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STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. MARTIN REGENSBURGER, M.D., President,

F. K. AINSWORTH, M.D.

San Francisco San Francisco A. C. HART, M.D.

Sacramento WALLACE A BRIGGS, M.D., Vice-President,

0. STANSBURY, M.D.,

..Chico
Sacramento W. LE MOYNE WILLS, M.D.

Los Angeles
N. K. Foster, M.D., Secretary. Sacramento
Hon. W. I, FOLEY, Attorney

Los Angeles

STATE BUREAU OF VITAL STATISTICS. *N. K. FOSTER, M.D., State Registrar..Sacramento | GEORGE D. LESLIE, Statistician. Sacramento

STATE HYGIENIC LABORATORY. ARCHIBALD R. WARD, Ph.D., Director

University of California, Berkeley

The Monthly Bulletin will present in each number a synopsis of the important results developed by tabulating the statistics of births, marriages, and deaths, especially the latter. The Bulletin is the official means of communication between the Secretary of the State Board of Health and County and City Health Officers, as well as between the State Registrar and Local Registrars and Subregistrars, and will present from time to time matter of interest to these officials. For the benefit of the general public, reports will also be given of food analyses made in the State Hygienic Laboratory at Berkeley.

VITAL STATISTICS FOR JUNE. It was hardly expected that the registration of vital statistics under the new law would be begun generally before July 1, but returns of varying completeness were received from some counties even for June. The data on the certificates have been tabulated and the main results are now presented without special comment, as the numbers are too small for positive conclusions to be drawn.

Births.-Returns from eight counties, three fifths being from two counties, show a total of 91 living births registered in June, of which 46 were male and 45 female. All except a Chinese girl and a Japanese boy belonged to the white or Caucasian race. The parent nativity of the 89 white children was as follows: both parents born in California or one born here and the other elsewhere in the United States, 41; other native or unknown, 23; one born in California and the other in a foreign country, 5; and other mixed or foreign, 20. Stated proportionally, 461 of each 1,000 were of pure California or mixed California and native parentage, 258 of other native parentago, 56 of mixed California and foreign parentaġe, and 225 of other foreign parentage. Altogether

In 199 cases,

51.7 per cent, or over one half, of the white children had one or both parents bory in the Golden State. ,...

Marriage. A. Potål of. 267; marriages were registered in June in fourteen counties, three fourths being in four counties. or 74.6 per cent of all, the marriage performed was the first for each party to it, both groom and bride being single. In 24 instances the groom was single but not the bride, in 22 the bride was single but not the groom, and in 22 it was the second or third marriage of both parties. Only one remarriage was reported. Of the grooms, 223 or 83.5 per cent were single, 25 or 9.4 per cent were widowed, and 19 or 7.1 per cent were divorced, while of the brides the single were 221 or 82.8 per cent of all, the widowed 32 or 12.0 per cent, and the divorced 14 or 5.2 per cent. More brides than grooms reported themselves as widowed, •and on the other hand more grooms than brides stated that they were divorced.

Two marriages of negroes were registered. Of the 265 marriages of wh es, 144 or 54.3 per cent were unions between Californians or between Californians and other natives, 54 or 20.4 per cent between other natives of the United States, 23 or 8.7 per cent between Californians and foreigners, and 44 or 16.6 per cent between other natives and foreign-born whites. In altogether 167 cases, or five eighths (63.0 per cent) of all marriages of whites, one or both parties were native Californians.

Deaths.—The tabulation of mortality statistics by the system to be used henceforth is omitted for June because the great bulk of the returns of deaths were on old forms not giving the necessary data.

Twenty-one reports, representing a population of 911,300, show a mortality of 1,060, and a death-rate for the month of 1.16 per thousand, or an annual rate of 13.96 per thousand. In the public institutions, with a population of 9,231, there were 48 deaths-a monthly death-rate of 5.20 per thousand, or an annual rate of 62.40 per thousand.

The causes of deaths were as follows: Tuberculosis, 170; Heart Disease, 151; Cancer, 67; Pneumonia, 64; Stomach Diseases, 61 ; Diarrhæa and Dysentery, 24; Typhoid Fever, 17; Diphtheria, 10; Whooping-cough, 10; Cerebro-spinal Fever, 10, Alcoholism, 8; Bronchitis, 8; Influenza, 4; Cholera Infantum, 4; Measles, 2; Congestion of the Lungs, 2; Erysipelas, 2 ; Scarlatina, 1; other causes, 445.

Distributed proportionally, the deaths from each cause reported per 10,000 from all causes were as follows: Tuberculosis, 1,604; Heart Disease, 1,424; Cancer, 632; Pneumonia, 604; Stomach Diseases, 576; Diarrhea and Dysentery, 226; Typhoid Fever, 160; Diphtheria, 94; Whooping-cough, 94; Cerebro-spinal Fever, 94; Alcoholism, 76; Bronchitis, 76; Influenza, 38; Cholera Infantum, 38; Measles, 19; Conges-tion of the Lungs, 19; Erysipelas, 19; Scarlatina, 9; other causes, 4.198.

HEALTH SUGGESTIONS.

