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TABLE 4.--Grooms and Brides classified by Marital Condition, with Per Cent Distributions,

for Geographic Divisions: 1905-1906–-Continued.

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It appears from Table 4 that 15,140 or 84.4 per cent of the grooms were single, 1,655 or 9.2 per cent were widowed, and 1,137 or 6.4 per cent were divorced. Among the brides the single numbered 14,632 or 81.6 per cent, the widowed 1,891 or 10.5 per cent, and the divorced 1,409 or 7.9 per cent. The widows outnumber the widowers by 236 or 14.3 per cent, and the number of divorced women exceeds that of divorced men by 272 or 23.9 per cent.

The per cent of widowers is particularly high (11.8) in Southern California, being 10.7 for Los Angeles and 13.0 for

the other six counties. The per cent of widows is also highest (12.5) for the six counties of Southern California other than Los Angeles, and is next highest, 12.0 and 11.9 respectively, for the interior and coast counties of Northern California.

The per cent divorced, both among grooms and brides, is highest for the bay counties other than San Francisco, and next for Southern California, especially outside Los Angeles. While the per cent of divorced grooms is only 6.4 for the State, it is 8.4 for the four counties adjoining San Francisco, 6.9 for Los Angeles and 6.8 for the other six counties of Southern California, being 8.3 for Orange county. Similarly, as compared with 7.9 for the State, the per cent of divorced brides is 10.6 for the four counties suburban to San Francisco, and 8.0 for the six counties of Southern California other than Los Angeles, being 10.0 for Orange against 7.1 for Los Angeles. Though the per cent of divorced brides is only 7.4 for San Francisco, it is 8.9 for Alameda, 9.0 for Contra Costa, 14.1 for San Mateo, and 15.5 for Marin. But as heretofore explained, residents of the metropolis often prefer to be married in the suburbs and this seems to be especially the case among divorced persons.

VITAL STATISTICS FOR AUGUST.

Summary.- For August there were reported 1,796 living births; 2,106 deaths, exclusive of stillbirths; and 1,709 marriages. For an estimated State population of 1,882,483 in 1906 the returns for August give the following annual rates: Births, 11.4; deaths, 13.4; and marriages, 10.9, per 1,000 population.

Tuberculosis, as usual, was the leading cause of death and typhoid fever was the most fatal epidemic disease.

Causes of Death. The following table gives the number of deaths due to certain principal causes in August, as well as the proportion from each cause per 1,000 total deaths for both August and July:

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1,000.0

18.8 7.3 0.5 2.7 0.9 2.7 5.5 0.9

8.3 129.8 24.3 50.9 28.4 21.3 88.1 121.1 34.4 17.0 64.2 16.5 55.1 56.4 10.1 49.1 23.4 85.0 74.3

Tuberculosis, as usual, was the leading cause of death in August, though diseases of the circulatory system (heart disease, etc.) were a close second, the proportion of total deaths for the former being 147.7 against 134.4 for the latter.

Typhoid fever is still the most fatal epidemic disease in the State, the proportion of all deaths due to this disease being much greater for August than for July, though the proportions declined for all other epidemic diseases except whooping-cough.

CALIFORNIA PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION

SEVENTH SESSION

ALUM ROCK SPRINGS, SAN JOSE, OCTOBER 12, 1906

The California Public Health Association will hold its fall meeting at Alum Rock Springs, San José, Friday, October 12, at 10 A. M.

The San José Chamber of Commerce has kindly interested itself in the entertainment of the Association and the following program has been arranged.

Special car, furnished by the Alum Rock Railway Company, will leave the corner of First and Santa Clara streets, San José, at 10 A. M. sharp. Free transportation to and from the park.

All in attendance are invited to join in a barbecue furnished by the San José Chamber of Commerce at noon.

The Park Commission furnishes the freedom of the Park.

PROGRAM
Address of Welcome, by Hon. H. D. MATHEWS, Mayor of San José.
Address by J. D. RADFORD, President of First National Bank, giving

history of the Park, its purposes and future plans.
"Formation of Mineral Springs," by PROF. HARRY S. JOANSON,

Stanford University
Use and Abuse of Mineral Springs,” by DR. ROBERT CREES, Paso Robles.
“Mineral Springs of California," by PHILIP MILLS JONES, Editor of

California State Journal of Medicine.
Discussion of Papers.
Questions and Answers.

MINERAL SPRINGS.

The subject of mineral springs is one of the utmost importance to California. No State or country is more richly endowed with them than is California, and there are probably none of the famous springs of Europe but what can be duplicated here, and in their variety we far excel them. The trouble with our springs is that they are not studied and classified so that a person can exercise intelligence in his selection. As a result, more often than otherwise patients go to the one that is not indicated in their particular case, and fail to receive benefit, or may even be injured by their sojourn. Many of the springs have no attending physician, or, if so, he is generally one who has given no exhaustive study to the subject. These springs should be a source of great income to the people of the State and, better, a great relief to the suffering of mankind; but this can be only when they have been carefully studied and intelligently used. There is little doubt but at present they do as much harm as good, simply from the want of proper supervision.

