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certain seasons. It is seldom that consumption is contracted here, although our climate is not now considered, as formerly, a specific for that disease. The prevailing winds are westerly-northwest being most prevalent, the southwest next, and southeast third in order. The annual precipitation of moisture averages about 36 inches; and the mean annual temperature is not far from 45 degrees Fahrenheit. In general the winters are cold and long continued, with plenty of snow, though exceptions are not infrequent. The open winter of 1877-78 will long be remembered, when mud prevailed and roads were nearly impassible for weeks. Flowers bloomed on the open ground the last week in December; bees were at work on Christmas day; and at Lansing an excursion by ferry boat on the Mississippi was indulged in. Peas and greens grew five inches high in gardens in early January, ducks were flying north, and considerable plowing was done. So, also, will be remembered the severe winter of 1880–81, with its long continued and frequently repeated snow-blockades; and the winter of 1856– 57, when the deeply drifted snow was covered with a crust that supported ox teams in places, and deer were run down by men on foot because their sharp hoofs penetrated the crust which impeded their speed and lacerated their legs.

Friday night, April 27, 1877, an old-fashioned northeast snow storm set in, and continued almost steadily until Sunday afternoon. The roads were blockaded by drifts which rose in places to the depth of four feet. Very late heavy frosts are on record for the 11th, 12th and 13th of May, 1878, and ice formed to considerable thickness May 220 and 23d, 1882. Although these are exceptional cases, frosts hare been known in June and July. Aug. 22 and 23d, 1875, severe frost injured corn in low lands; and frosts are usually liable to occur after Sept. 10th. The beautiful Indian summer weather of late fall is one of the prominent features of our climate, though it is sometimes crowded out of the annual programme entirely.

Our county has so far since its settlement escaped the ravages of severe tornadoes to a great extent, the most serious storm of that character which has visited us entered the county from the southwest, on the afternoon of the 26th of September, 1881; passing just north of Postville, it demolished the houses of several farmers in Post township, especially at Lybrand, and passed northwardly through Jefferson Township, unroofing houses and twisting off or uprooting trees in its course, finally disappearing east of Waukon. Undoubtedly had the storm struck a town there would have been loss of life as well as property. As it was, several were very severely injured in Post township and all their personal effects swept away. Sept. 24, 1872, several buildings were blown down at Monona, including the depot and the Catholic church, but no lives were lost.

Of the other severe storms, the following are the most noteworthy: A severe wind and hail storm destroyed the crops in its path in July, 1854, unroofing Scott Shattuck's large barn at Waukon, and blowing down the frame of the Makee school house. May 21st, 1870, a storm passed eastwardly through Union Prairie, Makee, Center and Lafayette, unroofing the West Ridge Catholic church, and the hail broke window glass all along its course, July 14th of the same season severe hail, rain and wind destroyed crops in Ludlow, the hail destroying a great deal of window glass and cutting the heads of people exposed to its fury. April 29th, 1872, a severe storm visited the southern portion of the county, unroofing houses and blowing down trees. August 4th, 1872, a hail storm extended over a good share of the county, doing great damage to crops in Post and Franklin. One of the most terrible "blizzards" ever experienced in this region raged January 7th, 8th and 9th, 1873, when the snow was drifted to unprecedented heighths, the air was filled with the fine, cutting particles so that travel was impossible, and the mercury ranged from 20 to 36 degrees below zero. This was the time trains were snowed in for three days, in Winneshiek County, and passengers passed forty-eight hours of suffering therein. In the night of June 23d, 1875, a terrific rain flooded the valleys of Paint and Village creeks, the Iowa and its tributaries, sweeping away many county bridges, mill dams, etc. The Yellow river was treated to a similar destructive flood June 1st, 1878.

On the 10th of July, 1878, began our heaviest rain fall on record, raging at intervals from Wednesday evening until Friday morning, when the rain gauge showed 6.70 inches of rain in thirtysix hours (at Waukon), and on Sunday .66 in addition fell. This flood was general all over the county and did untold damage at Lansing and Village Creek; several had narrow escapes from drowning; almost every bridge along Village Creek was swept away, and the damage along the valley was estimated at $50,000. The valleys of the Iowa and Yellow Rivers did not escape with less injury.

But the rainy season of 1880 was more remarkable in many respects, though generally not so destructive, except on Yellow River where the damage was unprecedented. This series of rains began May 24th, and continued nearly through June, the months of May and June showing a rain fall of 14.68 inches at Waukon. The first storms was most severe in the northern portion of the county, while that of June 14th was particularly destructive along Yellow River, sweeping away crops, bridges, dams, and even mills. Great rains prevailed throughout the Upper Mississippi valley, so that river was higher than ever before known, during the latter part of June. Along our border it reached its highest about June 22d, nearly a foot higher than the previons high water mark of April, 1870.

