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which should be prevented. At the same time no one should be denied the right to buy the cheap oils. But those who wish to purchase pure olive oil should not have to remain in doubt as to its purity and quality, as at present they so often have to do. The enforcement of proper labeling would obviate all of these difficulties. Again, no prohibitory restrictions should be placed upon the manufacturer who wishes to make a jelly consisting of a mixture of apple and currant, or a cornstarch and fruit jelly, or a butterine made up of butter and oleomargarine, etc., nor, in fact, any compound from the admixture of two or more food materials each of which may possess different nutritive and pecuniary values, provided the proper statements are plainly in evidence on the label.
"In many cases, the nature of the main contents of the package is plainly printed, but the type used for the name or names of the adulterants is so small, and often so concealed in the "foliage” of the label, that unless one is very careful he is led to believe that the contents consist entirely of the material indicated by the large type. This is particularly true of honey. There are cases where the words 'Pure Honey' have a prominent position on the label, but only after careful search will one find the statement, '20 per cent honey and 80 per cent glucose. Thus the manufacturer has complied with the law in name, but, as far as the consumer is concerned, has decidedly evaded it in spirit. There should be no objection against the manufacture of a butter containing 20 per cent of water, if such be stated on the wrapper and the butter be subjected to a discount; because the purchaser should not be obliged to pay for 8 to 10 per cent extra of water at the price of butter fat.
"Prominent among the deceptions practiced under the second form above mentioned may be noted several proprietary foods, infant foods, cereal breakfast foods, coffee substitutes, and 'evaporated creams.' 'evaporated creams' are excellent food, to which no objection can be raised, but they should be honestly labeled for just what they are. These materials are seldom, if ever, admixed with any poisonous or harmful adulterants."
M. E. JAFFA. Food LABORATORY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
CALIFORNIA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.
SACRAMENTO, OCTOBER, 1905.
STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. MARTIN REGENSBURGER, M.D., President,
F. K. AINSWORTH, M.D.
San Francisco San Francisco A. C. HART, M.D.
Sacramento WALLACE A. BRIGGS, M.D., Vice-President,
O. STANSBURY, M.D.
STATE BUREAU OF VITAL STATISTICS. N. K. FOSTER, M.D., State Registrar. Sacramento | GEORGE D. LESLIE, Statistician. Sacramento
STATE HYGIENIC LABORATORY. ARCHIBALD R. WARD, D.V.M., Director
University of California, Berkeley
VITAL STATISTICS FOR OCTOBER. Summary.--For October, vital statistics were reported from all except four of the fifty-seven counties in California. The population in 1905 has been estimated conservatively according to the Census Bureau method by adding to the population in 1900 five tenths of the increase between 1890 and 1900, except that for the few counties showing decreases between the last two Federal censuses the population in 1900 has been taken for 1905 and for some leading cities arbitrary estimates have been made because of their exceptionally rapid growth. For fiftythree counties with a population, thus estimated, of 1,678,124 there were reported 1,873 living births, 2,117 deaths exclusive of stillbirths not tabulated, and 1,464 marriages, or 2,928 persons married. These figures represent an annual birth-rate of 13.1, a death-rate of 14.9, and a marriage-rate of 10.3, or 20.6 persons married, per 1,000 ponulation.
In "Greater San Francisco," or the metropolis together with Oakland, Berkeley, and Alameda, the proportion of all deaths caused by such complaints as heart disease and diarrhoea and enteritis is considerably above the average proportion for California as a whole. For the rest of the State, on the contrary, the proportion of all deaths due to certain causes is above the general average for epidemic diseases, nervous diseases like meningitis, apoplexy, and paralysis, and deaths from various forms of violence—suicides, drowning, and accidental injuries.
In October, as usual, tuberculosis was the leading specific cause of death in California. It is significant, however, that about one ninth (11.4 per cent) of the victims of this disease had lived in the State less than a year. Of the native Californians who died of tuberculosis, about one third were less than, and two thirds were at least, 15 years old.
Causes of Death.—The table below gives the number of deaths reported for October, by main headings of the International Classification, for California as a whole and also for “Greater San Francisco” or the metropolitan area (San Francisco and the three transbay cities) in contrast with all the rest of the State. For convenience in comparison, there is likewise shown the proportion of deaths from each class per 10,000 from all causes :
The table shows that in California as a whole about one fourth of all deaths were due to other than epidemic general diseases, the class including tuberculosis and cancer, and about one eighth were caused by diseases of the digestive system, including diarrhea and enteritis. The next largest proportions were from diseases of the circulatory system, violence, diseases of the nervous system, of the respiratory system, of the genito-urinary system, and epidemic diseases, in the order named.
