

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