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MARTIN REGENSBURGER, M.D., President,
F. K. AINSWORTH, M.D.
San Francisco San Francisco A. C. HART, M.D.
Sacramento WALLACE A. BRIGGS, M.D., Vice-President,
STATE BUREAU OF VITAL STATISTICS.
N. K. FOSTER, M.D., State Registrar. Sacramento | GEORGE D. LESLIE, Statistician...
STATE HYGIENIC LABORATORY. ARCHIBALD R. WARD, D.V.M., Director.....
.University of California, Berkeley
STATISTICS OF BIRTHS: 1905-1906.
Summary.- For 1905-1906, the first year covered by the new birth registration law in California, there were reported a total of 20,909 living births.
San Francisco reported 5,250 births, or 25.1 per cent of all, followed by Los Angeles city, 3,128, and Oakland, 1,397; the cities with the next highest totals being Fresno, Sacramento, San José, Berkeley, Pasadena, and San Diego.
Among the counties, exclusive of freeholders' charter cities, the highest totals are for Santa Clara, 688; Los Angeles, 529, and Fresno, 429, followed by San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, Tulare, Alameda, Butte, and San Joaquin.
For a State population of 1,784,521 in 1905, estimated conservatively by the Census Bureau method with slight modifications, the 20,909 births in 1905-1906 give a rate of 11.7 per 1,000 population.
The birth-rates are highest for the following cities: Fresno, 29.3; Santa Barbara, 26.9; Pasadena, 25.5; Santa Cruz, 25.0; Grass Valley, 23.7; Berkeley, 19.9, and San Bernardino, 18.6. The rates are also above 15.0 for the cities of Los Angeles, Napa, Watsonville, San José, Vallejo, and Oakland, as well as for the counties of Del Norte, Alpine, Riverside, Modoc, Tulare, Santa Clara, and Stanislaus.
The birth-rate is 14.1 for the twenty cities having freeholders' charters, against only 9.2 for all the rest of the State. Outside these eities where health officers are the registrars it is difficult to make physicians register births, but, nevertheless, several County Recorders as registrars for rural communities have secured complete returns.
The 20,909 babies included 10,835 boys and 10,074 girls, the per cent male being 51.8 and female 48.2. The white babies numbered 20,537, or 98.2 per cent of all, while there were 156 Japanese, 141 Chinese, 70 negroes, and 5 Indians.
No marked differences appear between localities, either in the proportion of the sexes or in the race distribution, though there are great Jifferences in the nativity of the white mothers, especially between sections north and south of Tehachapi, and also between the metropolitan area and the rural counties.
The nativity of the 20,537 white mothers is as follows: Born in California, 7,683, or 37.4 per cent; born in other states (including 172, or 0.8 per cent, of unknown nativity), 7,478, or 36.4 per cent; and foreign born, 5,376, or 26.2 per cent.
South of Tehachapi the great bulk of the white mothers, 59.6 per cent of all, were born elsewhere in the United States than California. But north of Tehachapi, especially far north, the bulk were natives of the Golden State, the per cent born here being 54.7 for Northern California and 43.2 for Central California.
In Northern and Central California, except in San Francisco and the other bay counties (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, and San Mateo), the per cent of white mothers born elsewhere in the United States than California is much greater than the per cent foreign born. For the metropolitan area, comprising San Francisco and the other bay counties, the per cents born in the Golden State and in other States are lower than for the rural counties of Northern and Central California. Conversely, the per cent foreign born among the white mothers is much higher for the metropolitan area than for the rural counties.
City and County Totals.- In accordance with the law of 1905. requiring all County Recorders and the Health Officers of the twenty cities having freeholders' charters, as ex officio local registrars, to transmit monthly to the State Registrar the original birth certificates filed with them, there have been registered in the State Bureau of Vital Statistics a total of 20,909 living births, 10,652 for the last half of 1905 and 10,257 for the first half of 1906. The destruction of over half a month's records for San Francisco in the fire of April 18-20, and the incomplete registration of births in the confused times succeed ing this calamity caused the half-year total for that city to fall from 3,309 in 1905 to 1,941 in 1906, and also explains the slight falling off in the State total, the number of births registered outside the metropolis being considerably greater for the first six months of 1906 than for the last six months of 1905.
