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MOSQUITOES.

Stockton, it is reported, is taking measures to find out if the mosquitoes in the vicinity of that city are the Anopheles, or malaria-bearing species, and if they are found to be will proceed to annihilate them. This is a good work, but why not annihilate them anyway? Malaria is not the only disease carried to humanity, by different species of this pest, and time may show that other diseases, which at the present time we do not think of as being disseminated in that way, are in reality mosquito diseases. At any rate, their biting and buzzing cause a loss of sleep and nervousness that are factors in ill health. They can easily be practically exterminated from any town and much added to the sum of happiness, contentment, and good health.

VEGETABLES AND TYPHOID FEVER.

Investigations made by the State Board of Health prove beyond doubt that there is great danger of typhoid fever being spread by the use of uncooked vegetables which have been contaminated by human excrement. Gardens were found where the liquid excrement was used to sprinkle on the plants to kill insect life. Should those vegetables be eaten raw, as many of them are, serious consequences might result.

In the neighborhood of cities where land is valuable, intense cultivation and fertilization are necessary, and nothing is allowed to go to waste that will enrich the soil. Sewage in concentrated form and sewage-polluted water are used to fertilize and irrigate vegetables which are eaten raw, and strawberries. These things should be carefully watched by local health authorities and not allowed, for there is no doubt much sickness results from the practice. As a precautionary measure, where there is a suspicion of danger, the following from the Bulletin of the Chicago Health Department could be used:

"Dr. Ross C. Whitman, of the Laboratory of the Department, furnishes the following interesting hint to housewives :

“Recent experiments conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that typhoid bacillus, which may be found upon fruit or vegetables designed to be eaten raw, can be killed by immersing these articles of food in a five per cent solution of tartaric acid for half an hour, and then removing the acid by rinsing in clear water. Such a solution of tartaric acid may be prepared by dissolving one tablespoonful of tartaric acid in a pint of water.

“Tartaric acid is a fruit acid. It is derived from the grape, as citric acid is derived from the lemon. This acid is absolutely harmless, being an important constituent of cream of tartar, which the housewife uses every day. Such a solution of tartaric acid will kill all the typhoid bacilli that may be upon celery, lettuce, radishes, or other vegetables and fruit, as well as oysters or clams that are to be eaten raw. In way all danger of contracting typhoid from these sources is absolutely avoided. The tartaric acid can be very readily removed by rinsing in clear water. This is a practical household method, and should be used by every housewife.”

STRAWBERRIES AND FILTH.

This is not by any manner of means a new dish, having been served ever since “the memory of man runneth not to the contrary,” but its antiquity does not lessen its disgusting properties nor its liability to produce sickness. Take a stroll through the ordinary market or by a vegetable and fruit store and watch conditions, especially on a windy day. The strawberries are set out to view for the purpose of inducing trade, but they are entirely unprotected from the dust which is rising in clouds from the street-dust composed of all unmentionable filth. It settles and clings to the berries and no amount of washing will entirely take it away. The berries are also oftentimes closely inspected by the ever-present dog, who leaves them in a no more inviting condition.

This delicious fruit is exposed to enough contamination in its production and picking and should be guarded from any additional in the market. This can easily be done, and local ordinances should be passed requiring that berries should not be exposed to the contaminating influences to which they are now subjected. The purchasers, however, have an immediate remedy by refusing to deal with any one who thus endangers their health.

A MOVING PICTURE.
Place: Sidewalk display of food products.
Time: Midsummer.

Personnel: Flies, pedestrians, customers, etc. ACT I. Two swarms of flies are breakfasting on a bright summer morning on two delectable dishes in front of the grocer's store—one is a fresh pile of horse droppings; the other a generous expectoration of tuberculous sputum just deposited by a gentleman who has recently "come West for his health.” Several pedestrians pass, which alarms the aforesaid flies, and they immediately arise, to settle back on the first thing to attract their attention, which seems to be the attractive food products just put out on the sidewalk by the grocer, and, with legs, wings, and mouth reeking with filth and tubercular germs, they voraciously attack their second course.

ACT II. Infected food eaten by a man who was "run down" by a "bad cold." ACT III.

