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In 1632, George Calvert (Lord Baltimore), a distinguished Catholic, applied to Charles I. for a territory north of Virginia, for the purpose of establishing a colony. Before the grant had passed the royal seal, Lord B. died. About two months afterwards, the territory was granted to Cecil Calvert, oldest son of Geo., now Lord B. In honor of Henrietta Maria,* it was called Maryland. Leonard Calvert, brother of Lord B., was appointed first Gov. He, with about 200 Catholic emigrants, came over in 1634, and located themselves at St. Mary's. Many circumstances favored the settlement and increase of Maryland. The soil and the climate were inviting, but what added more to its growth, was that equal protection was granted to all religious denominations, and the people were permitted to make their own laws. The first assembly was composed of all the freemen in the colony. In 1639, there was a change—the House of Assembly was made up of representatives chosen by the people. In 1650, there was another change, and a Constitution adopted, by which the Legislature was divided into two houses, one to be composed of representatives chosen by the people; the other of persons appointed by the proprietors. But there was no permanent government, as changes were continually taking place, until the beginning of the Revolution, when the authority fell in the hands of the people. In 1776, they adopted their present Constitution, which has frequently been amended. Maryland, from the first, was active in resisting British oppression, and bore her full share in the hardships of the Revolutionary War. Area, 13,959. Pop. 469,232.
* Queen of Charles I.
I. ThalPthe Legislature consist of two distinct branches, a Senate and House of Delegates, which shall be styled, the General Assembly of Maryland.
II. That the House of Delegates shall be chosen in the following manner: all freemen qualified shall, on the first Monday of October, seventeen hundred and seventy-seven, and on the same day in every year thereafter, assemble in the counties in which they are respectively qualified to vote; and, when assembled, they shall proceed to elect, four delegates for their respective counties, of the most wise, sensible, and discreet of the people, residents in the county where they are to be chosen one whole "year next preceding the election, above twenty-one years of age; and upon the final casting of the polls, the four persons who shall appear to have the greatest number of legal votes shall be declared and returned duly elected for their respective county.
IV. That all persons, qualified by the charter of the city of Annapolis to vote for burgesses, shall, on the same first Monday of October, seventeen hundred and seventy-seven, and on the same day in every year forever thereafter, elect, by a majority of votes, two delegates qualified agreeably to the said charter.
V. That all persons, inhabitants of Baltimore town, and having the same qualifications as electors in the county, shall, on the same first Monday of October, seventeen hundred and seventy-seven, and on the same day in every year forever thereafter, elect, by a majority of votes, two delegates; but if the said inhabitants of the town shall so decrease, as that the number of persons having a right of suffrage therein shall have been, for the space of seven years successively, less than one-half the number of voters in some one county in this State, such town shall thenceforward cease to send two delegates or representatives to the House of Delegates, until the said town shall have one-half of the number of voters in some one county in this State.
VI. That the inhabitants of the said town shall not be entitled to vote for or be elected delegates for Baltimore county j neither shall the inhabitants of Baltimore county, out of the limits of Baltimore town, be entitled to vote for, or be elected, delegates for the said town.
VII. That, on refusal, death, disqualification, resignation, or removal out of this State, of any delegate, or on his becoming Governor or member of the Council, a warrant of election shall issue by the Speaker, for the election of another in his place; of which ten days' notice at the least (excluding the day of notice and the day of election) shall be given.
VIII. That no less than a majority of the delegates, with their Speaker, (to be chosen by them by ballot,) constitute a house for the transaction of any business, other than that of adjourning.
IX. That the House of Delegates shall judge of the elections and qualifications of delegates.
X. That the House of Delegates may originate all money bills, propose bills to the Senate, or receive those offered by tiiat body, and assent, dissent, or propose amendments; that they may inquire, on the oath of witnesses, into all complaints, grievances, and offences, as the grand inquest of this State, and may commit any person, for any crime, to the public jail, there -to remain till he be discharged by due course of law. They may expel any member for a great misdemeanor, but not a second time for the same cause. They may examine and pass all accounts of the State, relating either to the collection or expenditure of the revenue, or appoint auditors to state and adjust the same. They may call for all public or official papers and records, and send for persons whom they may judge necessary in the course of their inquiries, concerning affairs relating to the public interest; and may direct all office bonds (which shall be made payable to the State) to be sued for any breach of duty.