For births, the registration districts are cities having freeholders' charters, the rural portions of counties containing these cities, and rural counties without any such cities. Of the total 20,909 living births reported for the fiscal year 1905-1906, as many as 5,250, or 25.1 per cent of all, were registered in the City and County of San Francisco, notwithstanding the effects of the great fire in April. Among the freeholders' charter cities Los Angeles is second, with 3,128 living births for the year, and Oakland is third with 1,397. The next highest city totals reported to the State Bureau are: Fresno, 390; Sacramento, 389;
San José, 379; Berkeley, 370; Pasadena, 287, and San Diego, 238. Between 100 and 200 living births were registered in Grass Valley, San Bernardino, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Stockton, and Vallejo, and less than 100 for the year in Napa, Salinas, Santa Rosa, and Watsonville. Eureka is the only city having a freeholders' charter for which no vital statistics at all were reported in 1905-1906.
The highest totals for rural counties or the rural portions of counties with freeholders' charter cities are as follows: Santa Clara (outside San José), 688; Los Angeles (outside Los Angeles city and Pasadena), 529; Fresno (outside Fresno city), 429; San Bernardino (outside San Bernardino city), 349; Riverside, 341; Orange, 327 ; Tulare, 297; Alameda (outside Berkeley and Oakland), 288; Butte, 244, and San Joaquin (outside Stockton), 227. Between 100 and 200 living births were registered in the following rural counties or portions of counties : Calaveras, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Kern, Madera, Marin, Mendocino, Monterey (outside Salinas), Nevada (outside Grass Valley), Sacramento (outside Sacramento city), San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara (outside Santa Barbara city), Shasta, Siskiyou, Solano (outside Vallejo), Sonoma (outside Santa Rosa), Stanislaus, and Ventura.
In considering the rank of cities and counties in births reported, it should be understood that the returns are affected not only by the number of living births which actually occurred, but also by the proportion of those which occurred that have been duly registered as required by law. Comparison of the returns for various registration districts indicates that there are marked differences between the districts in the extent to which local registrars have secured a thorough enforcement of the registration law or in the extent to which physicians and midwives have obeyed the law by promptly registering all births.
Birth-rates. This appears clearly when birth-rates are considered. In order to calculate rates the population of California in 1905 has been estimated conservatively according to the Census Bureau method by adding to the population in 1900 five tenths of the increase between 1890 and 1900, except that for the few counties showing decreases between the last two Federal censuses the population in 1900 has been taken for 1905. For the three principal cities arbitrary estimates have been made because of their exceptionally rapid growth, the estimate for San Francisco in 1905 being 450,000, for Los Angeles 180,000, and for Oakland 90,000. The variations from the standard method made by the Census Bureau in published estimates for Berkeley and San Diego have also been followed, while for other cities the same method of estimating population has been applied as explained above for counties.
For a State population, thus estimated, of 1,784,521 in 1905, the 20,909 living births reported for 1905-1906 give a birth-rate of 11.7 per 1,000 inhabitants. This is surpassed or equaled by the birth-rates for the thirty-one registration districts shown in the table below, the districts being arranged in descending order of birth-rates. The word
rural” after a county indicates that the figures relate to the county exclusive of its freeholders' charter city or cities. For the information of those interested in comparing birth-rates, or checking the calcula tions, the table gives the estimated population, 1905, and the living births, 1905-1906, as well as the birth-rate per 1,000 population.
TABLE 1.—Registration Districts with Birth-rates above or equal to the State
average (11.7): 1905-1906.