June 21, 1882, the lower Village Creek valley experienced its highest water on record, from rains of that morning and the preceding night. Families in the village of that name narrowly escaped with their lives, and the wagon and railroad bridges at the mouth of the creek were both taken out.

AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTORIES. Allamakee County has always been classed as one of the best of agricultural regions, because of the diversity and fertility of its soil

. The principle products have been wheat, corn, oats, barley and potatoes. But owing to the partial failure of what was formerly the staple crop-spring wheat-continuing for several years in succession, the attention of the farmers have been turned to a greater variety of resources, having learned from dear experience how greatly the universal dependence upon the wheat crop will impoverish a region through impoverishment of the soil. Butter and eggs, hogs and cattle, etc., have always been produced for export to a considerable extent, but have been more relied upon within a few years, with the addition of flax, sorghum, onions, etc. Fine stock and the dairy, especially, are beginning to receive that attention which they demand; and these, with the increase of manufactories, will prove the pecuniary salvation of our people.

There was not a creamery in the county until 1880, when one was established at Waukon, which has made this season (1882) as high as 2,000 pounds of butter per day, and ordinarily 1500 pounds per day. There are now five of these establishments in the county manufacturing from 400 to 1,500 pounds per day.

Our manufactures are not extensive as yet, but the many unimproved water powers and other natural advantages for that class of industries are a guarantee that they will one day become as important as our agricultural resources. They consist at present of one large lumbering establishment, one foundry, one brewery, five creameries, numerous wagon and plow shops, brick yards, etc., and flouring mills, and last but not least, a woolen mill. The latter is situated at Village Creek, and was established by H. O. Dayton in 1865, the building being of stone, three and a half stories. It did a large business until October 28, 1868, when it was destroyed by fire, involving a loss of $35,000—nothing but the bare walls being left. It was rebuilt and new machinery put in, but on May 21, 1875, it was again destroyed by fire, at a loss of $25,000. In less than a year the mill was once more in operation, and has since continued to do a large business, notwithstanding the proprietors, Messrs. Howard, Carrolls & Ratcliffe, have met with many discouragements in the shape of disastrous floods, which have washed out the dam, time and again, causing great loss of time and expense for repairs.

Of the flouring and grist mills, they are between twenty-five and thirty in number, although all are not now in operation, ing to the great decrease in the wheat crops in the last few years.

OW

From the latest available statistics (the results of the census of 1880 not having been made public yet except in regard to some items) we have compiled the following tables relating to agricultural and manufacturing matters, and where practicable have given opportunity for a comparison of different years.

ABSTRACT OF CENSUS OF 1873,

Names of Townships

No. acres of Land

Improved.

No. bush. Wheat harv'sted 1872

No. bushels Corn

harv'sted 1872

No. bushels Oats

harv'sted 1872

No. bushels Bar-
ley harv'sted '72
No. pounds Wool

shorn in 1872
18 Horses.

Neat Cattle

Swine over six

months old.

cons Mules.

Center 7656 75601| 28833 23998 7301 823 3511 14 857) 230 235 Fairview 2499

7805 25402 5.377 72 341] 17816 356 66 143 Franklin 5135 16430 38520 16252 3418 1488 343 9 628| 344 382 Fren'h Cr’k 5072 49085 32550 16292 582 650 359 897) 194 878 Hanover 3663 30543 39050 13827 561 953 202 4 652 3781 487 Iowa

2537| 10833 34300 3632 4 1807 223 683 279 332 Jefferson 10027 54378) 61980 37330 5212 3072 497 10 836 567 668 Lafayette 7774 63992 39361 17804 218 548 425 5 989 161 611 Lansing 4248 51832 37915/ 23517 852 693 340 11 855) 1521 467 Lansi'g City

131 6 132 Linton 3368 13921 3221013850 202 1241] 267 4 646 245 389 Ludlow 12865 79647 69095 59172 12940 1770 571 4 970 455 701 Makee

9085 69178 53610 34690 3595 1611 633 5 972 405 355 Paint Creek 7136 54658 47710 32117 870 2410 416 3 918 752 702 Post

8213 32895 58950 25260 3018 2902 516 10 1102 529 949 Taylor 6400 46751 37725 20541 180 946 406 2 7571 244 597 Union City 4525 36205 50590 14055 6201 375 282 749| 155 1040 Un'n Pra're 7878 65143 64875 39116 8426 1466 443 2 879| 308 1284 Waterloo 6037| 55634 454901 21963 1534 653 314 91 808] 233 816

Total

(114118 814531798166|418793 43034|23749 6897 114/14686/5697 11027

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