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and not misbranded and not of the character included within the deti. nitions 1 to 4 of this section.
Regulation 16 is also violated in this connection, the paragraph in question reading: Descriptive matter upon the label shall be free from any statement, design, or device regarding the article or the ingredients or substances contained therein, or quality thereof, or place of origin, which is false or misleading in any particular.
The law is further violated in respect to Regulation 17, Name and Address of Manufacturer, which reads:
The name of the manufacturer or producer, or the place where manufactured, except in the case of mixtures and compounds having a distinctive name, need not be given upon the label; but if given, must be the true name and the true place. The words “packed for“distributed by
or some equivalent phrase, shall be added to the label in case the name which appears upon the label is not that of the actual manufacturer or producer, or the name of the place not the actual place of manufacture or production.
When a person, firm or corporation actually manufactures or produces an article of food or drug in two or more places, the actual place of manufacture or production of each particular package need not be stated on the label, except when, in the opinion of the Secretary of the State Board of Health, the mention of any such place, to the exclusion of the others, misleads the public.
During the past month two hundred eighty-seven samples of miscellaneous foods and food products have been received at the Laboratory for examination and analysis, making a total of six hundred thirty-eight.
In view of the fact that many inquiries have been received at the Laboratory in regard to the preservation of eggs, the following method, used with success by Dr. Shutt of the Ottawa Experimental Farm, is given :
Experiments in egg preservation were begun at the Experimental Farm, Ottawa, in 1898, and have been continued every season since that date. In the course of these experiments, trials have been made with more than twenty-five different fluids and preparations that have been proposed or sold as egg preservatives. The work of these seven years has shown conclusively the superiority of lime-water over all the preservatives which we have tested.
THE PREPARATION OF LIME-WATER.
The solubility of lime at ordinary temperature is 1 part in 700 parts of water. Such a solution would be termed saturated lime-water. Translated into pounds and gallons, this means 1 lb. of lime is sufficient to saturate 70 gallons of water. However, owing to impurities in commercial lime, it is well to use more than is called for in this statement. It may not, however, be necessary, if good, freshly burnt quicklime can be obtained, to employ as much as was first recommended, namely, 2 to 3 lbs. to 5 gallons of water. With such lime as is here referred to, one could rest assured that 1 lb. to 5 gallons (50 lbs.) would be ample, and that the resulting lime-water would be thoroughly saturated. The method of preparation is simply to slake the lime with a small quantity of water and then stir the milk of lime so formed into 5 gallons of
water. After this mixture has been well stirred for a few hours it is allowed to settle. The supernatant liquid, which is now “saturated” lime-water, is drawn off and poured over the eggs, previously placed in a crock or water-tight barrel.
As exposure to the air tends to precipitate the lime (as.carbonate), and thus to weaken the solution, the vessel containing the eggs should be kept covered. The air may be excluded by a covering of sweet oil, or by sacking upon which a paste of lime is spread. If after a time there is any noticeable precipitation of the lime, the lime-water should be drawn or siphoned off and replaced with a further quantity newly prepared.
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS NECESSARY TO TAKE.
1.—That only perfectly fresh eggs be used. "No eggs more than four days old should be used.
2.—That the eggs throughout the whole period of preservation should be completely immersed.
Although not necessary to the preservation of the eggs in a sound condition, a temperature of 40° F. will no doubt materially assist towards retaining good flavor, or rather in arresting that “stale” flavor so often characteristic of packed eggs.
Respecting the addition of salt, it must be stated that our experiments—conducted now throughout five seasons—do not show any benefit to be derived therefrom; indeed, salt frequently imparts a limy flavor to the eggs, probably by inducing an interchange of the fluids within and without the egg. Our advice is, do not add any salt to the limewater.
WATER-GLASS AS A PRESERVATIVE. Water-glass (sodium silicate) has been extensively experimented with, using solutions varying from two to ten per cent. On the whole, solutions 2 to 5 per cent (two pounds to five pounds sodium silicate in ten gallons of water) have given better results than stronger solutions. Although in the main the results have been very fairly satisfactory, we are of the opinion that lime-water is superior as a preservative. Further, lime-water is cheaper and pleasanter to use than water-glass solution.
It may be of interest to those who are making up solutions for the preservation of eggs, to know that any solution containing a preservative the use of which is prohibited by the California Pure Food Act of March 11, 1907, will not be allowed.
TYPHOID FEVER AND DRINKING WATER. It is probably a safe estimate to say that if a thorough investigation were made into the source of water infection in communities in which typhoid fever is abnormally prevalent, two thirds of the cases would trace back to feces-polluted drinking water.
As regards the average run of private wells, it may with equal truth be said that the quality of these could hardly be worse. It is obviously out of the question to make frequent analyses of even a small proportion of such wells. No one who is compelled to slake his thirst from such a well can have any real assurance that he is not at the same time taking into his stomach the germ of typhoid fever. But the risk does not end here. People must use milk as well as water, and very frequently the unsuspecting use them in combination, as when the thrifty dairyman dilutes his too thick milk with a little well water. Even where the dairyman scorns such tricks, he probably uses well water to wash his cans and utensils, and in this manner he may unwittingly convey to his customers the disease-producing typhoid germ.
Even when the typhoid germ is absent, feces-polluted water is generally injurious to health. It may and does contain germs which in the human body can give origin to inflammation, catarrhs and dysenteries.
