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Proportion per 1,000.

Cause of Death.

Deaths:
April.

April.

March.

2,525

28

15 16 33 7

ALL CAUSES.
Typhoid fever
Malarial fever
Smallpox
Measles -
Scarlet fever
Whooping-cough
Diphtheria and croup
Influenza
Other epidemic diseases
Tuberculosis of lungs
Tuberculosis of other organs
Cancer.
Other general diseases.
Meningitis.
Other diseases of nervous system..
Diseases of circulatory system
Pneumonia and broncho-pneumonia
Other diseases of respiratory system
Diarrhea and enteritis, under 2 years.
Diarrhea and enteritis, 2 years and over.
Other diseases of digestive system.
Bright's disease and nephritis.
Childbirth.
Diseases of early infancy
Suicide.
Other violence..
All other causes

368

55 155 101

62 206 364 213 64 40 14 116 163 36 78 67 161 140

1,000.0

11.1 1.2 0.8 3.6 5.9 6.3 13.1 2.8

3.6 145.7 21.8 61.4 40.0 24.5 81.6 144.1 84.4 25.4 15.8

5.5 45.9 64.6 14.3 30.9 26.5 63.8 55.4

1,000.0

12.2 1.7 0.3 5.9 1.7 4.5 13.6 9.4

3.5 134.0 27.6 49.9 39.8 22.7 69.4 154.2 99.8 27.9 14.7

5.6 45.7 60.4 12.2 26.9 24.8 71.9 59.7

Geographic Divisions.—The table below shows the number of deaths from main classes of diseases reported for April for the several geographic divisions of the State, including the metropolitan area, or “Greater San Francisco,” in contrast with the rural counties north of Tehachapi:

[graphic]

DEPARTMENT OF BACTERIOLOGY. ·

DR. A. R. WARD, DIRECTOR.

THE CONTROL OF DIPHTHERIA.

The American Journal of Public Hygiene for November, 1907, contains an interesting article by Dr. H. W. Hill on “Time Limit versus Culture Limit in Diphtheria Release." Lack of space prevents reprinting the paper here, but his concluding paragraph presents the gist of the whole :

But wherever the truth may lie as regards the handling of convalescents from diphtheria, the fact seems to be that whether handled by time limit or by culture limit, rather less than two per cent of new cases are accounted for by failures in either method. Since diphtheria morbidity is not on the decrease, although its fatality is, every case of diphtheria now existing must give rise on the average to one new case. The settling of the question as to convalescents, however interesting, will necessarily leave 98 per cent of the reproduction of diphtheria unaccounted for. It would seem much more important to search for the methods to control the, as yet, evidently uncontrolled source of this 98 per cent than to devote all attention to search for those errors in handling convalescents which result in the reproduction of at most two per cent. If we may tentatively accept the teaching that diphtheria is chiefly reproduced by early, unrecognized and concealed cases, the ultimate control of diphtheria to the point possibly of abolition becomes a matter of early diagnosis—which involves culture taking from all sore throats, with isolation until the report is received-or the prompt immunization of all sore throat cases, together with the immunization of all potential receivers—or a judicious combination of both methods, "a word and a blow—the blow first," i. e., give antitoxin first and inquire about it (by means of a culture) afterwards.

The work in the control of diphtheria in schools in California and elsewhere goes a step farther than Dr. Hill has recommended to the general practitioner. It involves a search, by culture, for the mild and unrecognized cases among school children.

DEPARTMENT OF PURE FOODS AND DRUGS.

PROF. M. E. JAFFA, DIRECTOR.

FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION.

It was the aim of Congress, by the passage of the National Pure Food Act of June 30, 1906, to insure to the consumer foods and food products honestly labeled and free from adulteration; and to the honest manufacturer, protection from undesirable competition of those who, in various ways, were sophisticating their products.

In order to best attain these ends, it is absolutely essential that there shall be active and efficient coöperation between the State and the Federal laboratories. The national law deals only with imported foods, or with foods and food products manufactured in one State and sold in another; it can not exercise any supervision with reference to foods and food products manufactured, and sold only in the same State, hence the necessity for the State law, and the establishment of the State Laboratory.

