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for return April 20th to 25th, inclusive, for points in California south of Santa Barbara and Bakersfield, and from April 20th to May 5th to points north of and including Santa Barbara and Bakersfield.

CENTRAL CALIFORNIA HEALTH OFFICERS' ASSOCIATION. The Central California Health Officers' Association held its semiannual session at Tulare, March 10th, with the best program in its existence. The attendance was good and keen interest was shown from first to last.

The meeting was held in conjunction with the San Joaquin Valley Medical Society, which gave the Sanitary Association a portion of its time, a courtesy which was much appreciated, and we hope that the quality of the addresses did not detract from their extremely interesting and able program.

PLAGUE. Since January 1st there have been but five authenticated cases of Plague in San Francisco, with one death, and one death in Oakland, The rat infection is yet extensive, being from one to two per cent. They are being rapidly and extensively killed, and the general crusade against them will, if continued, soon exterminate them. Their complete extermination must be the end aimed at, not only in California but in other states, for the Plague is abroad in the world and its means of dissemination must be recognized and destroyed.

Never in the history of this coast, if indeed in the country, has there been such a spirit of sanitation. The cities and towns are spending vast sums of money in cleaning up, strict laws are being enacted and enforced, and better than this is the intense interest taken by the people. They are individually seeing that their own place is clean.

VACCINATION. “No person properly vaccinated ever had smallpox," says the recent bulletin from the State Board of Health. No doubt about it, but tens of thousands who have been improperly vaccinated have had something worse than smallpox, and that is what is the matter. When the State Board of Health can guarantee that the stuff that is put into the blood of a healthy person will not give that person some disease, then there will be a different proposition. But when they vaccinate and the child or adult is given lockjaw, or some bad disease that is incurable, or dies from the effect of vaccination, is Dr. Foster or somebody else responsible?-Hanford Sentinel.

We quote the above from the Hanford Sentinel, and violate a rule of never answering a personal reference simply because this particular item might lead to great harm by making people suppose that vaccine virus is impure.

All vaccine farms in the United States are regularly inspected by an officer of the United States Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, and samples are taken at frequent intervals from the dealers in different parts of the country and carefully examined. If the cleanliness of the farm and the purity of the product is satisfactory the Government certifies to it, and no physician would think of using any but a certified vaccine.

The danger is not in the impurity of the vaccine matter, but in the manner of putting it into the arm and the care of the arm after it is in. First. Allow no vaccination to be done except by some one who knows how and is surgically clean.

Second. Keep the arm cleanand protected from contact with soiled clothing or other dirt, and never allow it to be scratched with the finger nails.

The purity of the vaccine is guaranteed. Now if these two points are strictly observed there will be no cases of lockjaw or other disease resulting from vaccination.

It is not the vaccine that causes trouble, but the dirt.

STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. The special monthly meeting of the State Board of Health was held at the Board's office, Capitol Building, March 7, 1908, at 10 A. M.

Present-President Martin Regensburger, Vice-President W. A. Briggs, Dr. O. Stansbury, Dr. N. K. Foster, and Attorney J. C. Gardner.

Absent—Drs. F. K. Ainsworth, A. C. Hart, and W. Le Moyne Wills. Minutes of last meeting read and approved.

President Regensburger reported that the anti-expectoration law was not being enforced in San Francisco, and the Secretary was directed to write to the local Board of Health urging that steps be taken to enforce it.

Mr. Harris, of San Francisco, who buys and deals in old rags, appeared before the Board explaining that his rags are all disinfected and urged that outside towns be allowed to ship to him.

Mr. Miller, who buys and handles rags and old sacks, also appeared and urged a modification of the rules forbidding their shipment. The Board were not disposed to modify their recent order without further information and the matter was referred to Dr. Regensburger.

The Attorney and Secretary were directed to draw a resolution covering the subject of rag picking, and report at the next meeting.

The spread of smallpox was discussed, and Dr. Briggs moved and Dr. Stansbury seconded the following:

Resolved, That the Secretary notify the various boards of school trustees that the law requiring pupils to be vaccinated must be enforced, and that evidence be collected and placed in the hands of the district attorney for prosecution where the law is disregarded.

Carried.

Dr. W. C. Hobdy, Passed Assistant Surgeon and United States Quarantine Officer at San Francisco, was present and reported his work, which, as a rule, is going smoothly. All boats and ships are fumigated every fourteen days, and the belief is expressed that no rats are being shipped out of San Francisco. The work is more necessary now than when begun in September, as more rats are infected. One line, the Monticello, running to Vallejo, is giving trouble and refuses to be fumigated.

The Attorney assured the Board of its rights, and it was moved and seconded and carried, That this Board commends the action of the Quarantine Officer in enforcing the order of this Board, and instructs him to continue the fumigation, and that if the Monticello Company refuses to comply their boats be tied up.

The Secretary was instructed to notify all Health Officers around the Bay that the order requiring fumigation of vessels must be enforced, and Dr. Briggs offered, and Dr. Stansbury seconded, the following resolutions, which were carried :

Resolved by the state Board of Health of the State of California, That whereas, there now exists in the City and County of San Francisco and in the County of Alameda, State of California, a contagious, infectious and communicable disease, to-wit: the Plague; and

That, in the judgment of said Board, it is necessary for the protection and preservation of the public health and to prevent the spread of said disease; that

It is hereby ordered that the Health Boards, and chief executive Health Officers, in and for the several counties, cities, towns, and cities and counties of the State of California, bé and they and each of them are hereby directed and required strictly to enforce within their respective jurisdictions the rules and regulations as to fumigation and disinfection of vessels and water craft adopted and promulgated by resolution of this Board on the 24th day of September, 1907; and

That the Secretary of this Board be directed to transmit to such local health officials a copy of this resolution and a copy of said resolution of September 24, 1907.