XL That the Senate may be at full and perfect liberty to exercise their judgment in passing laws; and that they may not be compelled by the House of Delegates, either to reject a money bill, which the emergency of affairs may require, or to assent to some other act of legislation, in their conscience and judgment injurious to the public welfare, the House of Delegates shall not, on any occasion, or under any pretence, annex to, or blend with, a money bill, any matter, clause, or thing not immediately relating to. and necessary for the imposing, assessing, levying, or applying the taxes or supplies to be raised for the support of government, or the current expenses of the State; and to prevent altercation about such bills, it is declared, that no bill imposing duties or customs for the mere regulation of commerce, or inflicting fines for the reformation of morals, or to enforce the execution of the laws, by which an incidental revenue may arise, shall be accounted a money bill: but every bill assessing, levying, or applying taxes or supplies for the support of government or the current expenses of the State. or appropriating money in the treasury, shall be deemed a money bill.
XII. That the House of Delegates may punish, by imprisonment, any person who shall be guilty of a contempt, in their view, by any disorderly or riotous behavior, or by threats to, or abuse of their members, or by any obstruction to their proceedings. They may also punish, by imprisonment, any person who shall be guilty of a breach of privilege, by arresting on civil process, or by assaulting •ny of their members, during their sitting, or on their way to, or returning from, the House of Delegates, or by any assault of, or obstruction to their officers, in the execution of any order or process, or by assaulting or obstructing any witness, or any other person, attending on, or on their way to or from the House, or by rescuing any person committed by the House; and the Senate may exercise the same power in similar cases.
XIII. That the treasurers (one for the western, and another for the eastern shore) and the commissioners of the loan office, may be appointed by the House of Delegates, during their pleasure; and. in case of a refusal, death, resignation, disqualification, or removal
. out of the State, of any of the said commissioners or treasurers, in the recess of the General Assembly, the Governor, with the advice of the Council, may appoint and commission a fit and proper person to such vacant office, to hold the same until the meeting of the next General Assembly.
XIV. That the Senate be chosen in the following manner: all persons qualified to vote for county delegates, shall, on the first Monday of September, 1781, and on the same day in every fifth year forever thereafter, elect, by a majority of votes, two persons for their respective counties (qualified to be elected county delegates) to be electors of the Senate: And all persons qualified to vote for delegates for the city of Annapolis and Baltimore town, shall, on the same first Monday of September, 1781, and on the same day in every fifth year forever thereafter, elect by a majority of votes, one person for the said city and town respectively, qualified to be elected a delegate for the said city and town respectively; the said election to be held in the same manner as the election of delegates for the said city and town: the right to elect the said electors, with respect to Baltimore town, to continue as long as the right to elect delegates for the said town.
XV. That the said electors of the Senate meet at the city of Annapolis, or such other place as shall be appointed for convening the Legislature, on the third Monday in September, 1781, and on the same day in every fifth year forever thereafter; and they, or any twenty-four of them, so met, shall proceed to elect, by ballot, either out of their own body, or the people at large, fifteen senators. (nine of whom to be residents on the western, and six to be residents on the eastern shore.) men of the most wisdom, experience, and virtue, above twenty-five years of age, residents of the State above three whole years next preceding the election.
XVI. That the senators shall be balloted for at one and the same time; and out of the gentlemen, residents of the western shore, who shall be proposed as senators, the nine who shall, on striking the ballots, appear to have the greatest numbers in their favor, shall be accordingly declared and returned duly elected; and out of the gentlemen, residents on the eastern shore, who shall be proposed as senators, the six who shall, on striking the ballots, appear to have the greatest numbers in their favor, shall be accordingly declared and returned duly elected; and if two or more, on the same shore, shall have an equal number of ballots in their favor, by which the choice shall not be determined on the first ballot, then the electors shall again ballot before they separate, in which they shall bo confined to