Naturally, it is not possible, during the first few months of the Laboratory's existence, to correct all the evil influences arising from food and drug adulteration. The seemingly most important infringements are first taken up, and it appears to those in charge of the work that one of the most imperative needs is to remedy the evils of the adulteration of meats and meat products. This is not only important for the protection of the consumer, but it is of vital interest to the honest manufacturer, and particularly to those who are interested in meats and meat food products intended for interstate commerce. These people are under Federal inspection, and without the coöperation of the State would be forced to submit to competition of those within the State who are not under such inspection, because the latter do not send their goods outside of the State.

Notice is therefore given to all dealers and manufacturers, and those concerned in the manufacture or sale, of meats and meat food products in California, except those to whom the Federal meat inspection law applies, that, in accordance with Section 3 of the California law, reading: The standard of purity of food and liquor shall be that proclaimed by the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture”; the State Board of Health will coöperate with the Federal authorities to the extent of collecting and analyzing samples of meats, and meat food products manufactured in this State. Any infringements of the Federal law with respect to the use of preservatives or coloring matter will be considered as violations of the California law.

For the guidance of those interested, the following excerpts from the Federal law may be of interest :

A meat food product, within the meaning of the meat-inspection act and of these regulations, is considered to be any article of food intended for human use which is derived or prepared in whole or in part from any edible portion of the carcass of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats, if the said edible portion so used is a considerable and definite portion of the finished food.

No meat or meat-food shall contain any substance which lessens its wholesomeness, or any drug, chemical, harmful dye, or preservative, other than the preservatives, common salt, sugar, wood smoke, vinegar, pure spices, and, pending further inquiry, saltpeter.

Regulation 39 provides that no dye, unless authorized by the Federal statute, shall be used in any meat food product until the use of such dye has been specifically authorized by the Secretary of Agriculture. It has been decided to allow the use of certain dyes on sausage and other casings when the character of the casings is such that the dye will not penetrate into the meat food product contained in the casing. Cloth casings which it is desired to color with these dyes shall first be dipped in uncolored paraffin. Permission has been granted for the use of annatto for this purpose. In addition, the dyes permitted under the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as enumerated in Food Inspection Decision 76, may be used for dyeing casings but for no other purpose. These dyes are as follows: Red shades: 107. Amaranth.

56. Ponceau 3 R.

517. Erythrosin.
Orange shades: 85. Orange 1.
Yellow shades : 4. Naphthol yellow S.
Green shades : 435. Light green S. F. yellowish.

Blue shades : 692. Indigo disulfo acid.
The numbers preceding the names refer to the number of the dye
in question as listed in A. G. Green's edition of the Schultz-Julius
Systematic Survey of the Organic Coloring Matters, published in 1904.

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False or deceptive names.- No picture, design, or device which gives any false indication of origin or quality shall be used upon any label. Any statement, design, or device regarding the virtues or properties of the materials contained in the package that is false in any particular is prohibited by law; for example, the picture of a pig appearing on a label which is placed upon beef product; the picture of a chicken appearing upon a label placed upon a product composed of veal or pork; the picture of a leaf or leaves appearing in connection with the word “Lard” is considered deceptive, except that, when used on packages containing leaf lard it may appear separately from the word "Lard" as a brand; e. g., Maple Leaf Brand.” Such words as “Special,” “Superior,” “Fancy,” “Selected,” etc., placed upon products which are more inferior than implied by the term used are false and deceptive.

Geographical names.—Geographical names may be used only with the words “Cut," "Type,” “Brand,” or “Style, as the case may be, except upon foods produced or manufactured in the place, State, Territory, or country named; for example, "Virginia Ham,'' not produced in Virginia, must be marked "Virginia Style Ham”; “English Brawn" must be “English Style Brawn”; “English Sausage” should be

English Style Sausage”; “Bologna Sausage” should be “Bologna Style Sausage","Frankfurter Sausage'' should be "Frankfurter Style Sausage”; “Cumberland Middles” should be “Cumberland Cut Middles”; “Winchester Sausage” or “Winchester Ham," should be “Winchester Brand Sausage” or “Winchester Brand Ham,” etc.