Resolved by the State Board of Health of the State of California, that the Commandant at Mare Island, California, be and he is requested to enforce within his jurisdiction the following rule, promulgated by this Board by resolution dated September 24, 1907, and relating to the fumigation and disinfection of vessels and water craft for the purpose of preventing the spread of Bubonic Plague, to-wit : That no vessel or craft such as is in said resolution of September 24, 1907, referred to, shall be permitted to land, tie up, touch at or establish any communication with any wharf, dock, pier, landing, or other place in the State of California, unless the captain or other officer or person in charge of such vessel or craft shall first produce a certificate from the Secretary of the State Board of Health or an Inspector or other subordinate, showing fumigation as in said resolution of September 24, 1907, required; and that the Secretary of this Board be directed to transmit to said Commandant a copy of this resolution and a copy of said resolution of September 24, 1907.

Resolved, That cities, towns and counties, bordering on the Bay of San Francisco, or the inland navigable waters of the State communicating therewith, which, within thirty days from this date, March 7, 1908, have not passed or are not enforcing these ordinances or their practical equivalent shall be considered by this Board an imminent menace to the public health and amenable to Section 2979 of the Health Laws of the State of California.

Resolved, That all rat-infested landings, wharyes, docks, piers and pierhouses situated on the Bay of San Francisco or the inland navigable waters connected therewith and all rat-infested grain elevators, warehouses, mills, slaughter houses, markets, stables and all other rat-infested premises where foods or food stuffs of any kind whatever, whether for human or animal use, are stored, placed or kept, and situated within one half mile of said landings, etc., are an imminent menace to the public health, and if efficient measures for disinfestation are not taken within thirty days shall be quarantined by the Secretary of this Board.

Resolved, That the Secretary be instructed to secure_ the publication of these resolutions in the public press and to notify the various Boards of Supervisors and Trustees of cities, towns and counties bordering on these waters.

The question of revising our sanitary laws was discussed, and a committee consisting of Dr. Briggs (chairman), Secretary Foster, and Attorney Gardner was appointed to investigate and report.

The Secretary reported the discontinuance of inspection work at Napa that more exposed places might be covered, and the action was approved by the Board.

Dr. Briggs moved, and Dr. Stansbury seconded, that the next Legislature be memorialized to issue bonds for the purpose of making all wharfs in San Francisco rat-proof. Carried.

Adjourned.

DEPARTMENT OF VITAL STATISTICS.

GEORGE D. LESLIE, STATISTICIAN.

VITAL STATISTICS FOR FEBRUARY. Births.--For February there were reported 2,021 living births, as compared with 2,065 for January. For an estimated State population of 2,019,519, the February total represents an annual birth-rate of 12.6, against 12.1 for January.

The February totals were highest for the following counties : Los Angeles, 478; San Francisco, 390; Alameda, 238; Fresno, 102; Santa Clara, 78; Sacramento, 59; and Riverside, 50.

Births for February were registered in freeholders' charter cities as follows: San Francisco, 390; Los Angeles, 355; Oakland, 134; Sacramento, 51; Berkeley, 43; Fresno, 38; Pasadena, 34; San Diego, 29; and Riverside, 26.

Marriages.The marriages reported for February number 1,532, against 1,720 for January, and represent an annual rate of only 9.6, as compared with 11.7 for the preceding month.

The February totals were greatest for the following counties: San Francisco, 332; Los Angeles, 286; Alameda, 178; Santa Clara, 85; Marin, 61; and Fresno, 54.

Deaths.-Altogether 2,759 deaths, exclusive of stillbirths, were reported for February, against 2,920 for January. The annual death-rate for February is 17.2, as compared with 17.1 for January.

The February death totals were highest for the following counties : San Francisco, 552; Los Angeles, 535; Alameda, 278; Santa Clara, 111; Sacramento, 101; San Bernardino, 80, San Diego, 77; San Joaquin, 73; Sonoma, 63; Fresno, 62; and Contra Costa, 50.

Deaths for February were reported as follows for the leading cities : San Francisco, 552; Los Angeles, 358; Oakland, 163; San Diego, 71; Sacramento, 62; Stockton, 43; San José, 42; San Bernardino, 31; Berkeley, 28; Fresno and Pasadena, each 26; and Vallejo, 25.

Causes of Death.-In February there were altogether 414 deaths, or 15.0 per cent of all, from various forms of tuberculosis ; 405, or 14.7 per cent, from pneumonia and other diseases of the respiratory system; and 366, or 13.3 per cent, from diseases of the circulatory system.

The next most prominent causes of death were diseases of the nervous system, violence, diseases of the digestive system, cancer, Bright's disease, and epidemic diseases.

The leading epidemic disease in February, as in January, was diphtheria. February deaths from epidemic diseases were as follows: Diphtheria and croup, 44; influenza, 31; typhoid fever, 29; whoopingcough, 13; measles, 8; scarlet fever, 7; and all others, 13.

Further details appear in the following table, which gives the number of deaths from certain principal causes reported for February, as well as the proportions from each cause per 1,000 total deaths for both February and January:

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Geographic Divisions. The table below shows the number of deaths from main classes of diseases reported for February for the several geographic divisions of the State, including the metropolitan area, or “Greater San Francisco,” in contrast with the rural counties north of Tehachapi:

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290

Northern and Central Cali

207

267 146 121

300
136
164

118
55
63

215 120 95

fornia Metropolitan areaRural counties..

1,919

931
988

101
47
54

247
133
114

107
52
55

77
130

137 153

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