Are then in council; and the state of a man,
Like to a little kingdom, suffers then
The nature of an insurrection.

Dr. Warburton's pompous criticism might well have been shortened. The genius is not the genius of a kingdom, nor are the instruments, conspirators. Shakspeare is describing what passes in a single bosom, the insurrection which a conspirator feels agitating the little kingdom of his own mind; when the gerius, or power that watches for his protection, and the mortal instruments

, the passions, which excite him to a deed of honour and danger, are in council and debate ; when the desire of action, and the care of safety, keep the mind in continual fluctuation and disturbance. Johnson.

The foregoing was perhaps among the earliest notes written by Dr. Warburton on Shakspeare. Though it was not inserted by him in Theobald's editions, 1732 and 1740, (but was reserved for his own in 1747,) yet he had previously communicated it, with little variation, in a letter to Matthew Concanen in the year 1726. See a note on Dr. Akenside's Ode to Mr. Edwards, at the end of this play. Steevens.

There is a passage in Troilus and Cressida, which bears some resemblance to this :

Imagin'd worth
“ Holds in his blood such swoln and hot discourse,

That, 'twixt his mortal, and his active parts,
“ Kingdom'd Achilles in commotion rages,

“ And batters down himself. Johnson is right in asserting that by the Genius is meant, not the Genius of a Kingdom, but the power that watches over an individual for his protection. So, in the same play, Troilus says to Cressida:

“ Hark! you are callid. Some say, the Genius so

“ Cries, Come, to him that instantly must die.” Johnson's explanation of the word instruments is also confirmed by the following passage in Macbeth, whose mind was, at the time, in the very state which Brutus is here describing :

I am settled, and bend up “ Each corporal agent to this terrible feat.” M. Mason. The word genius, in our author's time, meant either a good angel or a familiar evil spirit,” and is so defined by Bullokar in his English Expositor, 1616. So, in Macbeth :

and, under him,
“My genius is rebuk'd; as, it is said,

“ Mark Antony's was by Cæsar's.” Again, in Antony and Cleopatra :

" Thy dæmon, that thy spirit which keeps thee, is," &c.


Re-enter Lucius. Luc. Sir, 'tis your brother Cassius' at the door, Who doth desire to see you.

The more usual signification now affixed to this word was not known till several years afterwards. I have not found it in the common modern sense in any book earlier than the Dictionary published by Edward Phillips, in 1657.

Mortal is certainly used here, as in many other places, for deadly. So, in Othello :

And you, ye mortal engines,” &c. The mortal instruments then are, the deadly passions, or as they are called in Macbeth, the “mortal thoughts,” which excite each

corporal agent" to the performance of some arduous deed.

The little kingdom of man is a notion that Shakspeare seems to have been fond of. So, K. Richard II. speaking of himself:

And these same thoughts people this little world." Again, in King Lear:

“ Strives in his little world of man to outscorn

“ The to-and-fro conflicting wind and rain.” Again, in King John :

in the body of this fleshly land, “ This kingdom—." I have adhered to the old copy, which reads—" the state of a man.” Shakspeare is here speaking of the individual in whose mind the genius and the mortal instruments hold a council, not of man, or mankind, in general. The passage above, quoted from King Lear, does not militate against the old copy here.

There the individual is marked out by the word his, and the little world of man is thus circumscribed, and appropriated to Lear. The editor of the second folio omitted the article, probably from a mistaken notion concerning the metre; and all the subsequent editors have adopted his alteration. Many words of two syllables are used by Shakspeare as taking up the time of only one; as whether, either, brother, lover, gentle, spirit, &c. and I suppose council is so used here.

The reading of the old authentick copy, to which I have adhered, is supported by a passage in Hamlet :

- What a piece of work is a man."

As council is here used as a monosyllable, so is noble in Tilus Andronicus :

“Lose not so noble a friend on vain suppose." Malone. Influenced by the conduct of our great predecessors, Rowe, Pope, Warburton, and Johnson; and for reasons similar to those advanced in the next note, I persist in following the second folio,

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Is he alone ? Luc. No, sir, there are more with him. as our author, on this occasion, meant to write verse instead of prose.— The instance from Hamlet can have little weight; the article-a, which is injurious to the metre in question, being quite innocent in a speech decidedly prosaick : and as for the line adduced from Titus Andronicus, the second syllable of the word -noble, may be melted down into the succeeding vowel, an advantage which cannot be obtained in favour of the present restoration offered from the first folio. STEEVENS.