Names of breeds of live stock and names of persons.—Names indicative or imitative of distinctive types or breeds of live stock can not be used unless the product is actually made of the meat from animals of those breeds; for example, “Berkshire Pork” can not be used unless the product is from the Berkshire breed of hogs.

Names of persons, when used as brands or applied to cuts, will not be considered deceptive.

Products prepared for another establishment.-When an article is prepared by an establishment for another firm or individual, if the name of the said firm or individual is to appear upon the label, the statement must be made that the article was prepared for” or “manufactured for” the firm or individual. Names of the subsidiary companies which have legal entity may be used without the prefix "prepared for” or “manufactured for”; and such subsidiary companies must make application for inspection under the establishment number of the parent organization. The name of a firm or individual may appear as the distributor of the product.

Hams.-The word "Ham," without a prefix indicating the species of the animal, is considered to be a pork ham. Trimmings removed from the ham and used in the preparation of potted or prepared meats or sausage, or when used alone, may be known as “Potted Ham” or “Ham Sausage.” The word “Ham” can not be used on any prepared ham product without some word clearly and truthfully indicating the method of preparation ; thus, "Potted Ham,” “Deviled Ham,

“Deviled Ham,” “Minced Ham,”! “Ham Sausage.'

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Tongue.—No species of animal need be indicated; but if the species is specified, the statement must be true. In connection with the preparation of tongue products, the ruling will be the same as those in connection with the preparation of ham products; •for example, “Potted Tongue" must be made of tongue or tongue trimmings.

Mixtures and compound.—Mixtures, when the name plainly indicates a mixture, such as "Sausage,” “Hash,” “Minced,” etc., need not be marked. Compounds"—other mixtures not so indicated by their names must be marked “Compound.' In the case of compounds containing lard, stearin, or other fats, or cottonseed oil, and in compounds containing stearin and cottonseed oil, the names of the ingredients must appear upon the label. If the compound has a distinctive name, such as "White Cloud," "Cottolene," “Cottosuet,” etc., the word compound” need not appear, but the ingredients must be stated upon the label. When the word "compound' is used, it can not be qualified by any adjective either before or after, nor can the name of any product be attached to the word "compound" unless that product is the principal ingredient of the compound.

Unless mincemeat, or pork and beans, or soups contain a considerable proportion of meat, they will not be considered meat food products.

Sausages and chopped meats. The word “sausage,” without a prefix indicating the species of animal, is considered to be a mixture of minced or chopped meats, with or without spices. If any species of animal is indicated, as “Pork sausage,” the sausage must be wholly made from the meat of that specie. If any flour or other cereal is used, the label must so state. If any other meat product is added, the label must so state; for example, "Pork and Beef Sausage":"Pork, Beef, and Flour" (or other cereal) ; or “Pork and Beef Sausage, cereal added.”

Meat loaves, without a prefix indicating any particular kind of meat, are held to be mixtures of meats, flour (or other cereal), milk, eggs, butter, or other ordinary loaf ingredient. If any particular kind of meat is indicated, that kind must be the only meat used; for example, “Veal Loaf” must be made from veal and loaf ingredients only. If any other meat is used, the label must so state; for example, "Veal and Pork Loaf”; “Veal, Beef, and Pork Loaf”}; the word “Paté” is synonymous with the word “Loaf.

Flour or other cereals may be used in the preparation of loaves, gravies, or soups, without being stated on the label.

Canned products. If flour or other cereal is used in any canned product which is not labeled "Loaf," "Paté," or "Soup," or which is not prepared with gravy, the label must clearly show the presence of the flour or other cereal.

IN THE USE OF COLORING MATTERS IN SOFT DRINKS.

Many requests for information as to the use of coloring matters and the proper labeling of colored products have been received. In the majority of cases the inquiries indicate that the questioners have not carefully read the act of March 11, 1907, or the regulations adopted by this Board in January, 1908. All persons interested are earnestly requested to make a careful study of the act and of the regulations.

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