. Another case of tuberculosis reported to the department of health. ACT IV. Another death from tuberculosis reported to the department of health,

-Kansas Bulletin.

ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS LEAGUE OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. The Anti-Tuberculosis League of Southern California held its regular semi-annual meeting at San Diego on May 2d. This organization has on its membership roll many of the most prominent doctors and laymen of the south, and is doing a magnificent work for that part of the State. The organizers and those who have bravely stood by it have no doubt often felt discouraged, and that the public, in whose interest they were spending their time, money, and energy, did not appreciate their efforts. Such is, no doubt, the truth; but the well attended and really enthusiastic meeting at San Diego should go a long way to cheer

them up.

The organization in that city of a subordinate league to work in harmony with the mother organization is a hopeful sign that the people are beginning to see the good results of organization. Desultory and unorganized work may do great good, but the same amount of energy organized and conducted will do infinitely more. Every city and large town in the State should have an anti-tuberculosis league and all these should be united in one central organization. Doctors, ministers, business men, and statesmen should be members. Fraternal societies, civic organizations, labor organizations, and women's clubs should all take a hand, for all are vitally interested. With such an organization over the State, education as to means of preventing tuberculosis could be spread to every class. Hospitals and helping stations could be established and we would be on the eve of the day when one in every seven will not die of tuberculosis.

All honor to the earnest men and women of the south who are so bravely pushing this work.

"DUST AS A FACTOR IN THE PRODUCTION OF DISEASE.” From the Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute, November issue, we learn that at the congress of the institute held at Bristol, England, Dr. Philip Boobyer presented a paper upon the above-named subject, an abstract of which is published in the Journal.

The doctor calls attention to the action of dust in the production of diseases of the respiratory organs, and after noting the sources of dust he presents the following summary in the way of minifying the dust nuisance and menace as far as possible:

1. Pave our streets as far as practicable with smooth and cleanable materials.

2. Check as far as practicable the deposit of fecal and other organic detritus in streets, courts, alleys, and yards.

3. Forbid the sweeping of dust and other matters from houses, workshops and factories into the streets.

4. Stop all dry sweeping of streets, and secure the use of closed carts for all scavenging purposes.

5. Forbid the passage of motor cars at more than, say, ten miles an hour past any house or houses standing within fifty feet of a road or street in any district, and limit their speed to ten miles an hour in all urban districts.

6. Discourage, as far as practicable, the use of carpets in houses, and forbid the shaking of carpets and mats in the vicinity of dwellings and work places.

7. Encourage the burning of all organic refuse, including infected materials produced on domestic premises, in the kitchen fires.

8. Pursue a vigorous campaign against the smoke nuisance of towns.

9. Enforce the use of closed bins for the storage of domestic refuse, and see that all public scavenging is promptly, thoroughly and intelligently carried out.

10. Advocate the construction of houses, workshops, and factories of such materials and upon such principles as shall obviate, as far as practicable, the accumulation of dust beneath the floors, and in other situations where, under existing conditions, it is liable to harbor.

Finally, let it be our constant aim to minimize the generation of dust in all populous places, and, where its production is inevitable, to secure the adoption of all reasonable means of keeping it out of the general atmosphere.

This subject is a very large one, and all I have endeavored to do is to draw attention to a few sources of injurious dust specially prominent in connection with the life of cities. I am no revolutionary enthusiast; I only wish to indicate certain directions in which we, as practical sanitarians, might advantageously exercise more care than has been onr wont hitherto.Iowa Health Bulletin.

SLEEPING OUTDOORS.

Throughout a large portion of California the temperature seldom reaches the freezing point, and sleeping in the open air is entirely practicable. In winter all that is necessary is warm coverings and a roof or canvas shelter to keep off the rain. There is hardly a house in city or country that could not easily have an outdoor sleeping apartment. A platform on the back or side, either with roof or entirely open, could be cheaply built. If without roof, in winter a canvas could be stretched from the side of the house to near the floor, which would keep the bed and inmates dry. Many houses have porches, the tops of which make excellent places to sleep. Two-story houses generally have a one-story portion, the roof of which, if made flat, and a door opening from the chamber on to it, is unsurpassed for an outdoor sleeping place. With a roof or canvas for winter protection such a place is a joy to any family, and after sleeping on it for a season they could hardly be induced to sleep inside.