It is fortunate for the health of rural communities that the source of drinking water is most often a natural spring rather than a dug well. When situated above, one hundred yards from the house and barn, country springs are rarely or never polluted. On the other hand, it is almost invariably the case that the average farmyard well is polluted by fecal bacteria. The same condemnation must be visited upon town wells. The typical backyard well is a shallow pit, from fifteen to thirty feet deep. Usually there is no casing and the only protection from surface contamination is a more or less rickety platform, or, as is often the case, merely a square box or top.
In towns, while the wells may be of better construction, the chances are that the soil is more thoroughly permeated with filth. The privies are of necessity close to the wells, and the liability to pollution is proportionately great.
One of the most unfortunate consequences of the private ownership of public water supplies is that all but the well-to-do citizens consider themselves unable to afford the cost of the safe-guarded supply. Thus a town may have a very pure and excellent water supply, and yet the majority of the citizens will continue to drink from sewage-polluted wells.
So absolutely necessary is pure water, and an abundance of it, to the public health, that municipalities should see that citizens are supplied with pure water even before they are supplied with electric lights, macadamized streets, and similar modern conveniences.
Every town of one hundred or more families should secure a public water supply.
When a town has once installed a public water supply of good quality, and the water is offered to consumers at the lowest possible price, all private wells within the region traversed by the public water mains should be condemned and closed up as menaces to the public health. — Iowa Health Bulletin.
STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. MARTIN REGENSBURGER, M.D., President,
F. K. AINSWORTH, M.D.
-San Francisco San Francisco A. C. HART, M.D.
Sacramento WALLACE A BRIGGS, M.D., Vice-President,
O. STANSBURY, M.D.
STATE HYGIENIC LABORATORY. ARCHIBALD R. WARD, D.V.M., Director.....
.University of California, Berkeley STATE FOOD AND DRUG LABORATORY. M. E. JAFFA, M.S., Director
University of California, Berkeley
CALIFORNIA PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION.
The annual meeting of the California Public Health Association was held at Hotel del Coronado at 10:30 A. M., April 20, 1908.
The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved.
President Osborne announced that the afternoon session would be held in San Diego, in order that Dr. Blue's address might be heard by the people of that city.
Prof. M. E. Jaffa was introduced, and briefly reviewed the work done thus far by the Laboratory, and the work of Dr. Wiley with preservatives. The idea of the State Board is to educate, as well as prosecute. No subject has provoked so much discussion as preservatives. The Professor explained the methods adopted by Dr. Wiley, and answered some of the criticisms of them and the results. While by no means entirely perfect, the conclusions arrived at were, as a rule, sound and of immense benefit to mankind.
Dr. Wiley concludes that large doses of preservatives for a short time, or small ones for a long time, are deleterious. That one half gram a day is deleterious. Salicylic acid has the least injurious effect. Sulphurous acid the most. Boracic between.
The great objection to preservatives is that the kidneys are called upon to eliminate the drug, and too much work is demanded of them. The conclusion must be reached that any preservatives that are unnecessary must be deleterious, and should not be allowed.
The use of sulphur in fruit is necessary to prevent it from spoiling, but not in the amount generally used. The beautiful golden color can be secured by it, but the fruit is not as good, and the use of sulphur will have to be limited.
There was a general discussion of this subject, and many questions asked especially relating to the enforcement of the Pure Food Law.
At 11:45 A. M. the President announced that the subject of Epidemiology, which was to be opened by Dr. Snow, would not be taken up, Dr. Snow not being present.
Dr. Foster was called to explain the charts and reports which were on the table.
Dr. A. R. Ward of the State Hygienic Laboratory explained the workings of the Bacteriological Laboratory in suppressing diphtheria, and urged that it be made of more general use by Health Officers.
A general discussion was indulged in as to the spread and control of disease, and many valuable and practical suggestions made.
At 12:30 the meeting adjourned to meet at 4:30 P. M. in San Diego. Drs. Blue and Rucker, of the United States Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, addressed a large and interested audience on the subject of Sanitation and Dissemination and Eradication of Plague.
The evening meeting was called to order by Dr. Osborne at 9 P. M.
The following resolution was introduced by Dr. Wm. Simpson of San José, and adopted :
WHEREAS there have been introduced into Congress two bills (H. R. 18792, H. R. 18794) of the utmost importance to the public health of the entire United States : and
WHEREAS we believe that the passage of these measures is essential to the uniform control and eradication of epidemic diseases in the United States; and
WHEREAS the enactment of these laws will work no hardship on any person nor abridge any State right; therefore, be it
Resolved, That we, the California Public Health Association, urge upon the California delegation in Congress the immediate passage of these laws.
Dr. E. N. Ewer of Oakland was elected President and Prof. M. E. Jaffa Vice-President.
Dr. Regensburger moved that the October meeting be held in Oakland. Carried.
There being nothing further to come before the meeting, it was adjourned.
The attendance of Health Officers at these meetings is not anything near what their importance warrants us to expect. They are conducted without expense to them, and give a chance for an immense amount of good. Subjects of mutual interest are discussed, and the acquaintances and friendships formed are of the utmost advantage in our work,
The Health Officers of the State are not held in the high respect that their work warrants, and the reason is not hard to find. It lies largely in the lack of harmony and unity of purpose in our efforts to suppress disease and improve sanitary conditions.
Hygiene and sanitation have become a science, and can no longer be conducted successfully by any one whose only qualification is a willingness to accept the position of Health Officer for the small amount of pay, which is oftentimes a mere pittance.
No municipality can afford to have such an officer, for paying little they get little in return. This class of officers never grace the meetings of the State Health Officers' Association. They are conspicuous by their absence.