The attention of the Health Officers of the State is called to the danger of disease being spread by means of water. It is the recognized source of dissemination the world over for certain diseases, notably cholera and typhoid fever! :'There is no case of either af these diseases but what came from a preceding Cake: through the exerefa from the

a

human body. The disease germs in this excreta live a certain length of time in the water, and a person using any in which they exist, for either drinking or washing, is in danger of contracting the disease. That all do not so contract it simply shows the resisting power of their systems. It is indirect violation of the State law to in any way pollute the streams furnishing water for domestic purposes. This applies to towns as well as individuals, and it is your duty to watch the water supply of your jurisdiction and keep it pure. Towns sewering into such streams or lakes should be at once notified that they must take steps to secure other means of disposing of their sewage. Corrals and closets of ranches should be moved back from the stream a reasonable distance, and campers should be notified that they must not use the stream in which to wash clothing or deposit the refuse and excreta of their camp. All camping should be prohibited on the banks of streams which directly flow into a reservoir supplying water for domestic purposes, or immediately above the intake of a water supply on stream, as many cases of typhoid fever have been traced to this source. Typhoid fever is an entirely preventable disease and its existence is a crime against the inhabitants of a State, so many of whom die from it

As soon as the people learn that the drinking of dilute sewage is the great cause of this disease and insist that those above them keep from polluting the water and in turn exercise the same care themselves, we shall have taken a long step toward stamping it out.

A representative of the State Board has visited many of the cities and towns which are violating the law against polluting the streams, and has shown them the means by which it can be avoided, Several are acting on the suggestions made and there is no doubt but that in the near future a great improvement will be seen. During a recent tour of inspection, a short distance above a city which pumps its water directly from a stream, a man was seen throwing a load of manure into the water. This, irritating and foul as it was, was not as bad as the acts of nearby towns which discharge all their sewage into the same stream. There is not a city or town in the State that is befouling and polluting the streams but what can, with moderate expense, install a system of sewage destruction. In the saving of life and promoting good health this would be a paying investment.

each year.

STATE HYGIENIC LABORATORY. In accordance with an Act of the last Legislature a State Hygienic Laboratory has been established at the University of California at Berkeley, under the control of the State Board of Health. The work of the laboratory is designed to meet the needs of district health officers, who do not have access to municipal laboratories. The limited funds provided will necessarily restrict the work, but it will be possible at present to do routine diagnostic work on such diseases as tuberculosis, diphtheria, anthrax and typhoid fever, together with the examination of water suspected of sewage pollution.

For the present the privileges of the laboratory will be extended to official medical and veterinary health officers. Circulars giving further details of the work that can be done are in preparation. These will be mailed to all such officers known to the State Board of Health.

Births.-Returns for July from thirty-four counties, including thirteen freeholders' charter cities, give a total of 579 living births. All were white children, except 7 negroes, 2 Chinese, and 3 Japanese. The total number of males was 290 as compared with 289 females, but among the white children alone the boys numbered 288 and the girls only 279.

There were 10 plural births, each being a case of twins. Two children were the twelfth born to their respective mothers, 3 the eleventh, and 1 the tenth. On the other hand, 208 or 35.9 per cent were first-born children, 120 or 20.7 per cent second children, 77 or 13.3 per cent third children, 41 or 7.1 per cent fourth children, and only 88 or 15.2 per cent the fifth or over born, the information not being stated for 45 or 7.8 per cent of all. By taking successive totals, it appears that while more than one third (35.9 per cent) were first-born, about five ninths (56.6 per cent) were second children or less, seven tenths (69.9 per cent) were third children or less, and over three fourths (77.0 per cent) were no more than the fourth born to their mothers.

Of all the children born to the 579 mothers having births in July the number living at the time of registration was as follows: none, 13 or 2.3 per cent; one, 201 or 34.7 per cent; two, 127 or 21.9 per cent; three, 70 or 12.1 per cent; four, 34 or 5.9 per cent; five or more, 62 or 10.7 per cent; and not stated, 72 or 12.4 per cent.

Of the 567 white children, 381 or 77.2 per cent had both parents native (or unknown) and 186 or 32.8 per cent had one or both parents foreign born. The 331 of native parentage included 214, or 43.0 per cent of the total, having one or both parents born in California and 137, or 24.2 per cent of all, having both parents born elsewhere in the United States. The 186 wholly or partly of foreign parentage comprised 57, or 10.1 per cent of all, with one parent born in California and 129, or 22.7 per cent of the total, with both parents born elsewhere. Altogether 301 or 53.1 per cent of the white children had one or both parents born in the Golden State. That is, considerably over half were wholly or partly of California parentage.

The nativity of merely the mothers of the 567 white children was as follows: California, 249 or 43.9 per cent; other states, 211 or 37.2 per cent; and foreign countries, 107 or 18.9 per cent. More than two fifths of the white mothers were native Californians.

By age periods, the white mothers were distributed thus: under 25 years, 210; 25 to 34 years, 257; 35 to 44 years, 73; 45 years and over, 1; and age unknown, 26. Or, stated proportionally, of each 1,000 there were 370 under 25 years, 453 from 25 to 34 years, 129 from 35 to 44 years, 2 at least 45

years

of
age,
and 46

age

unknown. Over four ninths (45.3 per cent) of the white mothers were from 25 to 34 years of age and three eighths (37.0 per cent) were under 25 years, so that altogether over four fifths (82.3 per cent) were less than 35 years of age.

Marriages.- For July, altogether 547 marriages were reported from thirty-three counties. Except for 7 marriages of negroes, the unions were all between persons of the white or Caucasian race. or nearly three fourths (72.4 per cent) of all, the marriage performed was the first for each party, both groom and bride being single. In 67 instances it was the first marriage of the groom but not of the bride, in 48 the first of the bride but not of the groom, and in 36, or about one case in fifteen, it was the second or third marriage of both parties. Of

In 396 cases,

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