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The per cent widowed is much higher for both grooms and brides in Southern California than in either Northern or Central California, and is especially high for the counties south of Tehachapi other than Los Angeles. The per cents are also much higher for the bay counties adjoining San Francisco than for the metropolis itself.

Generally speaking, the per cent divorced is highest, both among grooms and brides, for the bay counties adjoining San Francisco and for the counties of Southern California other than Los Angeles. The per cent divorced among grooms is 10.3 for Marin, 9.1 for San Mateo, and 6.5 for Alameda County against only 5.2 for San Francisco. Similarly, it is 10.2 for Santa Barbara and 8.8 for Orange County, but only 6.4 for Los Angeles. Among brides, the per cent divorced is no less than 14.5 for Marin, 12.3 for San Mateo, and 7.9 for Alameda as compared with only 7.0 for San Francisco. Likewise the per cent is as great as 12.6 for Orange against 7.0 for Los Angeles County.

There is a tendency for city couples to go to the suburbs to be married, and this movement is particularly strong on the part of widowed and divorced persons, especially the latter. The shy divorcee even more than the coy maiden likes to be wed in a quiet Gretna Green.

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MARTIN REGENSBURGER, M.D., President,

F. K. AINSWORTH, M.D.

San Francisco A. C. HART, M.D. WALLACE A BRIGGS, M.D., Vice-President,

0. STANSBURY, M.D.. Sacramento W. LE MOYNE WILLS, M.D. N. K. FOSTER, M.D., Secretary .. Sacramento

San Francisco
Sacramento

Chico
Los Angeles

HON. J. E. GARDNER, Altorney

Watsonville

STATE BUREAU OF VITAL STATISTICS.

N. K. FOSTER, M.D., State Registrar..Sacramento | GEORGE D. LESLIE, Statistician....

Sacramento

STATE HYGIENIC LABORATORY.

ARCHIBALD R. WARD, D.V.M., Director.....

University of California, Berkeley

VITAL STATISTICS FOR OCTOBER.

Summary.-For October there were reported 2,409 living births; 2,506 deaths, exclusive of stillbirths; and 2,030 marriages. For an estimated State population of 2,001,193 these figures give the following annual rates: Births, 14.2; deaths, 14.7; and marriages, 11.9. The corresponding totals for September were 2,111, 2,272, and 1,967, while the rates were respectively 12.8, 13.8, and 12.0.

The October totals for the metropolitan area, comprising San Francisco and the other bay counties (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, and San Mateo) and corresponding roughly to the proposed “Greater San

are as follows: Births, 1,003; deaths, 911; and marriages. 751.

Marriages were reported by counties as follows: Los Angeles, 403; San Francisco, 341; Alameda, 295; Sacramento, 98; Santa Clara, 78; Marin, 73; San Diego, 70; Orange, 59; and Fresno, 57.

Births were registered in freeholders' charter cities as follows: San Francisco, 651; Los Angeles, 360; Oakland, 142; Berkeley, 50; Sacramento, 49; San Jose, 41; Alameda, 38; Pasadena and San Diego, each 31; and Fresno, 28.

Deaths occurred as follows in the leading cities: San Francisco, 530; Los Angeles, 326; Oakland, 153; Sacramento, 53; San Diego, 50; Stockton, 49; San Jose, 36; Berkeley, 31; Pasadena, 28; and Alameda, 25.

cancer.

Causes of Death.—In October there were 363 deaths, or 14.5 per cent of all, from diseases of the circulatory system (heart disease, etc.), and 352, or 14.1 per cent, from tuberculosis of the lungs and other organs. For September the proportion was slightly higher for various forms of tuberculosis than for heart disease and allied ailments. Other important causes of death each month were violence, diseases of the nervous system, of the digestive system, of the respiratory system, and

The proportions for pneumonia and other diseases of the respiratory system were somewhat higher in October than in September.

Typhoid fever was the most fatal epidemic disease in the State each month, though the number and per cent of diseases from this cause was considerably less for October than for September. Diphtheria and croup, plague, and whooping-cough were next in order among epidemic diseases each month.