Every one interested in mineral springs who can intelligently discuss and throw light on the subject is urged to be present at the session of the California Public Health Association, to be held at Alum Rock Springs, San José, October 12, 1906, and help in a systematic development of this great health-giving feature of our State.

HEALTH OFFICERS.

Every health officer in the State, and all others interested in sanitation, are urged to be present in San José on October 12 and attend the session of the California Public Health Association. If there is no other benefit to be derived from these meetings than that of getting acquainted with each other and enjoying a social hour, the cost would be a good investment. Strong, earnest men and women, absorbed and interested in their work, can not associate without both receiving and giving good. The papers and discussions, the questions and answers, make these conferences of great value to every one who attends them.

“SEWAGE DISPOSAL.

“The very existence of a question of sewage disposal depends on the inherent selfishness of man. If every one, both individuals and communities, followed the golden rule and decisively and consistently refused to do anything which could interfere with his neighbors' happiness or health, there would be no sewage disposal question. Human nature, however, is essentially selfish, and as long as it is cheaper and easier for a farmer to build a privy over a stream than to dig a cesspool, or for a city to empty its outfall sewer directly into a river than to first purify the sewage, just so long will these methods continue to be employed regardless of the consequences, unless some higher power intervenes.

“The' above-mentioned practice is certainly revolting enough to deserve condemnation, and it is a startling evidence of man's selfishness that such things are done. But a municipal conscience is very small and feeble, and the plea of 'didn't think' has no more effect than ‘don't care,' after an epidemic has been started.

“Of all the data which modern science has established, the fact that certain diseases are directly caused by impure drinking water is of the greatest importance and benefit. It is now a matter of common knowledge that vaccination prevents smallpox; that anti-toxin removes the dread of lockjaw and makes diphtheria curable; that consumption, not too far advanced, can be arrested; but that cancer and meningitis are still mysterious diseases. Typhoid fever and diarrheal disturbances are known to be among the list of water-borne diseases (that is, communicated by drinking water), and it is no exaggeration to say that if all drinking water were pure, typhoid fever would be stamped out. The very thought of drinking sewage is nauseating. No one, knowingly, would drink from a brook which drained a barnyard or a privy. The sight of a stream of drinking water winding in and out among piles of manure, no matter how clear and pure the water might appear, would turn any stomach, and only extreme thirst could make such water palatable. And yet typhoid fever is introduced into water in just such a way. Somewhere, somehow, some man, woman, or child has quired typhoid fever. The bowel discharges of the patient are thrown down a privy, into a barnyard, onto the fields, into the sewer, or even directly in contact with food. The sewage is carried or is washed down to a stream, the water from which runs ultimately into a reservoir. Some city drinks the reservoir water and an epidemic ensues. The department of health, among its other duties, is charged with the task of preventing such an outrage.

“There are two questions which suggest themselves, when such a picture is presented :

“1. Has the farmer the right to build a privy or have his barnyard where he pleases on his own land ?

“2. Will not the agency of typhoid be lost, or destroyed, in a stream after traveling a certain distance?

“The first question can be answered definitely in the language of common law, that every man must so use his own property as not to injure or destroy the property of another. Not long ago, John Mitchell, in making an appeal before President Roosevelt, said, with great emphasis, that he represented the claim of two million people. The President instantly replied that he stood for the rights of eighty million people. It is by this principle that the department can prevent one man from doing what will imperil thousands, so, no matter what a man or a community does, if it tends to injure the health of other communities, the department, by its constitution is bound to prevent such an abuse of private rights.

"The second question can not be so definitely answered. Severe epidemics have been caused by privies, built over small streams, ten miles above a water works intake. Cities like Cohoes, which take their drinking water from a river into which other cities have discharged sewage, invariably have a high death-rate from typhoid fever, even though the sewage discharge is many miles up stream. In the recent controversy between Chicago and St. Louis, experts testified that it was quite possible for the typhoid germ to journey in the sewage from Chicago down stream to the St. Louis water works intake, a distance of over two hundred miles. It is necessary for the department of health to adopt a safe policy, and when a city or village takes its water from a stream, it is incumbent on the department to see that all possible danger of infection from sewers, privies, cesspools, or barnyards is eliminated. Fortunately, the dangerous elements in sewage can be entirely removed by a proper system of treatment, and it is evident that such a system ought to be, and must be, installed whenever a city discharges sewage into any stream subsequently used for drinking water. It is a pity that every community does not voluntarily assume this responsibility. In olden days, no crime was so atrocious as that of poisoning wells, and even in times of war the moral sense of those heathen nations was sufficient to prevent such a convenient way of destroying a nation's enemies. But in these days, one city poisons another's water supply without the least hesitation and with little or no protest except from the State department of health. The duty of the department, however, is plain, and it remains for it to point out to each community the proper and most efficient means of removing the poisons from the sewage effluents."

The above article from the July Bulletin of the New York State Board of Health applies with equal force to California conditions. Our mountain streams, which should be pure, are badly polluted by the sewage of the towns along their banks, with a result that typhoid fever is prevalent in the foothills and on the plains. It is no satisfaction to know that other states are perhaps as bad as this; but the evidence that other State Boards of Health feel the same necessity for work and are working along the same lines gives us courage to persevere in our efforts to keep our streams clean.

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