Statistical Analysis in Climate Research
Climatology is, to a large degree, the study of the statistics of our climate. The powerful tools of mathematical statistics therefore find wide application in climatological research. The purpose of this book is to help the climatologist understand the basic precepts of the statistician's art and to provide some of the background needed to apply statistical methodology correctly and usefully. The book is self contained: introductory material, standard advanced techniques, and the specialised techniques used specifically by climatologists are all contained within this one source. There are a wealth of real-world examples drawn from the climate literature to demonstrate the need, power and pitfalls of statistical analysis in climate research. Suitable for graduate courses on statistics for climatic, atmospheric and oceanic science, this book will also be valuable as a reference source for researchers in climatology, meteorology, atmospheric science, and oceanography.
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anomalies approximately assume assumption asymptotic atmospheric auto-correlation auto-correlation function auto-covariance function auto-regressive average bivariate complex components computed confidence interval covariance matrix critical values cross-covariance defined degrees of freedom density function derived described deviations discussed distribution function dynamical effect eigenvalues eigenvectors EOF coefficients EOFs equation example filter forecast frequency geopotential height given guess pattern Hilbert EOFs Hilbert transform independent indicates linear maximum mean squared error monthly mean multivariate normal distribution null hypothesis observed obtained orthogonal pair parameters periodogram phase plotted POP analysis probability random variables random vector realizations regression represent rotation sample scale Section shown in Figure significance level simulated skill score spatial spectral estimator spectrum stationary process statistical stochastic process sum of squares univariate variance variations wave wavenumber weakly stationary white noise wind zero zonal Zwiers