In the morning after a night in the open air one awakes with a feeling of exhilaration and is fresh and strong. None of that headache and languor which are felt after sleeping in a close room. Go from the open-air bedroom into a close room where one has slept, and feel the oppression which comes. You feel stifled and unable to breathe because of the impure air.

During the hours of sleep the breathing is not deep and strong, and portions of the lungs are not well inflated, nor are the powers of life and elimination active. If the air breathed during that time is loaded with broken-down matter from the lungs, as it is if breathed over and over again, as is indoor air, the effect on the lungs and bodily health can be only bad. Many cases of consumption result from such sleeping. If perchance the germs of consumption or other infectious disease are in the air they find in the lung, which is only partially inflated, and that with air deprived of most of its oxygen, a place exactly to their liking. Disease germs have very little chance of prolonged vitality in pure air, as it is one of the best disinfectants known, and consequently a preventive of disease. Especially is this true of consumption, and those who would be free from this terrible disease should live as much as possible in the open air. It is not within the power of all to spend the day out of doors, but the nights can be, and as we pass nearly a third of our time in bed, the breathing of pure air during that time would be a mighty aid in eradicating the “Great White Plague.”'

We all have the power, to a greater or less extent, to destroy the disease germs which attack us, and this power depends in a considerable degree upon the physical strength and vitality of the person. Anything to increase that vitality should be practiced, and nothing which is at once cheap and pleasurable can compare with outdoor sleeping.

MEASLES AND WHOOPING-COUGH. "Measles and whooping-cough are very prevalent-shown more by the number of deaths than by the number of cases reported. The deaths from these two diseases for the week nearly equal those from scarlet fever and diphtheria. Physicians seem to be sharing the indifference of the public toward measles and whooping-cough. The city ordinance requires physicians to report measles and whooping-cough the same as scarlet fever and diphtheria. Physicians are neglecting to comply with this requirement. The laity too often regard measles and whooping-cough as trivial diseases, but medical men know these diseases to be very destructive to early child life. They are especially fatal to children under two years of age, and children should be guarded against exposure to the infection of either of these diseases as long as possible. As agents for destroying life, measles and whooping-cough are as important as diphtheria and scarlet fever. The Department of Health announces to physicians and to the public that it is deemed wise to adopt similar precautionary measures in these two diseases as those now enforced in diphtheria and scarlet fever. Warning cards will be posted; patients must be kept from contact with others liable to the disease; return termination card will be required, as in ‘scarlet fever and diphtheria, and the cases will be notified terminated by the Department of Health. Children will not be eligible to return to school until the final termination card is issued by the Department, in the same manner as now in practice in cases of scarlet fever and diphtheria.

The above from the Chicago Bulletin of Health shows that these diseases are reaping their victims in other places as well as in California, and that the health authorities have the same difficulty in making laity and physicians recognize their danger. Health officers in this State are reminded that there is a State law requiring the reporting of both of these diseases, and that measles be quarantined. Whooping-cough can be quarantined, if it be considered necessary.

AN OBJECT LESSON. People rarely get vaccinated except when they have to—either on the actual presence of smallpox, or on account of some law or regulation requiring it. And as a rule ordinances requiring vaccination are not passed except in the presence of smallpox, and then, as soon as the actual danger is over, the regulations fall into innocuous desuetude. So, after all, in its last analysis, the actual practice of vaccination depends almost exclusively on the actual presence of smallpox. School boards will enforce vaccination while smallpox is in the community, but as soon as the immediate danger is passed, then the practice is no longer carried out. As a result of this, those communities that have had more or less smallpox for several years in succession are very nearly immune, some people having had the disease and acquired immunity that way; others having been vaccinated and acquired immunity that way. In such a community smallpox will die out, for there is nothing for it to feed upon.

When it dies out, vaccination stops, and children grow up unvaccinated, and, in a few years, most people are susceptible to smallpox again. And in a few years smallpox gets introduced again. And then it spreads like fire in a forest, because

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