Estimated Living Birth-rate
Population : Births:
1905. 1905-1906. Population. Fresno city
390 29.3 Santa Barbara city
187 26.9 Pasadena city
287 25.5 Santa Cruz city
112 23.0 Grass Valley city
114 23.7 Berkeley town
370 19.9 San Bernardino city
134 18.6 Del Norte county
43 17.9 Alpine county
17.7 Los Angeles city
3,128 17.4 Riverside county
341 16.9 Napa City
68 16.8 Modoc county
85 16.6 Watsonville city
69 16.4 San José city
16.3 Tulare county
16.2 Vallejo city
16.1 Santa Clara county, rural
688 16.0 Oakland city
90,000 1,397 15.5 Stanislaus county
147 15.4 Fresno county, rural
429 14.4 Orange county
327 14.4 San Bernardino county, rural
349 14.4 Butte county
14.3 Madera county
103 14.2 El Dorado county
124 13.8 Lake county
82 13.6 Santa Barbara county, rural
180 13.3 Sacramento city
389 12.7 San Diego city
238 12.6 San Francisco city
450,000 5,230 11.7
In addition to the districts ranked in the above table, the only ones with annual birth-rates of at least 10.0 are Santa Rosa city and the counties of Calaveras, Marin, San Benito, San Mateo, San Joaquin (outside Stockton), Sierra, and Sutter.
It will be observed that the registration districts with high birthrates include nearly all the cities having freeholders' charters, Salinas with 9.8 and Stockton with 8.8 being the only cities with rates below 10.0, and Eureka being the only freeholders' charter city not reporting vital statistics. In fact, for the twenty freeholders' charter cities, with a total estimated population of 916,459, the 12,962 births give a birthrate of 14.1 per 1,000 inhabitants. But for all the rest of the State, with an estimated population of 868,062, the 7,947 births give a birthrate of only 9.2, or 4.9 less in each 1,000 than for the cities. As a rule, it is more difficult to secure complete registration of births in rural districts than in urban centers, though there are several counties where the Recorders as local registrars have obtained satisfactory returns of births.
Sex and Race. The proportion of the sexes among the 20,909 children born in 1905-1906 is: Male, 10,835, or 51.8 per cent; and female, 10,074, or 48.2 per cent. The race distribution is: White, 20,537, or 98.2 per cent; Japanese, 156, or 0.8 per cent; Chinese, 141, or 0.7 per cent; negro, 70, or 0.3 per cent; Indian, 5, or less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. The per cents male and female are the same for the white as for all children, 51.8 and 48.2 per cent, respectively, but among the 372 non-Caucasians the males were 198, or 53.2 per cent, and the females 174, or 46.8 per cent.
No marked differences appear between various sections of California, either in the proportion of the sexes or in the race distribution. Thus, among the several geographic divisions into which the fifty-seven counties of the State have been grouped the per cent male varies only from 52.9 for the interior counties of Central California to 51.1 for the interior counties of Northern California and for the coast counties of Central California. Similarly, the per cent white ranges only from 99.1 for the six counties of Southern California other than Los Angeles to 97.1 for the City and County of San Francisco.
Nativity of Mothers. However, there are great differences between certain sections of the State in the nativity of the mothers of the white children. These differences are shown in the table below, giving the number and per cent of white mothers born in California, born in other states, and foreign born. The few of unknown nativity, numbering only 172, or 0.8 per cent of all in the entire State, have been included with those born elsewhere in the United States than California. Figures are shown for each of the geographic divisions of the State heretofore described in the Monthly Bulletin (Vol. I, No. 8, p. 55, January, 1906), and also for the metropolitan area, comprising San Francisco and the other bay counties (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, and San Mateo), in contrast with the rural counties of Northern and Central California.
TABLE 2.-White Mothers Classified by Nativity, with per cent Distribution, for
Geographic Divisions: 1905-1906.
5,881 Los Angeles
3,881 Other counties
2,000 Northern and Central California - 14,656 Coast counties
10,012 Interior counties
4,644 Metropolitan area
7,579 Rural counties
6,570 4,288 2,282 3,175 3,395
28.1 32.9 17.7 36.1 19.4