The following table gives, for both October and September, the number of deaths from certain principal causes as well as the proportions from each cause per 1,000 total deaths:

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0.9

ALL CAUSES.
Typhoid fever
Malarial fever
Smallpox
Measles.
Scarlet fever
Whooping-cough
Diphtheria and croup
Infúenza
Plague...
Other epidemic diseases
Tuberculosis of lungs
Tuberculosis of other organs
Cancer
Other general diseases.
Meningitis.
Other diseases of nervous system.
Diseases of circulatory system
Pneumonia and broncho-pneumonia.
Other diseases of respiratory system
Diarrhea and enteritis, under 2 years..
Diarrhea and enteritis, 2 years and over
Other diseases of digestive system.
Bright's disease and nephritis.-
Childbirth
Diseases of early infancy
Suicide
Other violence..
All other causes

2,506

51
11

1
11

1,000.0

20.3 4.4 0.4 4.4 0.8 6.4 15.2

.1.3

2 16 38 10 26 11 315

37 124 86 48 205 363 160 66 91 19 140 143 18 82 47 241 144

2 3 10 34

1 25 10 269

28 125 86 45 178 295 124

43 116

22 126 123 22 80 45 237 154

4.0 10.4

4.4 125.7 14.8 49.5 34.3 19.1 81.8 144.8 63.8 26.3 36.3

7.6 55.9 57.1

7.2 32.7 18.7 96.2 57.5

4.4 15.0

0.4 11.0

4.4 118.4 12.3 55.0 37.9 19.8 78.3 129.8 54.6 18.9 51.1

9.7 55.5 54.1

9.7 35.2 19.8 104.3 67.8

Geographic Divisions. The table which follows shows the number of deaths from main classes of diseases in the several geographic divisions of the State for both October and September:

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This issue of the Bulletin is mostly given over to the plague and fleas, not that we consider there is any great danger of a serious epidemic, for we do not, but our belief is based on the fact that every one knows the existence of the disease, and the effort being made that all may know the means by which it is spread and how to avoid it.

There are a few facts which can not be too strongly impressed into the minds of all, and the first is that there is nothing in the climate of California or of any other State that will inhibit the spread of plague. Heat or cold is all the same to it; wet or dry makes no difference; it accommodates itself to the conditions. The second important fact is that it is a rat disease primarily, and that it will flourish where they are, if once introduced. No rats, no plague. A third point is that rats live where they are invited; that is, where they are fed and given shelter. Make basements and cellars rat proof and keep all food from them and they will not stay with you. Their great source of livelihood is foraging from the garbage barrel; hence, all waste matter should be put into a closely covered tin or iron can, and all food kept out of their reach. If every one would trap and poison the rats about his own premises, plague would soon be wiped out of existence. The cases are growing constantly less, but the work of cleaning and destroying vermin goes on with increased vigor all over the State.

No cases have been reported outside the area originally infected. Up to date (November 18th), there have been 96 verified cases in San Francisco, with 60 deaths. In Alameda and Contra Costa counties there have been 8 cases and 7 deaths.

All ships and boats are being fumigated every fourteen days, and the organized work of cleaning, disinfecting, and destroying vermin has extended to surrounding counties and into practically all the cities in the State. Not only will plague be kept from spreading, but the general health of the State will be improved.

BUBONIC PLAGUE.

By Passed Assistant Surgeon Rupert Blue, United States Public

Health and Marine-Hospital Service. Plague is an epizootic disease attacking rats and other rodents and communicable to man through the agency of the flea. It may also be transmitted through the respiratory or digestive systems or through skin abrasions.

Plague occurs in three forms: the bubonic, the pneumonic, and the septicemic. The terms pestis major or pestis minor are simply used to express the severity of the disease.

The disease is caused by a short bipolar bacillus with rounded ends. It stains well with carbol-thionin and decolorizes by Gram's method. It grows well on most media and shows typical stalactite cultures on bouillon and bizarre forms on salt agar. The bacillus is mechanically carried from the plague-sick rat by the flea, which by biting man inoculates him with the disease. All ages, all races, all classes are attacked. There are no exemptions.

In the bubonic form the pathological findings are those of a severe toxæmia with hæmorrhagic necrosis of the lymph glands. These are usually firmly bound down and surrounded by an area of hæmorrhagic cedema. The spleen and liver are enlarged and softened. The capsule of the spleen shows minute underlying white necrotic spots. The heart is dilated and shows muscular degeneration. All of the organs, including the skin, may show hæmorrhagic ecchymoses or petechiæ.

The pneumonic form resembles an ordinary lobular pneumonia. Only small patches of the lung may be involved. These are seen as small red areas surrounded by healthy tissue.

The findings of the septicæmic type are identical with those of any "vere septic infection plus internal glandular involvement.

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