There are marked differences between “Greater San Francisco” (the metropolis together with Oakland, Berkeley, and Alameda) and the rest of the State in the relative importance of the different classes of diseases. Thus, considering only the most striking contrasts, one finds that in the metropolitan area the proportion of deaths was much above the average for California as a whole for diseases of the circulatory system and of the digestive system, in which the principal specific diseases are respectively heart disease and diarrhea and enteritis. In the rest of the State, on the other hand, the proportion was above the general average, especially for epidemic diseases such as typhoid, malaria, whooping-cough, and diphtheria and croup, for diseases of the nervous system, including meningitis, apoplexy, and paralysis, and for violence, comprising suicides, drowning, and accidental injuries.
The following table shows for California as a whole the number of deaths from the leading specific diseases, as well as the proportion per 10,000 from all causes :
As usual, tuberculosis was the main cause of death, with heart disease next in order. It is significant, however, that a considerable proportion of those who died of tuberculosis in California were only recent residents of the State. This appears from the following table, showing the length of residence in California of the 299 victims of tuberculosis:
Length of Residence.
Under 1 month
6 to 11 months
Per cent. 100.0 11.4 2.7 3.0 2.3 3.4 10.4
6.3 31.8 31.8 8.3
The table shows that of the 299 persons who died of tuberculosis in California in October, 8 had been in the State less than a month, 9 had lived here only one or two months, and altogether 24 or 8.0 per cent of the total had resided here less than six months, while an aggregate of 34 or 11.4 per cent had been residents of the State less than a year. It
may be noted that of the 95 native Californians who died of tuberculosis, 33 were less than 15 years old and 62 were at least 15 years of age.
STATE HYGIENIC LABORATORY. The last Legislature enacted a law establishing a State Hygienic Laboratory at the State University, Berkeley, for bacteriological and chemical analyses, under the management of the State Board of Health. The bacteriological department is equipped and ready and anxious for work which will be of aid to the health officers and physicians of the State. Containers in which to mail different pathological products will be sent, upon application, to any part of the State. Upon receipt of the specimen to be examined at the laboratory, together with the card which accompanies each, properly filled, the work will be done at once, and report made by mail or telegraph as requested. Already many health officers have availed themselves of the laboratory to verify the diagnosis of diphtheria and typhoid. We have also water-containers, which will be sent to any health officer who wishes to have a sample of water examined. In order to have samples arrive in such a condition that an examination will be of value, the directions in the containers must be studied and closely followed.
Owing to the limited appropriation we have not been able to fully equip the chemical department, but arrangements have been made with Prof. M. E. Jaffa of the University, whereby a certain number of food analyses will be made.
We hope that the health officers throughout the State will avail themselves of this laboratory, as it can be made a valuable aid in clearing up doubtful diagnoses and suppressing epidemics, in preserving the purity of our streams, wells, and lakes which furnish domestic water supplies, and in spreading information regarding adulterated food.
NOTICE CONCERNING THE STATE HYGIENIC LABORATORY. There are ready for distribution mailing cases for collecting specimens for laboratory examinations for diphtheria, typhoid fever, and tuberculosis. The services of the laboratory, in examining material for these diseases, are free to physicians who do not have the privilege of municipal laboratory service.
In order that the mailing cases may be available for the use of as large a number as possible, it is desirable that a supply of them be kept in drugstores. This is especially necessary in the case of the diphtheria outfits, which must be exchanged for fresh ones when the blood serum becomes dry. Experience elsewhere has shown that druggists readily consent to this and that the system is a convenient one for both the laboratory and the practitioner. Health officers or other physicians desiring to use the laboratory are requested to make such arrangements with a local druggist, and to notify the laboratory to that effect. When such a plan is not practicable, mailing cases will be sent direct to applicants. Containers will be sent, charges collect, in each instance, as funds are not available for express charges.
Laboratory reports are particularly useful in diphtheria epidemics. When a mild incipient case is encountered, the physician may suspect, or even be quite certain, that he has a case of diphtheria. Nevertheless, he will hesitate to give a diagnosis which will necessitate a quarantine. He may then take a swab and mail it to the laboratory as letter mail. The report will be made by telegraph, if desired, and if the report is positive the health officer will also receive a report by mail from the laboratory. Under such circumstances a quarantine may be established with greater confidence than otherwise.
Examination of Water.—Upon request of the health officers, the State Hygienic Laboratory is prepared to make bacteriological examinations of water samples with reference to sewage pollution. Such examinations are worthless unless samples are collected in sterilized containers, with an observance of strict precautions. A special shipping case, together with directions for collecting and shipping samples, will be sent upon application. Bacteriological examinations of water submitted in containers other than those supplied by the laboratory can not be made. These shippings cases are expensive and the supply is limited. Hence it is necessary to require immediate return to the laboratory.