Neither our author, nor any other author in the world, ever used such words as either, brother, lover, gentle, &c. as monosyllables ; and though whether. is sometimes so contracted, the old copies on that occasion usually print-where. It is, in short, morally impossible that two syllables should be no more than one.

Ritson. See the Essay on Shakspeare's Versification. Boswell.

“ The Genius, and the mortal instruments.” Mortal is assuredly deadly, as it is in Macbeth, vol. xi. p. 62:

Come, you spirits,

“ That tend on mortal thoughts." But I cannot think that these mortal instruments are the deadly passions; the passions are rather the motives exciting us to use our instruments, by which I understard our bodily powers, our members :-As Othello calls his eyes and hands, “ His speculative and active instruments,” vol. x. p. 278 : and Menenius, in Coriolanus, Act I. Sc. I., speaks of the

cranks and offices of man, “ The strongest nerves and small inferior veins.” So, intending to paint, as he does very finely, the inward conflict which precedes the commission of some dreadful crime, he represents, as I conceive him, the genius or soul, consulting with the body, and, as it were, questioning the limbs, the instruments which are to perform this deed of death, whether they can undertake to bear her out in the aftair, whether they can screw up their courage to do what she shall enjoin them. The tumultuous commotion of opposing sentiments and feelings produced by the firmness of the soul contending with the secret misgivings of the body, during which the mental faculties, are, though not actually dormant, yet in a sort of waking stupor, “ crushed by one overwhelming image,” is finely compared to a phantasm or a hideous dream, and by the state of man suffering the nature of an insurrection. Tibalt has something like it in Romeo and Juliet,

yol. vi.

p. 65:

" Patience perforce with wilful choler meeting,
“ Makes my flesh tremble in their different greeting."


Do you know them ? Luc. No, sir; their hats are pluck'd about their

And half their faces buried in their cloaks,
That by no means I may discover them
By any mark of favour

Let them enter.

[Exit Lucius. They are the faction. O conspiracy! Sham’st thou to show thy dangerous brow by night, When evils are most free ? O, then, by day, Where wilt thou find a cavern dark enough To mask thy monstrous visage? Seek none, con

spiracy; Hide in it smiles, and affability : For if thou path, thy native semblance on?,

And what Macbeth says of himself, in a situation nearly allied to this of Brutus, will in some degree elucidate the passage before us :

“My thought whose murder yet is but fantastical,
“ Shakes so my single state of man, that function

“ Is smother'd in surmise." BLAKEWAY. & Like a PHANTASMA] “ Suidas maketh a difference between phantasma and phantasia, saying that phantasma is an imagination, or appearance, or sight of a thing which is not, as are those sightes whiche men in their sleepe do thinke they see : but that phantasia is the seeing of that only which is in very deeds." Lavaterus, 1572. HendERSON.

A phantasme,says Bullokar, in his English Expositor, 1616, " is a vision, or imagined appearance.” MALONE.

9- your brother Cassius-] Cassius married Junia, Brutus's sister. STEEVENS. - any mark of favour.] Any distinction of countenance.

Johnson. For if thou path, thy native semblance on,] If thou walk in thy true form. Johnson. The same verb is used by Drayton in his Polyolbion, Song II.: “ Where, from the neighbouring hills, her passage Wey doth

path." Again, in his Epistle from Duke Humphrey to Elinor Cobham:

Pathing young Henry's unadvised ways." STEEVENS.

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Not Erebus itself were dim enough
To hide thee from prevention.
Enter Cassius, Casca, Decius, Cinna, METELLUS

Cimber, and TREBONIUS.
Cas. I think we are too bold upon your rest :
Good morrow, Brutus; Do we trouble you?

Bru. I have been up this hour; awake, all night. Know I these men, that come along with you ? Cas. Yes, every man of them; and no man

But honours you ; and every one doth wish,
You had but that opinion of yourself,
Which every noble Roman bears of you.
This is Trebonius.

He is welcome hither.
Cas. This Decius Brutus.

He is welcome too.
Cas. This, Casca; this, Cinna;
And this, Metellus Cimber.

They are all welcome. What watchful cares do interpose themselves Betwixt your eyes and night ?

Cas. Shall I entreat a word ? [They whisper. Dec. Here lies the east: Doth not the day break

here? Casca. No.

Cın. O, pardon, sir, it doth; and yon grey lines, That fret the clouds, are messengers of day. Casca. You shall confess, that you are both de



3 — do interpose themselves, &c.] For the sake of measure I am willing to think our author wrote as follows, and that the word-themselves, is an interpolation :

“What watchful cares do interpose betwist
“ Your eyes and night?

Shall I entreat a word ? "


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